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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(1): 106167, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with polycythemia, either primary or secondary, are at elevated risk for thrombotic complications, including stroke. We aimed to investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in polycythemia, and describe other neurologic manifestations. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with polycythemia between 2014 and 2019 at a tertiary care center and collected relevant medical data with a special focus on cerebrovascular disease and neurologic manifestations. We performed descriptive and inferential analyses. We have also described and analyzed the available neuroimaging features. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 56 patients. 20 patients (35.7%) had ischemic stroke. The incidence of CVD was higher in those with primary polycythemia (43%) than in those with secondary polycythemia (8%). The most common subtype of stroke was large vessel disease, and the most common arterial territory was the anterior circulation. There was no statistically significant difference in the hematocrit level between those with or without CVD. Neuroimaging revealed multiple large vessel intracranial stenoses on MR Angiography, and hyperdense vessels on plain CT. Other neurologic manifestations included headache, seizures, dizziness, visual symptoms and papilledema, and these were significantly more common in primary polycythemia. CONCLUSIONS: CVD is common in patients with polycythemia. The most common type observed was large vessel occlusion, predominantly in the anterior circulation. In stroke patients, multiple vessel stenosis and hyperdense vessels may be clues to polycythemia.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data regarding clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in cancer versus non-cancer patients, particularly from India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational, single-centre, retrospective analysis of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 hospitalised in our institution between 22 May 2020 and 1 December 2020. We compared baseline clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and outcomes of COVID-19 (overall mortality, time to discharge) between cancer and non-cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 200 COVID-19 infection episodes were analysed of which 109 (54.5%) were patients with cancer and 91 (45.5%) were patients without cancer. The median age was 43 (interquartile range [IQR]:32-57), 51 (IQR: 33-62) and 38 (IQR: 31.5-49.3) years; of whole cohort, cancer and non-cancer patients, respectively. Comparison of outcomes showed that oxygen requirement (31.2% [95% CI: 22.6-40.7] vs. 17.6% [95% CI: 10.4-26.9]; p = 0.03), median time to discharge (11 days [IQR: 6.75-16] vs. 6 days [IQR: 3-9.75]; p < 0.001) and mortality (10.0% [95% CI: 5.2-17.3] vs. 1.1% [95% CI: 0.03-5.9]; p = 0.017) were significantly higher in patients with cancer. In univariable analysis, factors associated with higher mortality in the whole cohort included diagnosis of cancer (10.1% vs. 1.1%; p = 0.027; odds ratio [OR]: 7.04), age ≥60 (17.4% vs. 2.6%; p = 0.001; OR: 7.38), oxygen requirement (22% vs. 0.6%; p < 0.001; OR: 29.01), chest infiltrates (19.2% vs. 1.4%; p < 0.001; OR: 22.65), baseline absolute lymphocyte count <1 × 109 /L (10.8% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.023; OR:5.1), C-reactive protein >1 mg% (12.8% vs. 0%; p = 0.027; OR: 24.69), serum procalcitonin >0.05 ng/ml (22.65% vs. 0%; p = 0.004; OR: 4.49) and interleukin-6 >6 pg/ml (10.8% vs. 1.3%; p = 0.036; OR: 3.08). In multivariable logistic regression, factors significantly associated with mortality were oxygen requirement (p = 0.005; OR: 13.11) and high baseline procalcitonin level (p = 0.014; OR: 37.6). CONCLUSION: Cancer patients with COVID-19 have higher mortality and require longer hospital stay. High procalcitonin levels and oxygen requirement during admission are other factors that affect outcomes adversely.

3.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582592

RESUMO

Recent studies have highlighted multiple immune perturbations related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection-associated respiratory disease [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)]. Some of them were associated with immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19. However, reports on immunological indicators of severe COVID-19 in the early phase of infection in patients with comorbidities such as cancer are scarce. We prospectively studied about 200 immune response parameters, including a comprehensive immune-cell profile, inflammatory cytokines and other parameters, in 95 patients with COVID-19 (37 cancer patients without active disease and intensive chemo/immunotherapy, 58 patients without cancer) and 21 healthy donors. Of 95 patients, 41 had severe disease, and the remaining 54 were categorized as having a nonsevere disease. We evaluated the association of immune response parameters with severe COVID-19. By principal component analysis, three immune signatures defining characteristic immune responses in COVID-19 patients were found. Immune cell perturbations, in particular, decreased levels of circulating dendritic cells (DCs) along with reduced levels of CD4 T-cell subsets such as regulatory T cells (Tregs ), type 1 T helper (Th1) and Th9; additionally, relative expansion of effector natural killer (NK) cells were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. Compared with patients without cancer, the levels of terminal effector CD4 T cells, Tregs , Th9, effector NK cells, B cells, intermediate-type monocytes and myeloid DCs were significantly lower in cancer patients with mild and severe COVID-19. We concluded that severely depleted circulating myeloid DCs and helper T subsets in the initial phase of infection were strongly associated with severe COVID-19 independent of age, type of comorbidity and other parameters. Thus, our study describes the early immune response associated with severe COVID-19 in cancer patients without intensive chemo/immunotherapy.

