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1.
J Food Sci Technol ; 56(4): 1966-1977, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996431

RESUMO

Effects of the pretreatments namely heating, microwave (MW), and ultrasound (US), followed by the enzymatic hydrolysis using different proteases (flavourzyme, neutrase, and protamex) on the protein recovery, umami taste compound content, and antioxidant activities of the Labeo rohita head (LRH) protein hydrolysate was investigated. US and MW pretreatments increased the protein recovery, MSG-like amino acid and flavour 5'-nucleotide contents, equivalent umami concentration (EUC) and antioxidant activities of LRH protein hydrolysates significantly (p < 0.05). The type of enzyme influenced the protein recovery and EUC significantly but did not influence the flavour 5'-nucleotide content of LRH protein hydrolysate (p > 0.05). The highest recovery yield of LRH protein hydrolysate (69.75%) was obtained with the MW pretreatment followed by the protamex hydrolysis, while the highest EUC (41.82 g monosodium glutamate (MSG)/kg) was yielded with the combination of the US pretreatment and the flavourzyme hydrolysis. These results indicate that US and MW pretreatments can help to enhance the recovery yield, umami taste compound content and antioxidant activities of the LRH protein hydrolysate.

2.
Natl Med J India ; 31(1): 39-43, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348925

RESUMO

Background: Patient safety cannot be considered in isolation when organizational factors, both active and latent, influence patient outcomes. Methods: We did a cross-sectional mixed methods study using a convergent parallel design at a tertiary care public sector hospital in Hyderabad, Telangana (i) to qualitatively investigate the nature and determinants of patient safety incidents occurring in the hospital; (ii) to quantify the perception of hospital staff regarding factors affecting patient safety from an organizational perspective; and (iii) to triangulate the results to highlight areas in need of improvement. Results: The most common factors affecting patient safety were situational factors, working conditions and latent organizational factors including communication systems. Despite the relatively poor knowledge of paramedical staff regarding patient safety incidents, they perceived innovation and flexibility, outward focus, reflexivity, quality, pressure to produce, performance feedback and effort to be significantly higher compared to the heads of departments and clinical faculty. The strength of the dimensions: integration, involvement, training, welfare, supervisory support in the hospital was weak as perceived by all categories of staff. Conclusion: There is a need to build team work, improve trust and communication between various departments, invest more in training, and provide supervisory support along with structural and process improvements in issues such as drug procurement and developing patient-friendly physical environment.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 19(7): 3237-3248, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191379

RESUMO

In an attempt to deliver multiple drugs through a nanoparticulate platform, the present study was designed to deliver isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) together through conjugation/encapsulation approaches using PEG-PLA (polyethylene glycol-poly-L-lactic acid) polymeric micelles. The objective of this study is to identify the preparation and evaluation of PEGylated polymeric micelles with dual drug delivery of INH and RMP for the effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Synthesized PEG-PLA di-block-copolymer was further conjugated to INH-forming PEG-PLA-INH (PPI) conjugate. Separately, these conjugates were loaded with RMP building the rifampicin-loaded PEG-PLA-INH polymeric micelles (PMC). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the PEG-PLA copolymer was found to be 8.9 ± 0.96 mg/L, and the size and zeta potential were observed to be 187.9 ± 2.68 nm and - 8.15 ± 1.24 mV (0.251 ± 0.042 pdi), respectively. Percent drug loading of PMC was 16.66 ± 1.52 and 23.07 ± 1.05 with entrapment efficiency of 72.30 ± 3.49 and 78.60 ± 2.67% for RMP and INH, respectively. RBC hemolysis capacity of PMC was significantly less than pure RMP and INH. Microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) along with microscopy showed that the nanoconstructed PMC were more effective than the drugs, and approximately 8-fold reduction in overall minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed. The prepared duo drug-loaded nano-engineered polymeric micelles were highly effective against sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and found to be less hemolytic in nature. The micelles could be further explored (in the future) for in vivo anti-TB studies to establish further to achieve better treatment for TB.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Micelas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Humanos
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(9): e27232, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We reviewed the effect of ovarian transposition (OT) on ovarian function among long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with pelvic radiotherapy. PROCEDURE: Female participants (age 18+ years) with HL in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) were clinically evaluated for premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) 10 or more years after pelvic radiotherapy. Reproductive history including age at menopause and pregnancy/live births was available on all patients. RESULTS: Of 127 eligible females with HL, 90 (80%) participated in SJLIFE, including 49 who underwent OT before pelvic radiotherapy. Median age at STLIFE evaluation was 38 years (range 25-60). In a multiple regression adjusted for age at diagnosis, pelvic radiotherapy doses > 1,500 cGy (hazard ratio [HR] = 25.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1-207.3; P = 0.0027) and cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent doses of alkylating agents > 12,000 mg/m2 (HR = 11.2, 95% CI = 3.4-36.8; P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with POI. There was no significant association between OT and occurrence of POI (HR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.2-1.9; P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: OT did not appear to modify risk of POI in this historic cohort of long-term survivors of HL treated with gonadotoxic therapy. Modern fertility preservation modalities, such as mature oocyte cryopreservation, should be offered to at-risk patients whenever feasible.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Ovário/cirurgia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco , Ovário/efeitos da radiação , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(4): 510-518, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-898686

