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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(2): 180-188, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238439

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is treated with medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The latter 2 options are commonly referred to as "myocardial revascularization" procedures. We reason that this term is inappropriate because it is suggestive of a single treatment effect of PCI and CABG (ie, the reestablishment of blood flow to ischemic myocardium) and obscures key mechanisms, such as the improvement in coronary flow capability in the absence of ongoing ischemia, the reperfusion in the presence of ischemia, and the prevention of myocardial infarction from CAD progression. We review the current evidence on the topic and suggest the use of a purely descriptive terminology ("invasive treatment by PCI or CABG") which has the potential to improve clinical decision making and guide future trial design.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve albuminuria in patients with high cardiorenal risk. We report albuminuria change in the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE-TIMI 58) cardiovascular outcome trial, which included populations with lower cardiorenal risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 randomized 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes, creatinine clearance >60 mL/min, and either atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD; 40.6%) or risk-factors for CVD (59.4%) to dapagliflozin or placebo. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was tested at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. The change in UACR over time was measured as a continuous and categorical variable (≤15, >15 to <30, ≥30 to ≤300, and >300 mg/g) by treatment arm. The composite cardiorenal outcome was a ≥40% sustained decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, end-stage kidney disease, and cardiovascular or renal death; specific renal outcome included all except cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Baseline UACR was available for 16,843 (98.15%) participants: 9,067 (53.83%) with ≤15 mg/g, 2,577 (15.30%) with <15 to >30 mg/g, 4,030 (23.93%) with 30-300 mg/g, and 1,169 (6.94%) with >300 mg/g. Measured as a continuous variable, UACR improved from baseline to 4.0 years with dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, across all UACR and eGFR categories (all P < 0.0001). Sustained confirmed ≥1 category improvement in UACR was more common in dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.35-1.56], P < 0.0001). Cardiorenal outcome was reduced with dapagliflozin for subgroups of UACR ≥30 mg/g (P < 0.0125, P int eraction = 0.033), and the renal-specific outcome was reduced for all UACR subgroups (P < 0.05, P interaction = 0.480). CONCLUSIONS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, dapagliflozin demonstrated a favorable effect on UACR and renal-specific outcome across baseline UACR categories, including patients with normal albumin excretion. The results suggest a role for SGLT2i also in the primary prevention of diabetic kidney disease.

3.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252567

RESUMO

Adaptive trials hold great promise to enhance the evidence base supporting medical interventions. In this review, we will describe the basic principles of an adaptive trial, the different types of adaptive trials, show examples of adaptive trials, and conclude with the advantages and challenges of different types of adaptive trials. While regulatory bodies have expressed a desire to see more adaptive trials, resistance remains in the community. We hope this review helps build greater acceptance of the concept of adaptive trial design.

4.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients at high cardiovascular risk, the rate of events remains elevated despite traditional, evidence-based lipid-lowering therapy. Residual hypertriglyceridemia is an important contributor to this risk. However, prior medications with triglyceride-lowering effects have not demonstrated an ability to reduce adverse clinical outcomes in the statin era. AREAS COVERED: The present review summarizes evidence and recommendations related to triglyceride-lowering therapy in the primary and secondary preventive settings. We provide an overview of findings from recent meta-analyses, important observational studies, and a detailed description of landmark trials, including the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT). We further review recommendations from current guidelines. EXPERT OPINION: Icosapent ethyl is a stable, highly purified ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid that safely and effectively reduces the risk of incident cardiovascular events in the contemporary setting. It is prescribed at a dose of 2 grams twice daily and is indicated in patients at high cardiovascular risk who have fasting or non-fasting triglyceride levels ≥150 mg/dl despite maximally tolerated statin treatment, or in individuals with triglyceride levels ≥500 mg/dl. Conversely, n-3 fatty acid medications containing a combination of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are not indicated for reduction of cardiovascular risk and should be actively deprescribed.

