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1.
Chemosphere ; : 132471, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626653

RESUMO

Present study showed the successful application of the modified hydrothermal method for synthesizing the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) efficiently. Well as-synthesized ZnO-NPs are analyzed for various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM micrographs, EDAX/Mapping pattern, Raman Spectroscopy Pattern, UV, Photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. All these measurements showed that ZnO-NPs are highly pure with no internal defects, and can be potentially used in the plant applications. Hence, we further determined the effect of these nanoparticles and melatonin for the modulation of the As tolerance in soybean plants by examining the various growth attributes and metabolic parameters. Our results demonstrated that As-stress inhibited growth (∼34%), photosynthesis-related parameters (∼18-28%) and resulting ROS accumulation; however, all these attributes are substantially reversed by the ZnO-NPs and melatonin treatments. Moreover, the As stress induced malondialdehyde (MDA; 71%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 82%) are partially reversed by the ZnO-NPs and melatonin in the As-stressed plants. This might have resulted due to the ZnO-NPs and melatonin induced activities of the antioxidants plant defense. Overall, the ZnO-NPs and melatonin supplementation separately and in combination positively regulated the As tolerance in soybean; however, the effect of the combined application on the As tolerance was more profound relative to the individual application. These results suggested the synergetic effect of the ZnO-NPs and melatonin on the As tolerance in soybean. However, the in-depth mechanism underlying the defense crosstalk between the ZnO-NPs and melatonin needs to be further explored.

2.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558628

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is widely accepted as a beneficial element for plants. Despite the substantial progress made in understanding Si transport mechanisms and modes of action in plants, several questions remain unanswered. In this review, we discuss such outstanding questions and issues commonly encountered by biologists studying the role of Si in plants in relation to Si bioavailability. In recent years, advances in our understanding of the role of Si-solubilizing bacteria and the efficacy of Si-nanoparticles have been made. However, there are many unknown aspects associated with structural and functional features of Si transporters, Si loading into the xylem, and the role of specialized cells like silica cells and compounds preventing Si polymerization in plant tissues. In addition, despite several thousand reports showing the positive effects of Si in high as well as low Si-accumulating plant species, the exact roles of Si at the molecular level are yet to be understood. Some evidence suggests that Si regulates hormonal pathways and nutrient uptake, thereby explaining various observed benefits of Si uptake. However, how Si modulates hormonal pathways or improves nutrient uptake remains to be explained. Finally, we summarize the knowledge gaps that will provide a roadmap for further research on plant silicon biology, leading to an exploration of the benefits of Si uptake to enhance crop production.

3.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211049018, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) or heart failure is associated with an unacceptably high in-hospital mortality of 33%-55% and a lost chance to accept PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention). AIM: The aim of the study was to find out whether percutaneous hemodynamic support device Impella 2.5 improves prognosis of high-risk PCI patients or not. METHODS: This study was a case series involving six patients who underwent a Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD, Impella 2.5, Abiomed, Danvers, MA) implantation after suffering from AMI with a very low ejection fraction and acute heart failure. The clinical experience and outcomes of the patients are hereby discussed. RESULTS: All PCI procedures were safely completed under LVAD support. The hemodynamic parameters of all patients improved clinically over the next 30 days and following 12 months after Impella insertion except in two patients, of which one patient (Case number 6) died 4 days post-Impella protected PCI procedure due to acute left ventricle heart failure with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema; and another one died at 12 months after Impella protected PCI procedure (Case number 4) due to decompensated heart failure and infected pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous hemodynamic support is favorable and feasible during high risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). A bigger study is needed to substantiate the claims of the current study.