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, Asteraceae, leaf extract has recently called the attention of food industry as a proposal for natural sweetener. The sweet flavor is attributed to the glycosides, in especial stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are the plant main chemical markers. The aim of the work reported here was to optimize the turbo-extraction of stevia leaves using water, ethanol 70% and 90% (w/w) as green solvents. A 25-2 factorial design was applied to study the linear effects of the drug size, solvent to drug ratio, temperature, time and also the turbolysis speed on the extraction of glycosides. The glycosides exhaustive extraction showed that ethanol 70% gave better results and was used for turbo-extraction. The stevioside and rebaudioside A contents were quantified by a validated method by high performance liquid chromatographic with photodiode array detector. The contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in fluid extract increased with the drug size, but decreased at high shearing speeds and solvent to drug ratio, while their yields decreased at higher temperature and were not affected by turbo speed. An increase in solvent to drug ratio reduced significantly the glycosides percent in dried extract. Optimal solution for S. rebaudiana leaves turbo-extraction was determined by desirability functions. The optimal extraction condition corresponded to drug size of 780 µm, solvent to drug ratio of 10, extraction time of 18 min; temperature of 23 ºC and turbo speed of 20,000 rpm, resulting in yields of 4.98% and 2.70%, for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These yields are comparable to the ones recently published for dynamic maceration, but with the advantage of shorter extraction times. This work demonstrates that turbolysis is promising for S. rebaudiana glycosides extraction and stimulate new research on the purification of these extracts, which may become an interesting source of income for developing countries such as India and Brazil.

