Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131660, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315078

RESUMO

Biochar mediated pollutant removal is gaining attention because of high efficiency of the process. However, effective recycling avenues of the pollutant-saturated biochars are scarce in the knowledge base; while such materials can be a new source of long-range contamination. Therefore, potential of vermitechnology for eco-friendly recycling of pollutant-loaded biochar was assessed by using arsenic-saturated native (NBC) and exfoliated (EBC) biochars as feedstocks for the first time. Interestingly, the bioavailable arsenic fractions (water soluble and exchangeable) considerably reduced by 22-44 % with concurrent increment (~8-15 %) of the recalcitrant (residual and organic bound) fractions in the biochar-based feedstocks. Consequently, ~2-3 folds removal of the total arsenic was achieved through vermicomposting. The earthworm population growth (2.5-3 folds) was also highly satisfactory in the biochar-based feedstocks. The results clearly imply that Eisenia fetida could compensate the arsenic-induced stress to microbial population and greatly augmented microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity by 3-12 folds. Moreover, biochar-induced alkalinity was significantly neutralized in the vermibeds, which remarkably balanced the TOC level and nutrient (N, P, and K) availability particularly in EBC + CD vermibeds. Overall, the nutrient recovery potential and arsenic removal efficiency of vermitechnology was clearly exhibited in NBC/EBC + CD (12.5:87.5) feedstocks. Hence, it is abundantly clear that vermitechnology can be a suitable option for eco-friendly recycling of pollutant-saturated sorbing agents, like biochars.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Nutrientes , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 427-436, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157605

RESUMO

Hotness or pungency is the major trait of genetically diverse and economically valuable chili (Capsicum sp.) cultivars. However, little is known about the influence of soil characteristics on genetic regulation of pungency vis-à-vis capsaicin formation in endemic chilies. Hence, the present work was conducted by growing two endemic chili cultivars in two types (alluvial and lateritic) of soil. Capsaicin content, pungency, and capsaicin synthase activity were significantly greater in chilies grown in alluvial soil than in lateritic soil. Correspondingly, Csy1, the gene that encodes capsaicin synthase, was significantly upregulated in alluvial soil grown plants. Interestingly, upregulation of Pun1, the gene responsible for capsaicin accumulation in fruits, was more in lateritic soil than in alluvial soil; but pungency was inhibited in lateritic soil by the overexpression of Pun12, a recessive allele of Pun1 locus. Statistical analyses revealed that high organic C, microbial activity, and NPK status in alluvial soil were responsible for high pungency, capsaicin synthase activity, capsaicin accumulation, and suppression of Pun12. Fruit yield, dry matter, crude protein, titratable acidity, and soluble solids were also significantly high in chilies grown in alluvial soil. Therefore, we postulate that soil quality attributes play vital roles in genetic regulation of pungency, capsaicin biosynthesis, fruit yield, and produce quality of endemic chili cultivars.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Capsicum , Capsaicina/análise , Frutas/química , Fenótipo , Solo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 143171, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143915

RESUMO

Eutrophication of freshwater bodies causes loss of earth's biological resources and aggravates climate change, thus assuming major environmental concern. Both endogenous and exogenous nutrient enrichment are responsible for eutrophication. Numerous monitoring and management studies conducted worldwide have resulted high-level technological innovations. These studies cumulatively uphold the significance of ecohydrological and ecological engineering approaches. However, holistic and insightful reviews with feasible recommendations of such huge academic outputs are rather scanty. Therefore, our main objective was to introduce a new perspective of eutrophication as an ecohydrological component; to discover all possibilities of monitoring and restoration of eutrophic water bodies. Furthermore, the present study critically analyzes various methods of treatment of eutrophication (physical, biological, chemical, and eco-engineering). Comprehensive volume of literature has been surveyed using search engines like Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect etc. Meaningful keywords were used to obtain reliable information on methods of ecohydrological assessment in relation to eutrophication of freshwater bodies. According to our survey, ecohydrological research is diversified into conceptual knowledge (37.2%), assessment (32.6%), climate change (9.3%), algae/cyanotoxins (7%), engineering and restoration (7%), modelling (4.6%) and biodiversity (2.3%), in the instant decade (2010-2020). We have identified a clear trend of transition of restoration methods from traditional towards modern techniques over time. Moreover, this review recognizes a pool of biophysicochemical and ecological engineering techniques, which are very effective in regard to time, cost, and labor and have immense scopes of modification for improved results. This work focuses on the importance of ecohydrology and eco-engineering tools for restoration of eutrophic water bodies for the first time. We have highlighted how these approaches have emerged as one of the best suitable and sustainable water resource conservation routes in the present era.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Água Doce
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123357, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634662