4.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534957

RESUMO

Surgical specialties, and particularly neurosurgery, have historically had and continue to have poor representation of female trainees. This is especially true of South Asia, considering the added social and cultural expectations for women in this region. Yet it was in India, with its difficult history of gender relations, that Asia's first fully qualified female neurosurgeon, Dr. T. S. Kanaka (1932-2018), took root, flourished, and thereafter played an integral role in helping develop stereotactic and functional neurosurgery in the country. While a few biographical accounts of her exist, highlighted here are the lessons from her illustrious life for neurosurgical trainees and educators worldwide, along with the instances that exemplify those lessons, drawn from several hitherto unutilized primary sources. These lessons are consistent with the factors identified in previous systematic reviews to be contributing to gender disparities in neurosurgery. Many of the virtues that ensured her success are attributes that continue to be critical for a neurosurgical career. Additionally, the circumstances that helped Kanaka succeed have been recounted as considerations for those working to promote diversity and inclusion. Finally, her life choices and sacrifices are described, which are underexplored but relevant concerns for women in neurosurgery.

5.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17428, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589337

RESUMO

Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection, usually seen in diabetics, immunocompromised, or those with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Gastrointestinal involvement is uncommon but often deadly. We report a case of gastrointestinal mucormycosis causing intestinal perforation in a non-diabetic, COVID-19 negative, immunocompetent woman, associated with puerperal sepsis. A 22-year-old woman presented to our center on post-natal day five, following delivery with insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). She had complaints of breathlessness, fatigue, and giddiness. Examination revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and bilateral pedal edema. Following appropriate investigations, she was diagnosed with puerperal sepsis with pre-renal acute kidney injury. Imaging was suggestive of retained products of conception, and she subsequently underwent dilation and evacuation (D&E) on day eight of admission. Following brief symptomatic improvement, on day 10 of admission, she developed vomiting, abdominal distension, and pain, with obstipation. Erect X-ray showed air under the diaphragm, suggestive of perforation. She emergently underwent laparotomy with limited right hemicolectomy, ileostomy with mucous fistula. Intraoperative findings revealed a closed-loop obstruction involving terminal ileum, with two perforations. The biopsy report later revealed colonization of Mucor and hemorrhagic necrosis along the entire length of the resected specimen. She was started on amphotericin B, and after a slow recovery, was discharged. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is rare and has a mortality rate of 94%. It is usually seen in those with predisposing factors for mucormycosis. This is the first report of mucormycosis associated with puerperal sepsis. It is typically acquired via ingestion and may cause perforation, where mortality is further increased. Diagnosis can only be confirmed by histopathology demonstrating the characteristic morphology of Mucor. Treatment requires resection of necrotic tissues, intensive treatment with amphotericin B, and correction of predisposing factors. Our case highlights the need for a high degree of suspicion for mucormycosis in patients with intestinal perforation, even if immunocompetent, and its potential association with puerperal sepsis.

6.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 585-590, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414920

RESUMO

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread all over the world due to rapid person-to-person transmission. More information about viral load dynamics and replication is needed for clarity on duration of infectiousness of an individual, along with its implications on transmission. This is important to healthcare facilities and public health authorities in formulating guidance on the duration of isolation for patients and return to work criteria for healthcare workers. The duration of detection of viral RNA by molecular methods in the upper respiratory tract has ranged from 2 to 12 wk. Viral RNA detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) does not necessarily mean that the individual is infectious to others, as the detected virus may not be replication competent. Infectious virus is generally not shed beyond 20 days of the onset of symptoms in most patients, including severely ill and immunocompromised, as indicated by failure to isolate replication-competent virus beyond this timeline in available studies. Further, detection of neutralizing antibodies in the serum, although associated with positive RT-PCR, is generally not associated with infectious virus shedding as indicated by negative viral cultures beyond this period. In this review, we analyze the current literature on the dynamics of viral load, culture, seroconversion and their implications on infectivity and the duration of isolation precautions for COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Humanos , Políticas , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Soroconversão , Carga Viral
9.
Neurosurg Focus ; 50(3): E19, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789227