4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 713-722, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500196

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate copper (Cu) toxicity alleviatory potential of silicon in Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) seedlings. Moreover, attention has also been paid to find out whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has any role in Si-governed alleviation of Cu stress. The length of root and shoot, fresh weight, and biochemical attributes were adversely affected by Cu exposure. However, application of Si rescued negative effects of Cu. Cu exposure decreased cell viability, and enhanced cell death and levels of oxidative stress markers (O2•‾, H2O2 and MDA), but Si significantly mitigated these effects of Cu. Application of Cu substantially stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase while inhibited activity of catalase. However, Si addition reversed this effect of Cu. Ascorbate and glutathione contents in roots and shoots were declined by Cu but stimulated by Si. Moreover, we noticed that addition of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and sodium tungstate (Tung) further augmented Cu toxicity but addition of sodium nitroprusside rescued adverse effects of L-NAME and Tung. Altogether, data suggest that though Si was able in alleviating Cu toxicity in mung bean seedlings but it requires endogenous nitric oxide.


Assuntos
Plântula , Vigna , Antioxidantes , Cobre/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Plântula/metabolismo , Silício , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Vigna/metabolismo
5.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487378

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the major abiotic constraints affecting the growth and yield of plants including soybean. In this context, the previous studies have documented the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in the regulation of salt signaling in model plants. However, there is not a systematic analysis of salt-related MAPKs in soybean. Hence, in this study, we identified a total of 32 GmMAPKs via., genome-wide reanalysis of the MAPK family using the soybean genome v4.0. Based on the transcriptome datasets in the public database, we observed that GmMAPKs are induced by different abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Furthermore, based on the candidate gene association mapping and haplotype analysis of the GmMAPKs, we identified a salt-related MAPK member, GmMMK1. GmMMK1 possesses significant sequence variations, which affect salt tolerance in soybean at the germination stage. Besides, the overexpression of the GmMMK1 in soybean hairy roots has a significant negative effect on the root growth, leading to increased sensitivity of the GmMMK1-OE plants to salt stress. Moreover, the heterologous expression of the GmMMK1 in Arabidopsis has been also observed to have a negative effect on the germination and root growth under salt stress. The transcriptome analysis and yeast two-hybrid screening showed that hormone signaling and the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species are involved in the GmMMK1 regulation network. In conclusion, the results of this work demonstrated that GmMMK1 is an important negative regulator of the salt stress response, and provides better insights for understanding the role of the MAPKs in soybean salt signaling.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112401, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118747

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element causing severe toxicity symptoms in plants, besides posing hazardous fitness issue due to its buildup in the human body through food chain. Nanoparticles (NPs) are recently employed as a novel strategy to directly ameliorate the Cd stress and acted as nano-fertilizers. The intend of the current study was to explore the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs; 50 mg/L) on plant growth, photosynthetic activity, elemental status and antioxidant activity in Oryza sativa (rice) under Cd (0.8 mM) stress. To this end, the rice plants are treated by Cd stress at 15 days after sowing (DAS), and the treatment was given directly into the soil. Supply of ZnO-NPs as foliar spray was given for five consecutive days from 30 to 35 DAS, and sampling was done at 45 DAS. However, rice plants supplemented with ZnO-NPs under the Cd toxicity revealed significantly increased shoot length (SL; 34.0%), root fresh weight (RFW; 30.0%), shoot dry weight (SDW; 23.07%), and root dry weight (RDW; 12.24%). Moreover, the ZnO-NPs supplement has also positive effects on photosynthesis related parameters, SPAD value (40%), chloroplast structure, and qualitatively high fluorescence observed by confocal microscopy even under Cd stress. ZnO-NPs also substantially prevented the increases of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) triggered by Cd. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that ZnO-NPs increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; 59%), catalase (CAT; 52%), and proline (17%) that metabolize reactive oxygen species (ROS); these increases coincided with the changes observed in the H2O2 and MDA accumulation after ZnO-NPs application. In conclusion, ZnO-NPs application to foliage has great efficiency to improve biomass, photosynthesis, protein, antioxidant enzymes activity, mineral nutrient contents and reducing Cd levels in rice. This can be attributed mainly from reduced oxidative damage resulted due to the ZnO-NPs application.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Biomassa , Catalase/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos adversos , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Solo/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 218: 112293, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957422