RESUMO

Earthworms neutralize toxic metals by a small (∼13 kDa) cysteine rich metal binding protein, metallothionein (MT). Although the rate of metal accumulation and MT expression does not correlate well, the reason behind such inconsistency has not yet been deciphered. The present investigation clearly demonstrates that expression of some non-MT metal induced proteins is responsible for such incongruity. Applying selective protein isolation techniques in fluorescence tagged cadmium exposed (135 mg/kg) earthworms we were able to purify a 150 kDa metal induced protein (MIP) among others. After 60 days of exposure cadmium accumulation in earthworm intestines was significant. Immunofluorescence staining followed by confocal microscopy exhibited that MIP accumulates ingested cadmium in the intestinal region and eventually deposits the metal in the chloragogenous tissue. We determined the N-terminal sequence of 15 amino acid residues and after bioinformatics analysis, it was concluded that MIP is most probably a glutamic acid rich, novel cadmium binding protein. To further validate the binding mechanism, we conducted paper chromatography and continuous variation experiments which evidenced that cadmium readily binds to glutamic acid. The present finding is the first in-vivo evidence of a non-metallothionein cadmium binding protein induced in the intestines of earthworm exposed to a cadmium rich environment.


Assuntos
Metalotioneína , Oligoquetos , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Metalotioneína/genética
6.
Environ Res ; 188: 109749, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531524

RESUMO

Ocimum has long been used as a medicinal plant, although little information is available about its bioactive ingredients, and the influence of soil properties on modulation of secondary metabolites in Ocimum has yet to be ascertained. In this study, we present a thorough survey of all potential metabolic compounds in O. sanctum and O. basilicum. In both species, certain compounds (e.g., quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, and S-adenosyl homocysteine) were detected coincidently. In the case of O. basilicum, other vital phenolic acids (e.g., ursolic, vanilic, coumaric, and syringic acids) were identified. The aqueous extracts (AEs) of Ocimum recorded decrease of 6-94% in the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus sp., Salmonella sp., and Bacillus sp.). The AEs also showed effective antioxidant activity by reducing free radicals by a factor of 1.04-1.13. Root-zone soil samples of both Ocimum spp. were collected from strategic locations with varying levels of key soil attributes (e.g., soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), urease, and phosphatase). At high levels of SOC, MBC, and soil enzymes, the bioactivity of Ocimum spp. was observed to be promoted, especially with respect to secondary metabolite expression, anti-pathogenic activity, and anti-oxidant properties. As such, the findings of strong correlations between secondary metabolite concentrations and bioactivity attributes in Ocimum suggest the potent role of soil quality in eliciting the production of secondary metabolite in association with bioactivity in Ocimum spp.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum , Ocimum , Antioxidantes , Carbono , Solo
7.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125470, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809931

