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2.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 7(1): 41-47, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451168

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in the early phase is treated with "step up approach" involving initial percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) followed by necrosectomy. There is a paucity of data on a combined approach of initial PCD followed by endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy. A retrospectively study on safety and efficacy of initial PCD followed by endoscopic transluminal drainage and necrosectomy in IPN. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data of 23 patients with IPN who were treated with a combined approach. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: patients with central necrosis in whom PCD and endoscopic drainage were done in the same collection (n = 11) and patients with combined central and peripheral necrosis where PCD was placed in peripheral necrosis, and endoscopic drainage was done for central necrosis (n = 12). Results: Endoscopic drainage could be done successfully in all 23 patients with mean time for the resolution being 4.0 ± 0.9 weeks. Fifteen (65.2%) patients were successfully treated using multiple plastic stents while direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) was needed in 8 (34.8%) patients and fully covered self-expanding metal stent was inserted in 6 (26%) patients. The number of endoscopic sessions needed were 3 in 3 (13%), 4 in 9 (39%) patients, 5 in 5 (22%), 6 in 3 (13%), and 7 in 3 (13%) patients, respectively. Patients of central walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) with PCD catheter in situ needed more endoscopic sessions for resolution as well as more frequently needed DEN in comparison to patients with central WOPN with no PCD catheter. Conclusion: The combined approach of initial PCD followed by endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy is safe and effective treatment alternative for patients with IPN.

8.
Perm J ; 21: 16-083, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal complications are common after renal transplantation, including oral lesions, esophagitis, gastritis, diarrhea, and colon carcinoma. The differential diagnosis is difficult in this scenario because multiple factors such as drugs, infections, and preexisting gastrointestinal disease come into play. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of varicella zoster virus-induced pancreatitis and hepatitis in a renal transplant recipient. The patient underwent renal transplantation 3 years earlier and now presented with severe pain in the epigastrium radiating to his back and had raised serum lipase levels and skin lesions characteristic of varicella. Liver enzyme levels were also elevated. He was started on a regimen of acyclovir. His pain improved in 24 hours, and liver enzyme levels returned to normal in 48 hours. DISCUSSION: There is a paucity of literature on the simultaneous occurrence of varicella zoster virus-induced hepatitis and pancreatitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Our case highlights the gastrointestinal complications of varicella infection in immunocompromised patients that may precede the characteristic dermatologic manifestations, and the fact that rarely both hepatitis and pancreatitis may be seen.


Assuntos
Hepatite/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Rim , Fígado , Pancreatite/virologia , Hepatite/complicações , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Rim/cirurgia , Rim/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/complicações
9.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 30(2): 232-236, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extrapancreatic necrosis is diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) as extrapancreatic changes that are more than fat stranding; both fluid collections and necrosis would have a similar appearance. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of differentiating peripancreatic necrosis from fluid collection on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with presumed isolated extrapancreatic necrosis. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 36 patients (25 males; age range 19-65 years) with acute pancreatitis (AP) and isolated extrapancreatic necrosis. On EUS, peripancreatic anechoic areas were labeled as peripancreatic fluid collections and peripancreatic heterogeneously echotextured areas as peripancreatic necrosis. RESULTS: The etiology of AP was alcohol in 16 (44.4%) patients, gallstone disease in 13 (36.1%), and other in 7 (19.4%). On EUS, 25 (69.4%) patients had peripancreatic necrosis and 11 (30.6%) patients had peripancreatic fluid collections. Compared with patients who had peripancreatic fluid collections, patients with peripancreatic necrosis had a significantly higher frequency of pleural effusion (88% vs. 55%; P=0.04), organ failure (OF) (68% vs. 27%; P=0.03), and persistent OF (48% vs. 9%; P=0.03). The patients with peripancreatic necrosis also had a higher frequency of ascites (20% vs. 9%), need for intervention (20% vs. nil), surgery (8% vs. nil) and mortality (8% vs. nil), but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Isolated extrapancreatic necrosis on contrast-enhanced CT comprises a heterogeneous group, with patients who show peripancreatic fluid collections on EUS having a less severe disease course compared to patients with peripancreatic necrosis.