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) have recently emerged as potential agents for plants to ameliorate abiotic stresses by acting as nano-fertilizers. In this regard, the influence of the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on plant responses to copper (Cu) stress has been poorly understood. Hence, the present study was executed to explore the role of ZnO-NPs (foliar) and 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; root dipping) individually or in combined form in the resilience of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant to Cu stress. Tomato seeds were sown to make the nursery; and at 20 days after sowing (DAS) the plantlets were submerged in 10-8 M of EBL solution for 2 h, and subsequently transplanted in the soil-filled earthen pots. Cu concentration (100 mg kg-1) was applied to the soil at 30 DAS, whereas at 35 DAS plants were sprinkled with double distilled water (DDW; control), 50 mg/L of Zinc (Zn) and 50 mg/L of ZnO-NPs; and plant performance were evaluated at 45 DAS. It was evident that Cu-stress reduced photosynthesis (17.3%), stomatal conductance (18.1%), plant height (19.7%), and nitrate reductase (NR) activity (19.2%), but increased malondialdehyde (MDA; 29.4%), superoxide radical (O2-; 22.3%) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 26.2%) content in S. lycopersicum. Moreover, ZnO-NPs and/or EBL implemented via different modes improved photosynthetic activity, stomatal aperture, growth, cell viability and activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline that augmented resilience of tomato plants to Cu stress. These observations depicted that application of ZnO-NPs and EBL could be a useful approach to assist Cu confiscation and stress tolerance against Cu in tomato plants grown in Cu contaminated sites.

8.
Physiol Plant ; 173(1): 340-351, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840098

RESUMO

Biochar application has recently gained increased attention to reclaim heavy metal degraded soils. In this context, the present study investigated the effects of biochar on the growth regulation and heavy metal accumulation in tomato grown on contaminated soils. A two-factorial design with factor A including three treatments with mine (contaminated soil) and garden soil in the following ratio viz., T1 = 1:2, T2 = 1:1, and T3 = 2:1, and garden soil only as control; whereas factor B consists of biochar amendments at three levels viz., B1 (3%), B2 (6%), and B3 (9%). Our results revealed significant negative effects of heavy metal-contaminated soil on plant growth, and besides resulted heavy metal accumulation in tomato fruit. Tomato plants showed maximum reduction of growth in T3 followed by T2, and lowest in T1, a similar pattern was found for accumulation of heavy metals in the fruit. However, the application of biochar reduced the bioavailability and accumulation of heavy metals in the tomato fruit, as well as improved plant growth in contaminated soils. Overall, among the three biochar treatments, B2 was determined as the optimum level for improved growth coupled with reduced heavy metal accumulation in the tomato fruit. Besides, biochar application decreased the daily intake of metals and human health risk index values, thus alleviating the health risk. Hence, the present study demonstrated a positive role of biochar in reclaiming heavy metal-contaminated soils and in increasing the plant growth.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Solo
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 161: 122-130, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581620

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has been demonstrated to positively regulate plant tolerance to multiple environmental stresses. However, till date little information has been gained regarding the role of ZnO-NPs in the salt stress regulation in plants. Hence, the objective of our study was to investigate the role of ZnO-NPs in the regulation of salt tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). In this regard, the tomato plants were subjected to salt stress by using NaCl (150 mM) at the time of transplantation [15 days after sowing (DAS)]. Foliar application of ZnO-NPs at different levels viz., 10, 50 and 100 mg/L in the presence/absence of NaCl (150 mM) was carried out at 25 DAS and sampling was done at 35 DAS. Results of our study revealed that foliar spray of ZnO-NPs significantly increased shoot length (SL) and root length (RL), biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic attributes of tomato plants in the presence/absence of salt stress. Besides, the application of ZnO-NPs mitigates the negative impacts of salt stress on tomato growth, and enhanced protein content and antioxidative enzyme activity such as peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) under salt stress. In conclusion, the ZnO-NPs plays an important role in the alleviation of NaCl toxicity in tomato plants. Hence, the ZnO-NPs can be used to boost the growth performance and mitigate the adverse effects caused by NaCl in tomato.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Antioxidantes , Folhas de Planta , Tolerância ao Sal , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 406: 124289, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153789