7.
Pharm Res ; 34(9): 1944-1955, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685299

RESUMO

PURPOSE: First line antiTB drugs have several physical and toxic manifestations which limit their applications. RIF is a hydrophobic drug and has low water solubility and INH is hepatotoxic. The main objective of the study was to synthesize, characterize HPMA-PLA co-polymeric micelles for the effective dual delivery of INH and RIF. METHODS: HPMA-PLA co-polymer and HPMA-PLA-INH (HPI) conjugates were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Later on RIF loaded HPMA-PLA-INH co-polymeric micelles (PMRI) were formulated and characterized for size, zeta potential and surface morphology (SEM, TEM) as well as critical micellar concentration. The safety was assessed through RBC's interaction study. The prepared PMRI were evaluated through MABA assay against sensitive and resistant strains of M. Tuberculosis. RESULTS: Size, zeta and entrapment efficiency for RIF loaded HPMA-PLA-INH polymeric micelles (PMRI) was 87.64 ± 1.98 nm, -19 ± 1.93 mV and 97.2 ± 1.56%, respectively. In vitro release followed controlled and sustained delivery pattern. Sustained release was also supported by release kinetics. Haemolytic toxicity of HPI and PMRI was 8.57 and 7.05% (p < 0.01, INH Vs PMRI; p < 0.0001, RIF Vs PMRI), respectively. MABA assay (cytotoxicity) based MIC values of PMRI formulation was observed as ≥0.0625 and ≥0.50 µg/mL (for sensitive and resistant strain). The microscopic analysis further confirmed that the delivery approach was effective than pure drugs. CONCLUSIONS: RIF loaded and INH conjugated HPMA-PLA polymeric micelles (PMRI) were more effective against sensitive and resistant M tuberculosis. The developed approach can lead to improved patient compliance and reduced dosing in future, offering improved treatment of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Metacrilatos/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliésteres/química , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antituberculose/efeitos adversos , Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cinética , Metacrilatos/efeitos adversos , Micelas , Poliésteres/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Cancer Surviv ; 11(5): 553-561, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Longer survival for children with sarcoma has led to the recognition of chronic health conditions related to prior therapy. We sought to study the association of sarcoma therapy with the development of scoliosis. METHODS: We reviewed patient demographics, treatment exposures, and functional outcomes for patients surviving >10 years after treatment for sarcoma between 1964 and 2002 at our institution. The diagnosis of scoliosis was determined by imaging. Functional performance and standardized questionnaires were completed in a long-term follow-up clinic. RESULTS: We identified 367 patients, with median age at follow-up of 33.1 years. Scoliosis was identified in 100 (27.2%) patients. Chest radiation (relative risk (RR), 1.88 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.92), p < 0.005) and rib resection (RR, 2.64 (CI, 1.79-3.89), p < 0.0001) were associated with an increased incidence of scoliosis; thoracotomy without rib resection was not. Of 21 patients who underwent rib resection, 16 (80.8%) had the apex of scoliosis towards the surgical side. Scoliosis was associated with worse pulmonary function (RR, 1.74 (CI, 1.14-2.66), p < 0.01) and self-reported health outcomes, including functional impairment (RR, 1.60 (CI, 1.07-2.38), p < 0.05) and cancer-related pain (RR, 1.55 (CI, 1.11-2.16), p < 0.01). Interestingly, pulmonary function was not associated with performance on the 6-min walk test in this young population. CONCLUSIONS: Children with sarcoma are at risk of developing scoliosis when treatment regimens include chest radiation or rib resection. Identification of these risk factors may allow for early intervention designed to prevent adverse long-term outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Cancer survivors at risk of developing scoliosis may benefit from monitoring of pulmonary status and early physical therapy.


Assuntos
Pulmão/patologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Sarcoma , Escoliose/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma/complicações , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Cancer ; 141(7): 1469-1477, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631382

RESUMO

Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in osteosarcoma correlates with a poor outcome. We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combining bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, with methotrexate, doxorubicin and cisplatin (MAP) in patients with localized osteosarcoma. Eligible patients received two courses of MAP chemotherapy before definitive surgery at week 10. Bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) was administered 3 days before starting chemotherapy then on day 1 of weeks 3 and 5 of chemotherapy. After surgery, patients received MAP for a total of 29 weeks; bevacizumab was added every 2 or 3 weeks on day 1 of chemotherapy at least 5 weeks after surgery. Group sequential monitoring rules were used to monitor for unacceptable bevacizumab-related targeted toxicity (grade 4 hypertension, proteinuria or bleeding, grade 3 or 4 thrombosis/embolism, and grade 2-4 major wound complications). Thirty-one patients (median age 12.8 years) with localized osteosarcoma were enrolled. No unacceptable targeted toxicities were observed except for wound complications (9 minor and 6 major), which occurred in 15 patients; none required removal of prosthetic hardware or amputation. The estimated 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rate and overall survival rate were 57.5 ± 10.0% and 83.4 ± 7.8%, respectively. Eight (28%) of 29 evaluable patients had good histologic response (<5% viable tumor) to preoperative chemotherapy. The addition of bevacizumab to MAP for localized osteosarcoma is feasible but frequent wound complications are encountered. The observed histologic response and EFS do not support further evaluation of bevacizumab in osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Amputação , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criança , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(3)2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27573717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) after definitive surgery for extremity osteosarcoma (OS) has not been previously characterized. This study prospectively investigates the incidence, duration, and treatment of NP in limb sparing surgery and amputation groups. PROCEDURE: In patients treated for OS on a chemotherapy and definitive surgery (limb sparing vs. amputation) protocol (OS08), we prospectively collected the following data: (i) demographical data (age, sex, race); (ii) NP time of onset and duration; and (iii) dose (starting, maximum) and duration of gabapentin, amitriptyline, and methadone treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients underwent 38 definitive surgeries: limb sparing (26, 68.4%) or amputations (12, 31.6%). Localization included lower extremity (30, 81%), upper extremity (6, 16%), or pelvis (1, 3%). Thirty patients (81%) developed NP and 26 of them required NP-specific medications (87.7%). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] duration of NP was 6.5 weeks (7.2) (median 4.4, range 0.3-29.9). All 26 patients (27 surgeries) treated with NP medications received gabapentin, either as single therapy (65.4%) (17 patients, 18 surgeries), dual therapy with gabapentin and amitriptyline (five patients), or triple therapy with gabapentin, amitriptyline, and methadone (four patients). The mean starting (maximum) doses of gabapentin, amitriptyline, and methadone (mg/kg/day) were 20.2 (43.8), 0.5 (0.7), and 0.3 (0.3), respectively. The incidence and duration of NP, duration of treatment, and NP-specific dose regimens were similar in the limb sparing and the amputation groups. CONCLUSIONS: NP after definitive surgery for OS is frequently encountered, can persist for a significant time, and NP outcomes are similar in limb sparing and amputation groups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Extremidades/cirurgia , Neuralgia/etiologia , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 13(9): 1575-85, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391297