5.
Cardiol Clin ; 39(3): 335-351, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247748

RESUMO

After 12 years of rigorous cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) emerged as new therapeutic options for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to reduce the risk of heart disease. SGLT2i additionally cause a reduction in heart failure and renal events in patients both with and without diabetes. This article reviews the major CVOTs that support the use of these agents, describes the mechanisms of action that lead to their broad cardiorenal benefits, explains current guidelines, and offers practical clinical advice to initiate and monitor treatment with these agents.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 14-23, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of 2.5 mg rivaroxaban twice daily and 100 mg aspirin once daily compared with 100 mg aspirin once daily reduces major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to report the effects of the combination on overall and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: The COMPASS trial enrolled 27,395 patients of whom 18,278 were randomized to the combination (n = 9,152) or aspirin alone (n = 9,126). Deaths were adjudicated by a committee blinded to treatment allocation. Previously identified high-risk baseline features were polyvascular disease, chronic kidney disease, mild or moderate heart failure, and diabetes. RESULTS: During a median of 23 months of follow-up (maximum 47 months), 313 patients (3.4%) allocated to the combination and 378 patients (4.1%) allocated to aspirin alone died (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.96; P = 0.01). Compared with aspirin, the combination reduced CV death (160 [1.7%] vs 203 [2.2%]; HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P = 0.02) but not non-CV death. There were fewer deaths following MI, stroke, and CV procedures, as well as fewer sudden cardiac, other, and unknown causes of CV deaths and coronary heart disease deaths. Patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or 4 high-risk features at baseline had 4.2, 4.8, 25.0, and 53.9 fewer deaths, respectively, per 1000 patients treated for 30 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin reduced overall and CV mortality with consistent reductions in cause specific CV mortality in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. The absolute mortality benefits are greater with increasing baseline risk. (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulant Strategies [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(13): e022125, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212768

RESUMO

Cangrelor is the only currently available intravenous platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. It is characterized by potent, predictable, and rapidly reversible antiplatelet effects. Cangrelor has been tested in the large CHAMPION (Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition) program, where it was compared with different clopidogrel regimens, and it is currently indicated for use in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the uptake of cangrelor use varies across the globe and may also include patients with profiles different from those enrolled in the registration trials. These observations underscore the need to fully examine the safety and efficacy of cangrelor in postregistration studies. There are several ongoing and planned studies evaluating the use of cangrelor in real-world practice which will provide important insights to this extent. The current article provides a review on the pharmacology, clinical studies, contemporary use of cangrelor in real-world practice, a description of ongoing studies, and futuristic insights on potential strategies on how to improve outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

8.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is performed to relieve symptoms of angina. Identifying patients who will benefit symptomatically after PCI would be clinically advantageous but robust predictors of symptom resolution are ill-defined. METHODS: Prospective indexing of baseline angina status, clinical, and procedural characteristics were collected over a 5-year period in a regional revascularization registry. At 1-year follow-up, angina resolution was assessed. We performed a stepwise selection algorithm to identify predictors of persistent angina at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 777 patients were included in the analysis and the median follow-up was 387 days. Mean age of the cohort was 66.6 years, 23.8% were female and 23.3% had baseline Canadian Cardiovascular Society class 3 or 4 angina. Overall, 13.1% had persistent angina. The only predictor of persistent angina was the presence of a residual chronic total occlusion after PCI with odds ratio of 3.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.81-5.17). Residual stenoses 50-69%, 70-89%, and 90-99% were not associated with residual angina after PCI. CONCLUSION: Most patients achieved symptom resolution with PCI and optimal medical therapy. A residual chronic total occlusion after PCI was associated with persistent angina. Other degrees of stenoses were not associated with persistent angina.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161332

RESUMO

We extend previous studies on the impact of masks on COVID-19 outcomes by investigating an unprecedented breadth and depth of health outcomes, geographical resolutions, types of mask mandates, early versus later waves and controlling for other government interventions, mobility testing rate and weather. We show that mask mandates are associated with a statistically significant decrease in new cases (-3.55 per 100K), deaths (-0.13 per 100K), and the proportion of hospital admissions (-2.38 percentage points) up to 40 days after the introduction of mask mandates both at the state and county level. These effects are large, corresponding to 14% of the highest recorded number of cases, 13% of deaths, and 7% of admission proportion. We also find that mask mandates are linked to a 23.4 percentage point increase in mask adherence in four diverse states. Given the recent lifting of mandates, we estimate that the ending of mask mandates in these states is associated with a decrease of -3.19 percentage points in mask adherence and 12 per 100K (13% of the highest recorded number) of daily new cases with no significant effect on hospitalizations and deaths. Lastly, using a large novel survey dataset of 847 thousand responses in 69 countries, we introduce the novel results that community mask adherence and community attitudes towards masks are associated with a reduction in COVID-19 cases and deaths. Our results have policy implications for reinforcing the need to maintain and encourage mask-wearing by the public, especially in light of some states starting to remove their mask mandates.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Máscaras , COVID-19/mortalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280617