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid that adversely affects plant growth, and poses severe risks to human health. It induces disturbance to many physiological and metabolic pathways such as nutrient, water and redox imbalance, abnormal photosynthesis and ATP synthesis and loss of membrane integrity. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical molecule endogenously generated in plant cells which has signalling properties. Under As-stress, the endogenous NO metabolism is significantly affected in a clear connection with the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering nitro-oxidative stress. However, the exogenous NO application provides beneficial effects under As-stress conditions which can relieve oxidative damages by stimulating the antioxidant systems, regulation of the expression of the transporter and other defence-related genes, modification of root cell wall composition or the biosynthesis of enriched sulfur compounds such phytochelatins (PCs). This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the key NO hallmarks to relieve As-stress in higher plants. Furthermore, it will be analyzed the diverse genetic engineering techniques to increase the endogenous NO content which could open new biotechnological applications, especially in crops under arsenic stress.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Óxido Nítrico , Antioxidantes , Arsênio/toxicidade , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124250, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109410

RESUMO

Metalloids are among the major pollutants posing a risk to the environment and global food security. Plant roots uptake these toxic metalloids from the soil along with other essential minerals. Plants respond to metalloid stress by regulating the distribution and levels of various endogenous phytohormones. Recent research showed that auxin is instrumental in mediating resilience to metalloid-induced stress in plants. Exogenous supplementation of the auxin or plant growth-promoting micro-organisms (PGPMs) alleviates metalloid uptake, localization, and accumulation in the plant tissues, thereby improving plant growth under metalloid stress. Moreover, auxin triggers various biological responses such as the production of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants to combat nitro-oxidative stress induced by the metalloids. However, an in-depth understanding of the auxin stimulated molecular and physiological responses to the metalloid toxicity needs to be investigated in future studies. The current review attempts to provide an update on the recent advances and the current state-of-the-art associated with auxin and metalloid interaction, which could be used as a start point to develop biotechnological tools and create an eco-friendly environment.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Plantas , Solo
12.
J Biotechnol ; 324: 248-260, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186658

RESUMO

Development of drought-tolerant cultivars is one of the challenging tasks for the plant breeders due to its complex inheritance and polygenic regulation. Evaluating genetic material for drought tolerance is a complex process due to its spatiotemporal interactions with environmental factors. The conventional breeding approaches are costly, lengthy, and inefficient to achieve the expected gain in drought tolerance. In this regard, genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) offers promise to develop cultivars with improved drought tolerance in a more efficient, quicker, and cost-effective manner. The success of GAB depends upon the precision in marker-trait association and estimation of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs), which mostly depends on coverage and precision of genotyping and phenotyping. A wide gap between the discovery and practical use of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for crop improvement has been observed for many important agronomical traits. Such a limitation could be due to the low accuracy in QTL detection, mainly resulting from low marker density and manually collected phenotypes of complex agronomic traits. Increasing marker density using the high-throughput genotyping (HTG), and accurate and precise phenotyping using high-throughput digital phenotyping (HTP) platforms can improve the precision and power of QTL detection. Therefore, both HTG and HTP can enhance the practical utility of GAB along with a faster characterization of germplasm and breeding material. In the present review, we discussed how the recent innovations in HTG and HTP would assist in the breeding of improved drought-tolerant varieties. We have also discussed strategies, tools, and analytical advances made on the HTG and HTP along with their pros and cons.