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The relationship between treatment-related impairment of pulmonary function in adult survivors of childhood cancer and subsequent physical function has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: In this prospective evaluation of 606 adult survivors of childhood cancer, we sought to determine the risk factors for, as well as the functional impact of, clinically ascertained pulmonary function impairment. METHODS: We measured FEV1, FVC, total lung capacity (TLC), and single-breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin (DlCOcorr), expressing the results as percent predicted and lower limit of normal (LLN) values, and we also assessed functional exercise capacity (6-minute-walk distance). Lung radiation exposure was expressed as the estimated percentage of lung tissue that received at least 10 Gy (V10). Associations of clinical and treatment factors with pulmonary function measures were assessed using log-binomial regression to calculate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The participants' median age at evaluation was 34.2 years, and the median elapsed time from diagnosis was 21.9 years. Among the sample population, 50.7% had an FEV1 percent predicted less than 80%, 47.2% had an FVC percent predicted less than 80%, 31.2% had a TLC percent predicted less than 75%, and 44.6% had DlCOcorr percent predicted less than 75%. Also, 49.0% had FEV1 less than the LLN on the basis of the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) criteria, and 45.4% had FVC less than LLN. Obstructive lung defects (FEV1/FVC, <0.7) were found in 0.8%, but none had obstructive lung defects on the basis of the GLI criterion of FEV1/FVC less than the LLN. Restrictive lung defects (TLC, <75%) were found in 31.2% of participants. V10 and elapsed time since diagnosis were associated with abnormal FEV1 and FVC based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03 criteria, and with abnormal FEV1 using the GLI criterion. Age at diagnosis was an additional risk factor for abnormal FVC based on the GLI criteria. Age at diagnosis and V10 were associated with abnormal TLC. Increased body mass index, V10, and elapsed time since diagnosis were risk factors for abnormal DlCOcorr. Abnormal pulmonary function tests were associated with decreased 6-minute walk distance. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired pulmonary function in adult survivors of childhood cancer is associated with decreased physical function. These patients may benefit from interventions designed to preserve and/or improve pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Capacidade Vital , Teste de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(7): 1250-3, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications in pediatric cancer patients after a gastrostomy (GT) placement have not been widely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the complication rate and nature of complications in this specific population. PROCEDURE: Medical records of pediatric cancer patients having a GT placed at our institution from 1998 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Variables analyzed included gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedure, GT device, duration of GT usage, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) level at surgery, and complications. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-one patients (92 males, 79 females), median age of 6 years (range, 0.2-21), who underwent 181 procedures (110 open, 59 endoscopic, and 12 laparoscopic) were identified. Diagnosis included central nervous system tumor (n = 101), solid tumor (n = 45), and leukemia/lymphoma (n = 25). A GT tube was used in 139 procedures and a GT button in 42. Median ANC level at procedure was 3,300/mm(3) (range, 0-38,988). Median duration of GT usage was 8 months (range, 0.2-142). One hundred seventy-seven complications occurred in 106 patients (61.9%) and were categorized as perioperative (<1 month after surgery, 20.3%) and late (>1 month after surgery, 79.7%). Major complications included 42 (23.7%) GT site infections and four (2.2%) intrabdominal complications. The most common minor complication was granulation tissue (28.8%). Younger age at procedure was associated with complications (P = 0.048) and an open technique was associated with GT site infection (P = 0.003). No statistical significance was observed between complications and gender, diagnosis, GT device, duration of GT usage, and ANC at procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Younger patients were more likely to have complications, and GT site infections were more common after open GT procedures.