RESUMO

We received so many biographies of women neurosurgery leaders for this issue that only a selection could be condensed here. In all of them, the essence of a leader shines through. Many are included as "first" of their country or color or other achievement. All of them are included as outstanding-in clinical, academic, and organized neurosurgery. Two defining features are tenacity and service. When faced with shocking discrimination, or numbing indifference, they ignored it or fought valiantly. When choosing their life's work, they chose service, often of the most neglected-those with pain, trauma, and disability. These women inspire and point the way to a time when the term "women leaders" as an exception is unnecessary.-Katharine J. Drummond, MD, on behalf of this month's topic editors.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos
10.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13576, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523551

RESUMO

Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are an immunocompromised group who are likely to develop severe complications and mortality because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report here a 61-year-old male patient of primary myelofibrosis who underwent an allo-HSCT 6 years earlier, had chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) involving the liver, lung, eyes, and skin, (with recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections) who developed severe COVID-19. The patient was treated with tocilizumab, and a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferon-ß1b. He was discharged after 31 days with full recovery. Tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against IL6, has been shown to benefit respiratory manifestations in severe COVID19. However, this is first report, to our knowledge, of its use and benefit in a post HSCT recipient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105467, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: India faces a high and growing burden of hypertension, which is an important cerebrovascular risk factor, especially in elderly persons. Poor awareness contributes to delays in seeking health care, which is undesirable given the emergent nature of stroke. Literature regarding awareness in this subgroup of the population is scarce. Our objective was to assess awareness regarding cerebrovascular disease among elderly persons with hypertension residing in a rural area of Bangalore district, and estimate their individual risk of stroke. MATERIAL & METHODS: We randomly selected 144 elderly hypertensives residing in a rural area in Bangalore district from a list of known hypertensives maintained as part of a population-based senior citizen health service. We developed an open-ended, face-validated questionnaire, which was administered following informed consent, to assess stroke awareness. We defined good awareness as knowing at least one risk factor, one warning sign, and having the knowledge that stroke requires immediate treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess factors associated with good or poor awareness. RESULTS: 40% of the study population had not heard of the term 'stroke'. Only 22% could identify the brain as the organ affected. 51% could name at least one symptom. 45% of males and 24% of females believed that their hypertension predisposed them to stroke. 56% could not name a single risk factor. Only 37% of the males and 18% of the females had good overall awareness. Female gender and low literacy were associated with poor overall awareness, while being gainfully employed, a history of alcohol use and doing higher levels of exercise were associated with greater awareness on univariate analysis. None of these factors were statistically significantly related to stroke awareness on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of different aspects of stroke was very poor, highlighting the need for stroke education at all levels of care.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/complicações , Saúde da População Rural , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
14.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(5): 2538-2540, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754540

RESUMO

Scrub typhus (ST), a zoonotic disease, is currently being recognized as a significant contributor to the changing landscape of infectious diseases in India. As one of the important causes of febrile illness, in many parts of the country, general practitioners need to include it as part of the workup for cases of fever of unknown origin. While very amenable to early treatment with a simple regime of doxycycline, delayed diagnosis can result in a spectrum of complications. We report here one such complication of a case of ST manifesting with isolated lateral rectus palsy, which, to the best of our knowledge, has been reported only thrice in the world previously. Family physicians also need to be aware of the availability in India of affordable serological testing for ST that is useful for rapid and inexpensive diagnosis, leading to timely treatment.

15.
ACS Omega ; 5(22): 12682-12691, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548451

RESUMO

In recent times, flexible piezoresistive polymer nanocomposite-based strain sensors are in high demand in wearable devices and various new age applications. In the polymer nanocomposite-based strain sensor, the dispersion of conductive nanofiller remains challenging due to the competing requirements of homogenized dispersion of nanofillers in the polymer matrix and retaining of the inherent characteristics of nanofillers. In the present work, waterproof and flexible poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) with a polymer-functionalized hydrogen-exfoliated graphene (HEG)-based piezoresistive strain sensor is developed and demonstrated. The novelty of the work is the incorporation of polystyrene sulfonate sodium salt (PSS) polymer-functionalized HEG in a PVDF-based flexible piezoresistive strain sensor. The PSS-HEG provides stable dispersion in the hydrophobic PVDF polymer matrix without sacrificing its inherent characteristics. The electrical conductivity of the PVDF/PSS-HEG-based strain sensor is 0.3 S cm-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the PVDF/HEG-based strain sensor. Besides, near the percolation region, the PVDF/PSS-HEG shows a maximum gauge factor of 10, which is about two times higher than the PVDF/HEG-based flexible strain sensor and 5-fold higher than the commercially available metallic strain gauge. The enhancement in the gauge factor is due to the stable dispersion of PSS-HEG in the PVDF matrix and electron conjugation caused by the adherence of negatively charged sulfonate functional groups on the HEG. The developed waterproof flexible strain sensor is demonstrated using portable wireless interfacing device for various applications. This work shows that the waterproof flexible PVDF/PSS-HEG-based strain sensor can be a potential alternative to the commercially available metallic strain gauge.