13.
J Exp Bot ; 71(21): 6758-6774, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585681

RESUMO

As sessile organisms, plants are unable to avoid being subjected to environmental stresses that negatively affect their growth and productivity. Instead, they utilize various mechanisms at the morphological, physiological, and biochemical levels to alleviate the deleterious effects of such stresses. Amongst these, secondary metabolites produced by plants represent an important component of the defense system. Secondary metabolites, namely phenolics, terpenes, and nitrogen-containing compounds, have been extensively demonstrated to protect plants against multiple stresses, both biotic (herbivores and pathogenic microorganisms) and abiotic (e.g. drought, salinity, and heavy metals). The regulation of secondary metabolism by beneficial elements such as silicon (Si) is an important topic. Silicon-mediated alleviation of both biotic and abiotic stresses has been well documented in numerous plant species. Recently, many studies have demonstrated the involvement of Si in strengthening stress tolerance through the modulation of secondary metabolism. In this review, we discuss Si-mediated regulation of the synthesis, metabolism, and modification of secondary metabolites that lead to enhanced stress tolerance, with a focus on physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects. Whilst mechanisms involved in Si-mediated regulation of pathogen resistance via secondary metabolism have been established in plants, they are largely unknown in the case of abiotic stresses, thus leaving an important gap in our current knowledge.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Silício , Secas , Plantas , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 527-543, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323129

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Two homologous, chloroplast located CAAX proteases were identified to be functional redundancy in determining soybean leaf color, and they probably play essential roles in regulating light harvesting and absorption during photosynthesis process. Leaf color mutants are ideal materials for studying photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism. The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yellowing leaf (yl) variation is a recombinant mutant characterized by yellow foliage, which derived from the specific cross between green seed-coated and yellow seed-coated soybean varieties. Molecular cloning and subsequent gene silencing revealed that the yellow leaf trait of yl was controlled by two recessive nuclear genes, glyma11g04660 and glyma01g40650, named as YL1 and YL2 respectively, and the latter was confirmed to be same as the earlier reported green seed-coat gene G. Both YL1 and YL2 belonged to chloroplast-located proteases possessing Abi domain, and these genes were expressed in various tissues, especially in young leaves. In yl, the expression of YL1 and YL2 were suppressed in most tissues, and the young leaf of yl presented an increased maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) as well as enhanced net photosynthesis activity (Pn), indicating that YL1 and YL2 are involved in light absorption regulation during photosynthesis process. Collectively, the identification and description of YL1 and YL2 in our study provides insights for the regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis process, and these findings will further assist to clarify the close relationship between photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/citologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
15.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 191(4): 1638-1652, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198600

RESUMO

Microbes are often subjected to oxidative stress in nature that badly affects their growth rate and viability. Although the response of microbes against oxidative stress has been characterized at the chemical, physiological, and molecular levels, the mechanism of gene-regulation network adaptations of bacteria in response to oxidative stress remains largely unknown. In this study, transcriptomic profiling of glyphosate-tolerant Enterobacter strain NRS-1 was analyzed under 9 mM H2O2 stress using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. The lag period in the growth of NRS-1 was very short compared with wild-type strain under H2O2 treatment. A total of 113 genes are identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under H2O2 that include 38 upregulated and 75 downregulated transcripts. But not any genes regulated by major oxidative regulons, viz., oxyR, soxR, rpoS, perR, ohrR, and σв, have been reported in DEGs, hence potentially reflecting that specific changes have occurred in NRS-1 for adaptation to oxidative stress. Based on the functions of the DEGs, six elements namely formate dehydrogenase, processes associated with iron ions, repair programs, multidrug resistance, antioxidant defense, and energy generation (mqo, sdhC) might have contributed for stress tolerance in NRS-1. These elements are proposed to form a molecular network explaining gene response of NRS-1 to stress, and ensure global cell protection and growth recovery of NRS-1. These findings enrich the view of gene regulation in bacteria in response to H2O2 oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Enterobacter/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
16.
Plant Sci ; 293: 110442, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081255