Assuntos
Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Pediatr Surg ; 51(6): 981-5, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26995522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) and the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) are the most common primary pediatric bone malignancies. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of initial tumor biopsies in patients with OS or ESFT at a pediatric cancer center. METHODS: All biopsies performed at initial presentation of patients with OS or ESFT at our institution from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnostic accuracy and incidence of complications were correlated with study variables using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two biopsies were performed in 105 patients (median age 13.4years, range: 1.8-23.0), 104 (73.2%) OS and 38 (27.8%) ESFT. Thirty-one (21.8%) were performed on metastatic sites. Eighty-five (76.6%) of 111 primary site biopsies were open procedures, and 26 were percutaneous (23.4%). Primary site biopsies were successful in 94.1% of open and 73.1% of percutaneous procedures. Odds of obtaining a successful diagnostic specimen were 7.8 times higher with open approach (CI: 1.6-36.8). Metastatic site biopsies were successful in 66.7% of percutaneous and 100% of open and thoracoscopic procedures. CONCLUSION: Biopsy of metastatic sites was equal to primary site in obtaining diagnostic material with the added benefit of accurate staging, with few adverse events and high diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Adolescente , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(1): 401-10, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787959

RESUMO

Like Southeast Asian countries fermented fish is a well known strategy of food preservation in the Northeast region of India. Shidals are mostly preferred salt-free fermented fish product amongst all. Chemical and microbial composition, antioxidative potential, fatty acid profile and proteins profile in gel electrophoresis of shidals were studied. pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) have been found as 5.86 ± 0.11, 0.115 ± 0.01 and 6.62 ± 0.07, 0.092 ± 0.01 in punti and phasa shidal respectively. DPPH (·) radical scavenging activity of punti and phasa shidal was determined as 80.15 ± 5.67 and 68.30 ± 3.22 respectively. Presence of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid indicate the nutritional significance of shidal. However, the result showed that punti shidal was rich in omega-3 but poor in omega-6 fatty acid, whereas, reverse was observed in respect of phasa shidal. Poly acrylamide gel electrophoretic study of protein revealed disappearance of myosin head chain (MHC) in the dry puntius fish (raw material of shidal). Proteins or peptides with low molecular weight between 45 and 29 kDa and between 45 and 66 kDa were noticed in both the shidals and indicative of intensive protein degradation during fermentation. Therefore, fermented fish product, shidal could be used as a potential source of nutrients and natural antioxidants.

15.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(12): 8059-67, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604378

RESUMO

Protein hydrolysates were prepared from chicken liver using fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis. The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici NCIM5368 was employed in the fermentation process and a commercial protease (Alcalase® 2.5) was used in enzymatic hydrolysis. Chicken liver hydrolysates prepared by fermentation (FCLH) and enzymatic hydrolysis (ECLH) revealed appreciable amounts of protein [55.85 and 61.34 %; on dry weight basis, respectively]. Fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 14.3 and 26.12 % of degree of hydrolysis. Total antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging of superoxide, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals were determined for both FCLH & ECLH. FCLH & ECLH showed total antioxidant activity of 0.99 and 1.13 µg AAE mg(-1) proteins, respectively; while, they scavenged 96.14 and 92.76 % of DPPH radicals respectively. FCLH showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity (32.16 %) than ECLH (19.29 %). Superoxide anion scavenging activity of FCLH & ECLH were found to be 95.02 & 88.94 %, respectively. Residues obtained after both treatments also exhibited antioxidant activities. FCLH reported highest antagonistic activity against Listeria monocytogenes (30 mm); while, ECLH showed antibacterial activity only against Micrococcus luteus (12 mm). Both hydrolysates have the potential to be a protein rich ingredient for use in formulated foods and possible help in reduction of oxidative stress.