RESUMO

Brick kiln coal ashes (BKCAs) are one of the major toxic byproducts of the rapidly growing construction industry in developing countries. However, eco-friendly recycling avenues for BKCAs are yet to be explored. The major objectives of the present research were to evaluate the viability of vermitechnology in transforming BKCAs into valuable products, and to examine the metal detoxification potential of Eisenia fetida BKCA-based feedstocks. BKCAs were mixed in large scale with cow dung (CD) in 1:1 and 2:1 ratios, for vermicomposting and aerobic composting; performance was assessed in comparison with CD. Vermiconverted-BKCA was then used as organic fertilizer for rice grown in poorly fertile soil. Acidic nature of BKCA feedstocks was neutralized by 30-86% in the vermireactors. Total N and available P concentrations significantly increased in the vermireactors supplemented with considerable mineralization of total organic C. Exorbitantly high K and S contents were pacified to a normal range after vermicomposting. Greater improvement in microbial biomass, respiration, fungal and bacterial growth was observed under vermicomposting against aerobic composting. Consequently, urease and phosphatase activity increased by 1-4 folds in the BKCA based vermibeds. Bioavailability of toxic metals reduced by 41-74% in the vermicomposted BKCAs. High metal accumulation by the earthworms resulted in substantial reduction of pollution load in the finished product. The field experiment demonstrated that vermiconverted-BKCA could be utilized as potential organic fertilizer for rice production, soil fertility rejuvenation, and metal detoxification. Overall, the study reveals that E. fetida could be used as an efficient contender for sanitization of toxic BKCAs.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Cinza de Carvão , Compostagem , Fezes , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Inativação Metabólica , Esterco , Metais , Oligoquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza , Reciclagem , Solo
8.
Environ Res ; 177: 108596, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349176

RESUMO

A list of gaseous odorants such as ammonia (and hydrogen sulfide) are generally collected using rigid containers or flexible bags for quantitative analysis. The aim of this investigation was to assess the stability of polyester aluminum bags used for gaseous ammonia sampling and storage. To this end, ammonia standards were prepared at two concentration levels of low (7.8 ppm) and high concentrations (39 ppm) and stored in the polyester ammonia bags for durations of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 days. These samples were then analyzed at each interval by an impinger-based indophenol method utilizing a spectrophotometer. At each pre-set period, three different mass loadings of ammonia samples were collected from the storage bag to obtain response factors (RF) for comparison between different elapsed times set for the storage. Subsequently, the relative recovery values for each interval were computed by dividing the RF for each sampling day by that of the 0th day. The relative recovery values for low and high concentration standards decreased with increasing storage time as 82.9% (day 1) to 36% (day 6) and 89.9% (day 1) to 59.7% (day 6), respectively. As such, the potentially superior recovery of ammonia from polyester aluminum bags was demonstrated (e.g., relative to other storage options introduced previously) to support its practical merit as storage media.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Poliésteres/química , Alumínio , Gases , Modelos Químicos , Odorantes
9.
Environ Res ; 177: 108591, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351322

RESUMO

The value and potential of organic-dependent agriculture has gradually become realized worldwide despite scarcity of data on its ability to rejuvenate land quality. In this work, a popular cultivar of Cajanus cajan was grown in a nutrient-fatigued area with vermicompost (VC) and farmyard manure (FYM) to partially replace chemical fertilization (CF) (reduced by 10 and 50%) over a four-year period. C-N mineralization kinetic equations were applied for the first time to assess the efficacy of vermicompost-based nutrient schemes on C-N balance in arable soil. The results suggested that 10 and 50% replacement of chemical fertilization with vermicompost was helpful to significantly improveC- and N-based mineralization in the cultivated soil. In addition, the gains of humified C (humic and fulvic acid) content (such as 4-and 10-fold increases) were achieved under CF50/VC50 and CF90/VC10 treatments, respectively. In the CF50/VC50 treatment, there was apparent improvement in soil organic C storage (SOCstr) (42.6-57.4%), water holding capacity, and microbial health along with reduction in bulk density (6.10-13.0%). Moreover, improvement in soil quality was strongly evident in terms of crop production with the application of CF50/VC50. Overall, this study successfully validated that vermicompost can be used effectively to achieve sustainable agricultural growth by efficiently arresting land degradation.