16.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 10(4): 643-648, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857758

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide, of whom more than 80% survive for more than 5 years. Hence, ensuring a good quality of life (QOL) is essential to achieve holistic approach in treating patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the QOL in women who underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and breast conservation surgery (BCS) for breast cancer in the last 5 years. QOL was evaluated based on the long-term quality of life-breast cancer (LTQOL-BC) questionnaire. A greater percentage of women who underwent MRM complained of difficulty in completing their house work compared with the BCS group (50% compared with 31%). Twenty-five percent (6) of the women who had undergone MRM reported feeling of being incomplete as women, along with a lack of femininity. However, more than 80% of the women in both groups said that they felt stronger as survivors and derived strength from their experience. There were significant differences in the quality of life of women from both groups in terms of physical function and body image, with the BCS group appearing to have a better QOL.

17.
J Lab Physicians ; 11(3): 229-233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579248

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Major clinical decisions are based on the laboratory test results where preanalytical errors are an important cause of repeat collections in patients. Identification of problem areas and continuous training of phlebotomy staff are important tools in reducing these errors. AIMS: In this study, we looked at the most common causes of sample rejection in our setting and the efficacy of the corrective measures and training processes for staff in reducing preanalytical errors. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: This prospective study was conducted at the laboratory diagnostic services of a tertiary care oncology center, with a hematopoietic stem cell transplant unit during the period of 2012-2017 in two phases. Sample rejections from various wards were analyzed for types of rejections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first phase, we analyzed the problem areas (year 2012). Following a root cause analysis, current practices of training were altered. In the second phase (2013-2017), we studied the effects of these measures. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The percent variation and P value for significance in sample rejections were calculated. RESULTS: During the year 2012, 0.36% samples were rejected by laboratory. Following interventions in the period from 2013 to 2017, samples rejected dropped to 0.19% (P < 0.0001), 0.09% (P < 0.0001), 0.09% (P = 0.8387), 0.05% (P = 0.0004), and 0.05% (P = 0.329), respectively. The reduction was significant from surgical oncology ward (P = 0.0107) and intensive care unit (P = 0.0007). From 2013 to 2017, errors significantly reduced to 0.015% for hemolyzed samples (P = 0.0001), 0.005% for contaminated samples, 0.036% for clotted samples, and 0.019% for labeling errors. CONCLUSION: Intervention in the form of targeted training helps reduce errors and improves the quality of results generated and contributes to better clinical outcomes.

18.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1832-1836, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054984

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivations are common after allogeneic stem cell transplants, and pre-emptive therapy has been found to be effective. However, in India, treatment options are limited because of high cost and toxicity of ganciclovir and unavailability of cidofovir and foscarnet. Leflunomide is a cheap and easily available anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug that has been shown to have anti-CMV properties both in vitro and in vivo. It also has been used effectively for CMV reactivation after renal transplants. In this retrospective analysis, we analyzed 70 allogeneic stem cell transplants that were conducted between April 2015 and February 2017. There were 49 episodes of CMV reactivations in 43 patients in this period. Leflunomide was used in 24 episodes. It was effective in CMV clearance in 9 of the 24 episodes (38%). When the CMV copy number was <2 × 103 copies/mL, leflunomide was effective in 9 of 17 (53%) episodes, but when the copy number was >2 × 103, leflunomide was ineffective in all of the 7 episodes. This difference was statistically significant (P= .022 by Fisher exact test), suggesting that leflunomide may be more effective in clearance of CMV when copy numbers are low.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citomegalovirus , Leflunomida/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 21(1): e13017, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369006

RESUMO

Central venous catheters (CVCs) represent a significant source of infection in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and can add to the cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. Organisms forming biofilms on the inner surface of catheters require a much higher local antibiotic concentration to clear the pathogen growth. Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) represents one such strategy to achieve such high intraluminal concentrations of antibiotics and can facilitate catheter salvage. Patients with catheter colonization (CC) or hemodynamically stable catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) received ALT per institutional policy. We analyzed the incidence of CC and CRBSI and salvage rate of tunneled CVCs (Hickman) with ALT in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant in this retrospective study. Catheter colonization was noted in 9.8% and CRBSI in 10.7% patients. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) accounted for 45% and 83% of isolates in CC and CRBSI, respectively. In patients with CRBSI, the rate of catheter salvage with the use of ALT in addition to systemic antibiotics was 86% compared to 55% in patients with systemic antibiotics use only (P = 0.06). There was no CRBSI related mortality, and no increase in resistant strains was noted at subsequent CRBSI. In conclusion, ALT represents an important strategy for catheter salvage, especially for gram-negative infections, in a carefully selected patient population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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