10.
Pancreatology ; 17(2): 203-208, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walled off necrosis (WON) can be treated endoscopically using multiple transmural plastic stents or fully covered self-expandable metallic stent (FCSEMS) and direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN). We evaluated the efficacy of "step-up" endoscopic transmural approach for treatment of WON. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data of 86 patients with WON who were treated with attempted endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided "step up" transmural drainage during last 5 years was done. Initially multiple plastic stents were placed and patients not responding underwent FCSEMS placement and/or DEN. RESULTS: Patients presented 10.8 ± 2.8 weeks after an acute attack of acute pancreatitis and mean size of WON was 10.7 ± 2.9 cm. EUS guided transmural drainage was technically successful in 85/86 (98.8%) patients and 70 (82.4%) were drained with multiple 7/10Fr plastic stents alone while DEN was needed in 9 (10.6%) and FCSEMS was inserted in 6 (7%) patients. All patients had successful outcome with none requiring surgery. The patients who needed DEN/FCSEMS presented earlier and had large size collection with more solid necrotic debris as compared to patients treated with multiple plastic stents alone. The complications were pneumoperitoneum (n = 1), bile leak following cholecystecomy (n = 1), development of external pancreatic fistula following percutaneous drainage (n = 1) and gastrointestinal bleed (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: "Step up" endoscopic transmural drainage using multiple plastic stents as an initial therapy is safe and effective treatment of WON and avoids more aggressive DEN in majority of patients. Large size WON with more necrotic debris may require DEN.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Paracentese/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 29(3): 363-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27366039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) has been reported in a number of patients with celiac disease (CD), it is not clear if this is primarily a functional or a structural defect. We studied pancreatic structural abnormalities by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in adult CD patients with EPI. METHODS: Pancreatic exocrine function was prospectively assessed in 36 recently diagnosed CD patients (mean age: 29.8 years) by measuring fecal elastase. Pancreatic structural changes were assessed in CD patients with EPI by EUS and elastography. Exocrine functions were reassessed after 3 months of gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Of the 36 CD patients included, 30 (83%) had anemia, 21 (58%) diarrhea, and 7 (19%) hypothyroidism. Ten (28%) patients had EPI with mean elastase levels of 141.6 µg/g of stool, of whom only one had a history of recurrent acute pancreatitis while the rest 9 patients had no history of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Of these 10 patients, 8 (80%) had diarrhea, 8 (80%) anemia, and 2 (20%) hypothyroidism. EUS was done in 8 patients which showed: normal pancreas in 5 (50%), hyperechoic strands in 3 (30%), and hyperechoic foci without shadowing in 2 (20%) patients. None had lobularity or parenchymal calcification. All patients except the patient with recurrent pancreatitis had normal strain ratio. Follow-up fecal elastase was within normal range in 6 of 7 (86%) patients. CONCLUSION: EPI, assessed by fecal elastase levels in adult CD patients, possibly does not relate to structural alterations in the pancreatic parenchyma and may be reversible by following a gluten-free diet.

16.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 29(2): 214-20, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypocalcemia is a marker of poor prognosis in acute pancreatitis (AP) but the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP has not been studied. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP. METHODS: Consecutive patients of AP who presented within 7 days of symptoms were included. Serum calcium levels were measured on admission and the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (group 1) or absence of hypocalcemia (group 2). Chvostek and Trousseau signs were sought in all patients with hypocalcemia and the outcome measures were compared between patients with normocalcemia, asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia (tetany). The outcome parameters assessed were persistent organ failure (POF), need for intervention, and mortality. RESULTS: Of 105 patients (53 male; mean age 37.34±12.62 years), 37 (35.2%) had hypocalcemia (group 1) and 68 (64.8%) had normal corrected serum calcium levels (group 2). Patients with hypocalcemia had significantly higher frequency of POF, mortality and need for intervention (P<0.05). Twelve of 37 (32.4%) patients with hypocalcemia had tetany. Patients with tetany had significantly lower serum corrected calcium and ionized calcium levels compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (P<0.05). Patients with tetany had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (100% vs. 8%; P=0.00001) as well as POF (100% vs. 32%; P=0.000006). CONCLUSION: Presence of hypocalcemic tetany in AP patients bears a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality.