RESUMO

We extend previous studies on the impact of masks on COVID-19 outcomes by investigating an unprecedented breadth and depth of health outcomes, geographical resolutions, types of mask mandates, early versus later waves and controlling for other government interventions, mobility testing rate and weather. We show that mask mandates are associated with a statistically significant decrease in new cases (-3.55 per 100K), deaths (-0.13 per 100K), and the proportion of hospital admissions (-2.38 percentage points) up to 40 days after the introduction of mask mandates both at the state and county level. These effects are large, corresponding to 14% of the highest recorded number of cases, 13% of deaths, and 7% of admission proportion. We also find that mask mandates are linked to a 23.4 percentage point increase in mask adherence in four diverse states. Given the recent lifting of mandates, we estimate that the ending of mask mandates in these states is associated with a decrease of -3.19 percentage points in mask adherence and 12 per 100K (13% of the highest recorded number) of daily new cases with no significant effect on hospitalizations and deaths. Lastly, using a large novel survey dataset of 847 thousand responses in 69 countries, we introduce the novel results that community mask adherence and community attitudes towards masks are associated with a reduction in COVID-19 cases and deaths. Our results have policy implications for reinforcing the need to maintain and encourage mask-wearing by the public, especially in light of some states starting to remove their mask mandates.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Máscaras , COVID-19/mortalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of medical and surgical treatments of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on patient reported outcomes (PROs). BACKGROUND: Robust data on PROs from randomized trials comparing medical and surgical treatments for T2DM are lacking. METHODS: The Surgical Treatment And Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently (STAMPEDE) trial showed that 5-years after randomization, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were superior to intensive medical therapy (IMT) alone in achieving glycemic control in patients with T2DM and obesity. A subset of 104 patients participating in the STAMPEDE trial were administered two generic health-related quality of life (QoL) questionnaires (RAND-36 and EQ-5D-3L) and a diabetes-specific instrument at baseline, and then on an annual basis up to 5-years after randomization. RESULTS: On longitudinal analysis, RYGB and SG significantly improved the domains of physical functioning, general health perception, energy/fatigue, and diabetes-related QoL compared with IMT group. In the IMT group, none of the QoL components in the generic questionnaires improved significantly from baseline. No significant long-term differences were observed among the study groups in measures of psychological and social aspects of QoL. On multivariable analysis, independent factors associated with improved general health perception at long-term included baseline general health (P < 0.001), insulin independence at 5-years (P = 0.005), RYGB versus IMT (P = 0.005), and SG versus IMT (P = 0.034). Favorable changes following RYGB and SG were comparable. CONCLUSION: In patients with T2DM, metabolic surgery is associated with long-term favorable changes in certain PROs compared with IMT, mainly on physical health and diabetes-related domains. Psychosocial well-being warrants greater attention after metabolic surgery.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132735

RESUMO

Importance: Guidelines for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend intensive statin therapy and adding nonstatin therapy if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are 70 mg/dL or more. Compliance with guidelines is often low. Objective: To track LDL-C treatment patterns in the US over 2 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: GOULD is a prospective observational registry study involving multiple centers. Patients with ASCVD receiving any lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were eligible. Between December 2016 and July 2018, patients were enrolled in 1 of 3 cohorts: (1) those currently receiving proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i) and 2 groups not receiving PCSK9i drugs, with (2) LDL-C levels of 100 mg/dL or more or (3) LDL-C levels of 70 to 99 mg/dL. Patients had medical record reviews and telephone interviews every 6 months. Analysis was done on data collected as of October 5, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in LLT use in 2 years. Secondary outcomes included the number of LDL-C measurements, LDL-C levels, and responses to structured physician and patient questionnaires over 2 years. Results: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled (mean [SD] age, 67.8 [9.9] years; 1985 women [39.7%]; 4312 White individuals [86.1%]). At 2 years, 885 (17.1%) had LLT intensification. In the cohorts with LDL-C levels of 100 mg/dL or more and 70 to 99 mg/dL, LLT intensification occurred in 403 (22.4%) and 383 (14.4%), respectively; statins were intensified in 115 (6.4%) and 168 (6.3%), ezetimibe added in 123 (6.8%) and 118 (4.5%), and PCSK9i added in 114 (6.3%) and 58 (2.2%), respectively. In the PCSK9i cohort, 508 of 554 (91.7%) were still taking PCSK9i at 2 years. Lipid panels were measured at least once over 2 years in 3768 patients (88.5%; PCSK9i cohort, 492 [96.1%]; LDL-C levels ≥100 mg/dL or more, 1294 [85.9%]; 70-99 mg/dL, 1982 [88.6%]). Levels of LDL-C fell from medians (interquartile ranges) of 120 (108-141) mg/dL to 95 (73-118) mg/dL in the cohort with LDL-C levels of 100 mg/dL or more, 82 (75-89) to 77 (65-90) mg/dL in the cohort with LDL-C levels of 70 to 99 mg/dL, and 67 (42-104) mg/dL to 67 (42-96) mg/dL in the PCSK9i cohort. Levels of LDL-C less than 70 mg/dL at 2 years were achieved by 308 patients (21.0%) and 758 patients (33.9%) in the cohorts with LDL-C levels of 100 mg/dL or more and 70 to 99 mg/dL, respectively, and 272 patients (52.4%) in the PCSK9i cohort. At 2 years, practice characteristics were associated with more LLT intensification (teaching vs nonteaching hospitals, 148 of 589 [25.1%] vs 600 of 3607 [16.6%]; lipid protocols or none, 359 of 1612 [22.3%] vs 389 of 2584 [15.1%]; cardiology, 452 of 2087 [21.7%] vs internal or family medicine, 204 of 1745 [11.7%] and other, 92 of 364 [25.3%]; all P < .001) and achievement of LDL-C less than 70 mg/dL (teaching vs nonteaching hospitals, 173 of 488 [35.5%] vs 823 of 2986 [27.6%]; lipid protocols vs none, 451 of 1411 [32.0%] vs 545 of 2063 [26.4%]; both P < .001; cardiology, 523 of 1686 [30.1%] vs internal or family medicine, 377 of 1472 [25.6%] and other, 96 of 316 [30.4%]; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: Of patients with ASCVD, most with suboptimal LDL-C levels at baseline, only 17.1% had LLT intensification after 2 years, and two-thirds remained at an LDL-C level greater than 70 mg/dL. Further intensive efforts are needed to achieve optimal LDL-C management in patients with ASCVD.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 152: 106-112, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147212