Assuntos
Cajanus/fisiologia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Rejuvenescimento , Rios
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13118, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177843

RESUMO

The use of glass impinger is an important device for sampling and handling when measuring volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Thus, it is important to check for possible analyte losses to the inner glass surface when carrying out sample analysis with the aid of impinger system. In this research, we evaluated the sorptive loss patterns of vapor-phase semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs (n = 10): acetic acid (ACA), propionic acid (PPA), i-butyric acid (IBA), n-butyric acid (BTA), i-valeric acid (IVA), n-valeric acid (VLA), phenol (PhAl), p-cresol (p-C), indole (ID), and skatole (SK)] on inert surfaces of an impinger in reference to sampling bags. The gaseous standard of these SVOCs (48-406 ppb) in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags was passed through an empty impinger in 1 L steps. The exiting SVOCs were collected on three-bed sorbent tubes for subsequent analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (TD-GC-MS). Impinger wall sorption capacities ranged from 2.0 to 21.0 ng cm-2. The 10% breakthrough adsorption capacities on the impinger wall for acids, phenols, and indoles ranged from 1.21 ± 0.15 to 5.39 ± 0.79, 0.92 ± 0.12 to 13.4 ± 2.25, and 4.47 ± 0.42 to 5.23 ± 0.35 ng cm-2, respectively. The observed sorptive patterns suggest that the sorptive losses of the volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles can occur very effectively at low ppb levels onto a glass surface.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; 266: 267-274, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982047

RESUMO

Detoxification of silk processing effluents and sludge (SPES) through composting approaches is a new idea. This study examined the biodegradation potential of two epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) in different SPES and cow dung (CD) mixtures in comparison with composting. N, P, S, Fe and Mn availability significantly increased upon vermicomposting compared to aerobic composting. The alkaline pH of the feedstocks satisfactorily neutralized under vermicomposting. The Ca-K availability and cation exchange dynamics readily stabilized due to vermicomposting. Interestingly, Eisenia fetida exhibited greater adaptability towards the toxic SPES materials than Eudrilus eugeniae, which was accompanied by 60-70% reduction of Cd, Cr, Zn and Pb levels in Eisenia system, whereas metal accumulation ability of Eudrilus eugeniae was remarkable. Moreover, both the species equally contributed in augmentation of beneficial (N-fixing and P-solubilizing) microorganisms in the feedstocks. Overall, nutrient enrichment and sanitizing potency of vermitechnology was explicitly manifested in SPES + CD (1:1) combination.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Oligoquetos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Seda , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bovinos , Feminino , Metais , Solo
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 266: 472-481, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990763

RESUMO

Chromium-rich tannery sludge (TS) is a hazardous industrial waste. Although vermicomposting can be an effective remediation pathway; but, the unique waste degrading efficiency of Eudrillus eugeniae is least explored. The present work showcases an efficient earthworm-mediated protocol for TS sanitization deploying E. eugeniae. Changes in pH, TOC (%), nutrients (NPK), metals (Cr, Cd etc.) and microbial diversity were monitored in various E. eugeniae mediated TS based vermibed. Total N, P, and K availability increased by 2-5 folds upon vermicomposting with 3-4 folds reduction in C/N ratio. Moreover, substantial removal of Cr (89%), Cd (88%), and Zn (79%) was recorded in the substrate. Bioaccumulation of these metals in the gut significantly reduced the pollution load in the finished products. The corresponding augmentation of microbial density and low respiratory CO2 release from the vermibeds substantiated the environmental proficiency of vermitechnology.


Assuntos
Cromo/isolamento & purificação , Compostagem , Resíduos Industriais , Oligoquetos , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Esgotos , Solo , Curtume
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 346: 62-72, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247955

RESUMO

Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the ultimate fate of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) after their release into the environment. In this study, the environmental feasibility of plant leaf (Thuja occidentalis) extract-mediated green SNPs (GSNPs) was assessed in terms of their effects on soil physicochemical properties and crop growth in comparison to conventionally synthesized silver nanoparticles (CSNPs). Upon application of GSNPs, soil pH shifted toward neutrality, and substantial increments were observed in water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and N/P availability. The mechanism behind the enhanced availability of N was verified through lab-scale experiments in which GSNP-treated soils efficiently resisted nitrate leaching, thereby sustaining N availability in root zone soil layers. However, retardation in nutrient availability and enzyme activity was apparent in soils treated with 100 mg kg-1 of either CSNPs or GSNPs. Remarkable improvements in leaf area index (LAI), leaf number, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase (NR) activity, and Phaseolus vulgaris pod yield were observed after the application of low doses of GSNPs (25-50 mg kg-1). The true benefit of GSNP application to soil was substantiated through experiments on plant uptake of nutrients, NR expression, and ferredoxin gene expression in P. vulgaris leaves.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Prata/farmacologia , Thuja , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferredoxinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Environ Res ; 161: 512-523, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223776