RESUMO

NAC proteins represent one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families involved in the regulation of plant development and the response to abiotic stress. In the present study, we elucidated the detailed role of GmNAC8 in the regulation of drought stress tolerance in soybean. The GmNAC8 protein was localized in the nucleus, and expression of the GmNAC8 gene was significantly induced in response to drought, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Thus, we generated GmNAC8 overexpression (OE1 and OE2) and GmNAC8 knockout (KO1 and KO2) lines to determine the role of GmNAC8 in drought stress tolerance. Our results revealed that, compared with the wild type (WT) plant, GmNAC8 overexpression and GmNAC8 knockout lines exhibited significantly higher and lower drought tolerance, respectively. Furthermore, the SOD activity and proline content were significantly higher in the GmNAC8 overexpression lines and significantly lower in the GmNAC8 knockout lines than in the WT plants under drought stress. In addition, GmNAC8 protein was found to physically interact with the drought-induced protein GmDi19-3 in the nucleus. Moreover, the GmDi19-3 expression pattern showed the same trend as the GmNAC8 gene did under drought and hormone (ABA, ETH and SA) treatments, and GmDi19-3 overexpression lines (GmDi19-3-OE9, GmDi19-3-OE10 and GmDi19-3-OE31) showed enhanced drought tolerance compared to that of the WT plants. Hence, the above results indicated that GmNAC8 acts as a positive regulator of drought tolerance in soybean and inferred that GmNAC8 probably functions by interacting with another positive regulatory protein, GmDi19-3.


Assuntos
Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutagênese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Tabaco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033213

RESUMO

Seed size and shape are important traits determining yield and quality in soybean. However, the genetic mechanism and genes underlying these traits remain largely unexplored. In this regard, this study used two related recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations (ZY and K3N) evaluated in multiple environments to identify main and epistatic-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for six seed size and shape traits in soybean. A total of 88 and 48 QTLs were detected through composite interval mapping (CIM) and mixed-model-based composite interval mapping (MCIM), respectively, and 15 QTLs were common among both methods; two of them were major (R2 > 10%) and novel QTLs (viz., qSW-1-1ZN and qSLT-20-1K3N). Additionally, 51 and 27 QTLs were identified for the first time through CIM and MCIM methods, respectively. Colocalization of QTLs occurred in four major QTL hotspots/clusters, viz., "QTL Hotspot A", "QTL Hotspot B", "QTL Hotspot C", and "QTL Hotspot D" located on Chr06, Chr10, Chr13, and Chr20, respectively. Based on gene annotation, gene ontology (GO) enrichment, and RNA-Seq analysis, 23 genes within four "QTL Hotspots" were predicted as possible candidates, regulating soybean seed size and shape. Network analyses demonstrated that 15 QTLs showed significant additive x environment (AE) effects, and 16 pairs of QTLs showing epistatic effects were also detected. However, except three epistatic QTLs, viz., qSL-13-3ZY, qSL-13-4ZY, and qSW-13-4ZY, all the remaining QTLs depicted no main effects. Hence, the present study is a detailed and comprehensive investigation uncovering the genetic basis of seed size and shape in soybeans. The use of a high-density map identified new genomic regions providing valuable information and could be the primary target for further fine mapping, candidate gene identification, and marker-assisted breeding (MAB).


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Soja/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Fenótipo , Sementes/genética
18.
Genomics ; 112(1): 749-763, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095998

RESUMO

Chitinases belong to the group of Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins that provides protection against fungal pathogens. This study presents the, genome-wide identification and characterization of chitinase gene family in two important oilseed crops B. juncea and C. sativa belonging to family Brassicaceae. We have identified 47 and 79 chitinase genes in the genomes of B. juncea and C. sativa, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of chitinases in both the species revealed four distinct sub-groups, representing different classes of chitinases (I-V). Microscopic and biochemical study reveals the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes in disease resistance of B. juncea and C. sativa. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of chitinases in both B. juncea and C. sativa was significantly induced after Alternaria brassicae infection. However, the fold change in chitinase gene expression was considerably higher in C. sativa compared to B. juncea, which further proves their role in C. sativa disease resistance to A. brassicae. This study provides comprehensive analysis on chitinase gene family in B. juncea and C. sativa and in future may serve as a potential candidate for improving disease resistance in B. juncea through transgenic approach.