RESUMO

Stroke remains a serious complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Prior studies examining the association between cerebral embolic protection device (CEPD) use and stroke following TAVI have produced conflicting results. We used the Nationwide Readmissions Databases to identify all percutaneous (non-transapical) TAVIs performed in the US from July, 2017 to December, 2018. Overlap propensity score weighted logistic regression models were used to determine the association between CEPD use and outcomes. The primary outcome was in-hospital stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Among 50,000 percutaneous TAVIs (weighted national estimate: 88,886 [SE: 2,819]), CEPD was used in 2,433 (weighted national estimate: 3,497 [SE: 857]). Nationally, the utilization rate of CEPD was 3.9% (SE: 0.9%) of all TAVIs during the overall study period, which increased from 0.8% (SE: 0.4%) in 2017Q3 to 7.6% (SE: 1.6%) in 2018Q4 (p<0.001). The proportion of hospitals using CEPD increased from 2.3% in 2017Q3 to 14.7% in 2018Q4 (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of in-hospital stroke/TIA in TAVIs with versus without CEPD (2.6% vs 2.2%; unadjusted OR [95% CI] 1.18 [0.98-1.52]; overlap propensity score weighted OR [95% CI] 1.19 [0.81-1.75]). CEPD use was not associated with statistically significant lower rates of in-hospital stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, TIA, all-cause mortality, or discharge to skilled nursing facility. In conclusion, the rates of CEPD utilization and proportion of TAVI hospitals using CEPD increased during the study period. The use of CEPD during TAVI was not associated with statistically significant lower rates of in-hospital stroke, TIA, or mortality.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease, adding low dose rivaroxaban to aspirin reduces cardiovascular events and mortality. Polypharmacy and multimorbidity are frequent in such patients. AIMS: To analyze whether the benefits and risks of rivaroxaban plus aspirin varies in patients with comorbidities and receiving multiple drugs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe ischemic events (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) and major bleeding in participants from the randomised, double-blind COMPASS study by number of cardiovascular medications and concomitant medical conditions. We compared event rates and hazard ratios (HR) for rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin alone by the number of medications and concomitant conditions, and tested for interaction between polypharmacy or multimorbidity and the antithrombotic regimen.The risk of ischemic events was higher in patients with more concomitant drugs (HR 1.7, 95%CI 1.5-2.1 for >4 vs 0-2) and with more comorbidities (HR 2.3, 1.8-2.1 for >3 vs 0-1). Multimorbidity, but not polypharmacy, was associated with a higher risk of major bleeding. The relative efficacy, safety, and net clinical benefit of rivaroxaban were not affected by the number of drugs or comorbidities. Patients taking more concomitant medications derived the largest absolute reduction in the net clinical outcome with added rivaroxaban (1.1% vs 0.4% reduction with >4 vs 0-2 cardiovascular drugs, NNT 91 vs 250). CONCLUSION: Adding low-dose rivaroxaban to aspirin resulted in benefits irrespective of the number of concomitant drugs or comorbidities. Multiple comorbidities and/or polypharmacy should not dissuade the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin in otherwise eligible patients.