RESUMO

Carlinoside is a unique compound well-known for its excellent curative potential in hepatitis. There is a substantial research gap regarding the medicinal use of carlinoside, as its concentrations are greatly variable (depending on locality). We cultivated Cajanus cajan using vermicompost as a major organic amendment at two locations (Sonitpur and Birbhum) with different soil types, but identical climate conditions. Sonitpur soils were richer in soil organic C (SOC), enzyme activation, and N/P content than Birbhum. However, vermi-treatment improved many soil properties (bulk density, water retention, pH, N/P/K, and enzyme activity) to narrow the locational gap in soil quality by 15-28%. We also recorded a many-fold increment in SOC storage capacities in both locations, which was significantly correlated with carlinoside, total phenol, and flavonoid contents in Cajanus leaves. This significantly up-regulated the carlinoside induced expression of the bilirubin-solubilizing UGT1A1enzyme in HepG2 cell and rat liver. Leaf extracts of vermicompost-aided plants could cure hepatitis in affected rat livers and in the HepG2 cell line. Accordingly, vermi-treatment is an effective route for the growth of Cajanus as a cash crop for biomedical applications and can produce a concurrent improvement in soil quality.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cajanus , Flavonas , Glicosídeos , Hepatite , Animais , Cajanus/química , Flavonas/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Organelas , Ervilhas , Ratos , Solo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 609: 215-224, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743007

RESUMO

Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs. FTIR analysis revealed greater predominance of organic matter in ABKBAs than WBKBAs. Occurrence of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu) was higher in ABKBAs than in WBKBAs; while organic and residual fractions of metals were highly predominant in most of the BKBAs. Principal component analysis showed that metal contents and pH were the major distinguishing characteristics of the BKBAs generated in the two different environmental locations. Human health risk associated with BKBAs generated in Assam is of significant concern. Finally, geo-statistical tools enabled to predict the spatial distribution patterns of toxic metals contributed by the BKBAs in Assam and West Bengal respectively. Assessment of contamination index, geo-accumulation index, and ecological risk index revealed some BKBAs to be more toxic than others.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Índia , Medição de Risco , Solo
16.
J Environ Manage ; 200: 243-252, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28582747

RESUMO

Utilization of different types of solid wastes through composting is important for environmental sustainability and restoring soil quality. Although drum composting is an efficient technology, the possibility of heavy metal contamination restricts its large-scale use. In this research, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of water hyacinth drum compost (DC) and traditional vermicompost (VC) on soil quality and crop growth in an agro-ecosystem cultivated intensively with tomato and cabbage as test crops. A substantial improvement in soil health was observed with respect to nutrient availability, physical stability, and microbial diversity due to the application of drum compost and traditional vermicompost. Moreover, soil organic carbon was enriched through increased humic and fulvic acid carbon. Interestingly, heavy metal contamination was less significant in vermicompost-treated soils than in those receiving the other treatments. The use of VC and DC in combination with recommended chemical fertilization effectively stimulated crop growth, yield, product quality, and storage longevity for both tomato and cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica , Produtos Agrícolas , Solo , Compostagem , Lycopersicon esculentum , Metais Pesados
17.
J Environ Manage ; 196: 297-315, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301814

RESUMO

Increased application of engineered nano particles (ENPs) in production of various appliances and consumer items is increasing their presence in the natural environment. Although a wide variety of nano particles (NPs) are ubiquitously dispersed in ecosystems, risk assessment guidelines to describe their ageing, direct exposure, and long-term accumulation characteristics are poorly developed. In this review, we describe what is known about the life cycle of ENPs and their impact on natural systems and examine if there is a cohesive relationship between their transformation processes and bio-accessibility in various food chains. Different environmental stressors influence the fate of these particles in the environment. Composition of solid media, pore size, solution chemistry, mineral composition, presence of natural organic matter, and fluid velocity are some environmental stressors that influence the transformation, transport, and mobility of nano particles. Transformed nano particles can reduce cell viability, growth and morphology, enhance oxidative stress, and damage DNA in living organisms.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Technol ; 38(4): 506-516, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27292582