Assuntos
Alternaria , Brassicaceae/genética , Quitinases/genética , Família Multigênica , Mostardeira/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/enzimologia , Brassicaceae/microbiologia , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/classificação , Cromossomos de Plantas , Duplicação Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Modelos Moleculares , Mostardeira/enzimologia , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia , Transcrição Genética
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766569

RESUMO

Seed-flooding stress is one of the major abiotic constraints severely affecting soybean yield and quality. Understanding the molecular mechanism and genetic basis underlying seed-flooding tolerance will be of greatly importance in soybean breeding. However, very limited information is available about the genetic basis of seed-flooding tolerance in soybean. The present study performed Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify the quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with three seed-flooding tolerance related traits, viz., germination rate (GR), normal seedling rate (NSR) and electric conductivity (EC), using a panel of 347 soybean lines and the genotypic data of 60,109 SNPs with MAF > 0.05. A total of 25 and 21 QTNs associated with all three traits were identified via mixed linear model (MLM) and multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (mrMLM) in three different environments (JP14, HY15, and Combined). Among these QTNs, three major QTNs, viz., QTN13, qNSR-10 and qEC-7-2, were identified through both methods MLM and mrMLM. Interestingly, QTN13 located on Chr.13 has been consistently identified to be associated with all three studied traits in both methods and multiple environments. Within the 1.0 Mb physical interval surrounding the QTN13, nine candidate genes were screened for their involvement in seed-flooding tolerance based on gene annotation information and available literature. Based on the qRT-PCR and sequence analysis, only one gene designated as GmSFT (Glyma.13g248000) displayed significantly higher expression level in all tolerant genotypes compared to sensitive ones under flooding treatment, as well as revealed nonsynonymous mutation in tolerant genotypes, leading to amino acid change in the protein. Additionally, subcellular localization showed that GmSFT was localized in the nucleus and cell membrane. Hence, GmSFT was considered as the most likely candidate gene for seed-flooding tolerance in soybean. In conclusion, the findings of the present study not only increase our knowledge of the genetic control of seed-flooding tolerance in soybean, but will also be of great utility in marker-assisted selection and gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of seed-flooding tolerance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Inundações , Nucleotídeos , Sementes , Soja/genética , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561497

RESUMO

Plant height (PH) is an important agronomic trait that is closely related to soybean yield and quality. However, it is a complex quantitative trait governed by multiple genes and is influenced by environment. Unraveling the genetic mechanism involved in PH, and developing soybean cultivars with desirable PH is an imperative goal for soybean breeding. In this regard, the present study used high-density linkage maps of two related recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations viz., MT and ZM evaluated in three different environments to detect additive and epistatic effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as well as their interaction with environments for PH in Chinese summer planting soybean. A total of eight and 12 QTLs were detected by combining the composite interval mapping (CIM) and mixed-model based composite interval mapping (MCIM) methods in MT and ZM populations, respectively. Among these QTLs, nine QTLs viz., QPH-2, qPH-6-2MT, QPH-6, qPH-9-1ZM, qPH-10-1ZM, qPH-13-1ZM, qPH-16-1MT, QPH-17 and QPH-19 were consistently identified in multiple environments or populations, hence were regarded as stable QTLs. Furthermore, Out of these QTLs, three QTLs viz., qPH-4-2ZM, qPH-15-1MT and QPH-17 were novel. In particular, QPH-17 could detect in both populations, which was also considered as a stable and major QTL in Chinese summer planting soybean. Moreover, eleven QTLs revealed significant additive effects in both populations, and out of them only six showed additive by environment interaction effects, and the environment-independent QTLs showed higher additive effects. Finally, six digenic epistatic QTLs pairs were identified and only four additive effect QTLs viz., qPH-6-2MT, qPH-19-1MT/QPH-19, qPH-5-1ZM and qPH-17-1ZM showed epistatic effects. These results indicate that environment and epistatic interaction effects have significant influence in determining genetic basis of PH in soybean. These results would not only increase our understanding of the genetic control of plant height in summer planting soybean but also provide support for implementing marker assisted selection (MAS) in developing cultivars with ideal plant height as well as gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of plant height.

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