19.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the SOLOIST-WHF (Effect of Sotagliflozin on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Post Worsening Heart Failure) trial, sotagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, reduced total occurrences of cardiovascular deaths, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure relative to placebo by 33%. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sotagliflozin increased the prespecified efficacy outcome of days alive and out of the hospital (DAOH) in the SOLOIST-WHF trial. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03521934). SETTING: 306 sites in 32 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 1222 patients with type 2 diabetes and reduced or preserved ejection fraction who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure. INTERVENTION: 200 mg of sotagliflozin once daily (with a possible dose increase to 400 mg) or matching placebo. MEASUREMENTS: The primary analysis included hospitalizations for any reason on the basis of investigator-reported incidence and duration of admissions after randomization. Days alive and out of the hospital and its converse (days dead and days in the hospital) were analyzed using prespecified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Although similar proportions of patients in the sotagliflozin and placebo groups were hospitalized at least once (38.5% vs. 41.4%), fewer patients in the sotagliflozin group were hospitalized more than once (16.3% vs. 22.1%). There were 64 and 76 deaths in the sotagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively. The DAOH rate in the sotagliflozin group was 3% higher than in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR], 1.03 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.06]; P = 0.027). This difference was primarily driven by a reduction in the rate of days dead (RR, 0.71 [CI, 0.52 to 0.99]; P = 0.041) rather than by a reduction in the rate of days hospitalized for any cause. For every 100 days of follow-up, patients in the sotagliflozin group were alive and out of the hospital for 3% or 2.9 more days than those in the placebo group (91.8 vs. 88.9 days); this difference reflected a 2.6-day difference in days dead (6.3 vs. 8.9 days) and a 0.3-day difference in days in the hospital (1.9 vs. 2.2 days). LIMITATION: Other than heart failure, the primary reason for each hospitalization was unspecified. CONCLUSION: Sotagliflozin increased DAOH, a metric that may provide an additional patient-centered outcome to capture the totality of disease burden. Future studies are needed to quantify the consequences of increasing DAOH in terms of health economics and patient quality of life. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Sanofi at initiation and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals at completion.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2114494, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190996

RESUMO

Importance: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) provide the highest level of evidence to evaluate 2 or more surgical interventions. Surgical RCTs, however, face unique challenges in design and implementation. Objective: To evaluate the design, conduct, and reporting of contemporary surgical RCTs. Evidence Review: A literature search performed in the 2 journals with the highest impact factor in general medicine as well as 6 key surgical specialties was conducted to identify RCTs published between 2008 and 2020. All RCTs describing a surgical intervention in both experimental and control arms were included. The quality of included data was assessed by establishing an a priori protocol containing all the details to extract. Trial characteristics, fragility index, risk of bias (Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 Tool), pragmatism (Pragmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary 2 [PRECIS-2]), and reporting bias were assessed. Findings: A total of 388 trials were identified. Of them, 242 (62.4%) were registered; discrepancies with the published protocol were identified in 81 (33.5%). Most trials used superiority design (329 [84.8%]), and intention-to-treat as primary analysis (221 [56.9%]) and were designed to detect a large treatment effect (50.0%; interquartile range [IQR], 24.7%-63.3%). Only 123 trials (31.7%) used major clinical events as the primary outcome. Most trials (303 [78.1%]) did not control for surgeon experience; only 17 trials (4.4%) assessed the quality of the intervention. The median sample size was 122 patients (IQR, 70-245 patients). The median follow-up was 24 months (IQR, 12.0-32.0 months). Most trials (211 [54.4%]) had some concern of bias and 91 (23.5%) had high risk of bias. The mean (SD) PRECIS-2 score was 3.52 (0.65) and increased significantly over the study period. Most trials (212 [54.6%]) reported a neutral result; reporting bias was identified in 109 of 211 (51.7%). The median fragility index was 3.0 (IQR, 1.0-6.0). Multiplicity was detected in 175 trials (45.1%), and only 35 (20.0%) adjusted for multiple comparisons. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review, the size of contemporary surgical trials was small and the focus was on minor clinical events. Trial registration remained suboptimal and discrepancies with the published protocol and reporting bias were frequent. Few trials controlled for surgeon experience or assessed the quality of the intervention.

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