17.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(8): 1414-21, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010174

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis is of two morphologic types: interstitial edematous pancreatitis that is not associated with any tissue necrosis and necrotizing pancreatitis wherein the pancreatic parenchyma with or without varying amount of extra-pancreatic tissue/fat undergoes necrosis. Necrotizing pancreatitis has a worse outcome compared with interstitial pancreatitis because of increased severity related to a heightened systemic response and cytokine storm associated with tissue necrosis. Increasingly, an entity of extra-pancreatic necrosis (EPN) alone, wherein the pancreatic parenchyma is normal on an enhanced computed tomographic scan but the peri-pancreatic tissues undergo necrosis, is being recognized. Available data suggest that the outcomes in patients with EPN alone are between the excellent prognosis of patients with interstitial and adverse prognosis of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. The extent of EPN also seems to determine the outcome. This review summarizes the currently available literature on this entity and various radiological scores that have been suggested to determine the presence and stage of EPN.


Assuntos
Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Endossonografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Razão de Chances , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite/classificação , Pancreatite/mortalidade , Pancreatite/patologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/classificação , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/mortalidade , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terminologia como Assunto
18.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147345, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820620

RESUMO

A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association with variants in X-linked CLDN2 and MORC4, and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in North American patients of European ancestry. We selected 9 variants from the reported GWAS and replicated the association with CP in Indian patients by genotyping 1807 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 519 patients with CP and 1288 controls. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 83.62% and alcoholic in 16.38% of 519 patients. Our study confirmed a significant association of 2 variants in CLDN2 gene (rs4409525-OR 1.71, P = 1.38 x 10-09; rs12008279-OR 1.56, P = 1.53 x 10-04) and 2 variants in MORC4 gene (rs12688220-OR 1.72, P = 9.20 x 10-09; rs6622126-OR 1.75, P = 4.04x10-05) in Indian patients with CP. We also found significant association at PRSS1-PRSS2 locus (OR 0.60; P = 9.92 x 10-06) and SAMD12-TNFRSF11B (OR 0.49, 95% CI [0.31-0.78], P = 0.0027). A variant in the gene MORC4 (rs12688220) showed significant interaction with alcohol (OR for homozygous and heterozygous risk allele -14.62 and 1.51 respectively, P = 0.0068) suggesting gene-environment interaction. A combined analysis of the genes CLDN2 and MORC4 based on an effective risk allele score revealed a higher percentage of individuals homozygous for the risk allele in CP cases with 5.09 fold enhanced risk in individuals with 7 or more effective risk alleles compared with individuals with 3 or less risk alleles (P = 1.88 x 10-14). Genetic variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes were associated with CP in Indian patients.


Assuntos
Claudinas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
20.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 4(1): 50-3, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25573950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is an important complication of acute pancreatitis that is diagnosed by imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can clearly visualize necrotic debris. The effectiveness of abdominal ultrasound (USG) in detecting solid debris in WOPN is not clear. METHODS: A total of 52 patients (37 males, mean age 38.9 ± 12.6 years) with symptomatic WOPN were prospectively studied using EUS, MRI and USG. These investigations were done at a mean of 11.7 ± 5.5 weeks of onset of acute pancreatitis and within two days. RESULTS: WOPN was detected by EUS & MRI in all patients, whereas USG could not detect it in 4 (7.6%) patients (3 had predominantly solid WOPN, whereas one had air foci in WOPN). USG, MRI and EUS could detect solid debris in all patients with detectable WOPN. EUS and USG detected <10% debris in 10 (20%) patients, whereas MRI detected <10% debris in 14 (27%) patients. EUS and USG detected 10-40% debris in 33 patients whereas MRI detected 10-40% debris in 30 (58%) patients. More than 40% debris was better characterized on EUS and MRI with both detecting >40% debris in 8 patients (15%) compared to 5 (11%) patients having >40% debris on USG. EUS detected collaterals around WOPN that were not detected on USG or MRI. CONCLUSION: USG can characterize the majority of WOPN, with accuracy comparable to that of EUS/MRI. However its limitations are the inability to detect collaterals around WOPN and characterize collections with high solid content or air.

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