16.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 11(3): 216-25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26168942

RESUMO

Neonatal soft-tissue tumors are rare and comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with substantial histological diversity. Treatment options include careful observation, primary surgical resection or medical therapy. Although histologically benign, some neoplasms do exhibit an aggressive local behavior. The most common soft-tissue sarcomas in this age group include rhabdomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor and hemangiopericytoma. Prenatal diagnosis on routine ultrasound or in the context of a known predisposition syndrome is increasingly becoming more common. Management of neonatal tumors requires a multidisciplinary team that includes obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgical specialists and psychological support for the family members. Treatment is particularly challenging due to the difficulty in appropriate dosing of chemotherapeutic agents or the limitations of the use of radiation therapy. Although surgical treatment is predominant in this age group, close observation may be appropriate, since spontaneous regression has been reported for certain histological subtypes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Pais/psicologia , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Feminino , Doenças Fetais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Invasividade Neoplásica , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/terapia
17.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(6): 3520-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26028734

RESUMO

The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products.

18.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(6): 3701-10, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26028754

RESUMO

Fish oil recovered from fresh water fish visceral waste (FVW-FO) through lactic acid fermentation (FO-LAF) and enzymatic hydrolysis (FO-EH) were fed to rats to study their influence on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant and membrane bound enzyme in liver, heart and brain. Feeding of FO-LAF and FO-EH resulted in increase (P < 0.05) in lipid peroxides level in serum, liver, brain and heart tissues compared to ground nut oil (control). Activity of catalase (40-235 %) and superoxide dismutase (17-143 %) also increased (P < 0.05) with incremental level of EPA + DHA in diet. The increase was similar to cod liver oil fed rats at same concentration of EPA + DHA. FO-LAF and FO-EH increased (P < 0.05) the Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity in liver and brain microsomes, Ca(+)Mg(+) ATPase in heart microsome and acetylcholine esterase in brain microsomes when fed with 5 % EPA + DHA. There was also significant change in fatty acid composition and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in microsomes of rat fed with FVW-FO. Feeding FVW-FO recovered by biotechnological approaches enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tissues, modulates the activities of membrane bound enzymes and improved the fatty acid composition in microsomes of tissues similar to CLO. Utilization of these processing wastes for the production of valuable biofunctional products can reduce the mounting economic values of fish oil and minimize the environmental pollution problems.

19.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(6): 3870-80, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26028772

RESUMO

Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization.

20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 62(2): 246-251, 2015 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25381958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb-sparing surgery for osteosarcoma requires taking wide bony resection margins while maximizing preservation of native bone and joint. However, the optimal bony margin and factors associated with recurrence and survival outcomes in these patients are not well established. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective review of outcomes in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma from 1986 to 2012, where bony resection margins for limb-sparing surgeries were decreased serially from 5 to 1.5 cm. The association between bony margins and other surgicopathological factors with survival and recurrence outcomes was determined. RESULTS: In 181 limb-sparing surgeries in 173 patients, planned and actual bony resection margins were not significantly associated with local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS)-at median 5.8 years follow-up, decreasing planned bony resection margins from 5 to 1.5 cm did not significantly decrease survival outcomes. Multivariable analysis showed that the presence of distant metastases at diagnosis was associated with decreased LRFS, EFS, and OS (P = 0.002, 0.005, and <0.0001, respectively). Post-chemotherapy tumor necrosis ≤90% was associated with decreased EFS and OS (P = 0.001 and 0.022, respectively). Earlier years of treatment and pathologic fractures were associated with decreased OS only (P = 0.018 and 0.008, respectively); previous cancer history and male gender were associated with decreased EFS only (P = 0.043 and 0.023, respectively). CONCLUSION: We did not observe significant increase in adverse survival outcomes with reduction of longitudinal bony resection margins to 1.5 cm. Established prognostic factors, particularly histologic response to chemotherapy and metastases at diagnosis, remain relevant in limb-sparing patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:246-251. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Margens de Excisão , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Extremidades/patologia , Extremidades/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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