RESUMO

The characteristics of malodor released from piggery excreta samples were investigated by measuring their emission concentrations both before and after such treatments as composting or aeration from field sites. These samples were then collected from field sites and brought into the lab for analysis with the aid of the dynamic flux chamber method. The dominating compounds in the emissions were reduced sulfur compounds, phenol, and indole. The results were examined in terms of two key odor indices: odor intensity (OI) and odor activity values (OAVs), after being grouped by some criteria. When the odor contribution in the composting facility was assessed by the OAV value, methanethiol (53.1%), trimethylamine (TMA) (25.5%), and skatole (10.1%) were dominant in the pretreatment facilities, while skatole (64.7%) and p-cresol (27.9%) in the post-treatment specimens. Likewise, in the liquid treatment facility, hydrogen sulfide (47.4%), p-cresol (26.9%), and skatole (20.2%) were dominant in the pretreatment, while only p-cresol (73.6%) in the post-treatment. In comparison to the composting facility, the liquid treatment facility proved to be more efficient in the treatment of diverse hog-barn-related odorants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Odorantes/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Aldeídos/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Indóis/análise , Compostos de Nitrogênio/análise , Fenol/análise , República da Coreia , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Suínos
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(3): 956-966, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) leaves are a good source of nutrition and health benefitting phenolic compounds. However, its importance has not yet been effectively addressed. Recently, a 2-year field experiment was attempted in an alluvial soil to understand the role of various organic and inorganic fertilisers and their combinations not only on soil quality, but also on production of foremost phenolic compounds and imparting antioxidant and antibacterial properties in C. cajan under vermicompost treatments. RESULTS: Notable enhancements in crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, ash content and total flavonoid content were recorded in Cajanus leaves under vermicompost treatments. We detected a significant rise in carlinoside content in C. cajan leaves, which is known to reduce bilirubin concentration in hepatitis affected human blood. Farmyard manure treatments resulted in a high crude fibre content coupled with a substantially high concentration of total phenols, and chlorophyll. In addition, incorporation of vermicompost with or without inorganic fertiliser in the soil had a significant impact on antioxidant and antibacterial properties of C. cajan leaves. Above and beyond, farmyard manure and vermicompost positively influenced the physico-chemical health of the soil. CONCLUSION: The present nutrient management scheme based on organic input not only induced a higher yield of C. cajan endowed with improved antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but also enhanced the production of various phenolic compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cajanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Esterco , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antioxidantes/análise , Cajanus/química , Cajanus/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/biossíntese , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flavonas/análise , Flavonas/biossíntese , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/biossíntese , Humanos , Índia , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 222: 165-174, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718399

RESUMO

Vermicomposting is a dependable waste recycling technology which greatly augments N and P levels mainly through microbial action. This paper aims to identify efficient N-fixing (NFB) and P-solubilizing (PSB) bacteria from earthworm intestines. Various combinations of vegetable market waste, rice straw, and cowdung were fed to two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus). Total organic C decreased, pH shifted towards neutrality, and NPK availability, and microbial (NFB, PSB, and total bacteria) population increased remarkably during vermicomposting with E. fetida. Therefore, 45 NFB and 34 PSB strains isolated from Eisenia gut were initially screened, their inter-dominance assessed, and 8 prolific strains were identified through 16SrRNA sequencing. Interestingly, two novel N-fixing strains of Kluyvera ascorbata emerged as an efficient biofertilizer candidate. Moreover, both N-fixing and P-solubilizing strains of Serratia and Bacillus were isolated from earthworm gut. All the isolated strains significantly improved soil health and facilitated crop growth as compared to commercial biofertilizers.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Oryza , Solo , Verduras , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Kluyvera/genética , Kluyvera/isolamento & purificação , Kluyvera/metabolismo , Esterco/microbiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fósforo/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reciclagem , Serratia/genética , Serratia/isolamento & purificação , Serratia/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...