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1.
Soc Work Public Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045789

RESUMO

Evan Stark claims that "partner-perpetrated physical abuse and other forms of violence against women ought to be understood as a human rights violation. Domestic violence effects not only the women involved, but the whole of society. Thus, the identification of the victims and perpetrators is necessary, not only to prevent further abuse and injury to the victims, but also to create a violence-free society. In this paper we aim to identify the patterns, the financial and social burden of domestic violence, and ongoing rehabilitative programmes within low- and middle-income countries. A literature search was conducted using "PubMed, Google scholar, and Scopus" databases for the key terms "domestic violence," "partner abuse," "rehabilitation programmes," and/or "partner-perpetrated physical abuse." All relevant articles were included in this narrative review. According to a "Survey of Violence against Women in Turkey," there is high exposure to domestic violence at all ages. Globally, violence against women, children, and the elderly are much more common than is reflected in forensic medicine. Domestic violence in some communities is often considered as a socially normal phenomenon, and is often underreported or unreported for various reasons, such as lack of awareness, lack of security, and feelings of shame and fear. For individuals injured physically and psychologically, timely referral to health organizations for treatment/ rehabilitations and judicial authorities is important for physical as well as mental health reasons; it is also important to provide crucial medical evidence to ensure prosecution of the perpetrator. It is important for all countries to have proper rehabilitation programmes to protect victims of domestic violence, implemented through family physicians at primary care centers. However, we have observed that some programmes have bottlenecks, such as long wait times for child victims. This problem can be addressed by the appropriate measures taken at individual, community, and national level. Policymakers should urgently implement sustainable and well-structured preventive and rehabilitation programmes for the sake of both the victims and the abusers/individuals engaging in violence. Corrective programmes pertaining to the domestic violence have the potential to reveal the extent of the problem, shed light on issues underlying the violence and increase awareness of the damage caused to society.

2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 47: 418-421, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased across the globe and millions of the school children are either obese or overweight. This has happened due to rapid nutritional transition over the past few decades. As childhood obesity is multi-factorial in origin and unhealthy foods, packaged foods, high calorie foods are considered as important behavioral risk factors. The aim of this article is to opine whether appropriate food labeling is one of the preventable methods in prevention of childhood obesity. METHODS: A thorough literature search on childhood obesity articles on well-known search engines like Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar and Embase electronic data base was done to reach an opinion and derive a conclusion. RESULTS: Among many interventions to prevent NCDs, it is evident that effective FPL can reduce the burden of NCDs, including childhood obesity. Additionally, it was found that during purchasing any food items, consumer knowledge/information plays a crucial role for food purchasing which is commonly recognized by food labels. The problems with the existing food labels are-these are misleading/not completely understandable/not clearly visible to the consumers due to multiple reasons like low literacy levels, diverse languages, small font size and many more. Globally, there exists multiple food labeling system which are consumer friendly. It is the right time for us to join other countries in experimenting with creative food labelling systems. The Chilean system being the gold standard in this regard. CONCLUSION: It is evident that good food labeling can effectively reduce the burden of non-communicable disease/childhood obesity (indirect evidence) by empowering customers to buy the right/healthy foods. In a country like India, where literacy among consumers is competitively high and languages are diverse, the same approach should be replicated in order to prevent or halt the rising trend of childhood obesity.

3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 47: 422-430, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063238

RESUMO

Multiple salt reduction strategies have been devised from time to time, addressing the issues of hypertension without considering the other essential factors, like the variability of salt sensitivity from the person to person. In this paper, we discuss how high salt consumption is one modifiable risk factor associated with hypertension among Indians, and there needs to be updated cut-off values. A thorough literature search on salt consumption articles on well-known search engines like Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar and Embase electronic database revealed a paucity of data in this field for India. Several studies revealed that the mean salt intake among the Indian populations ranges between 5.22 and 42.30 g/day. Moreover, among other risk factors analysed, salt intake (≥ 5 gm/day) was significantly associated with the development of hypertension. Although the need to address reduced salt intake for primordial prevention of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in India is well acknowledged by the key stakeholders, social and cultural beliefs, unorganized food retail sector and lack of existing food policing are some of the potential barriers that affect the progress and employment of such effective strategies. Some multinational food companies have already research is warranted to evaluate the contextual barriers and facilitators and to adopt effective strategies to improve awareness among consumers, to encourage the endorsement of salt reduction by the food industry, and to facilitate the adoption of countrywide consumer-friendly food labelling. We concluded that salt consumption is high in India, although this assessment has been done primarily by subjective methods in India. People all across are recommended the same cut-off value of dietary salt consumption regardless of the diversity in dietary patterns and environmental conditions across the country. There is an urgent need to address these issues through evidence-based population research.

4.
J Public Health Res ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of new normal life (after Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)), our children are experiencing the double threat of COVID-19 and Childhood Obesity (CO-BESITY). The rate of childhood obesity has been rapidly increasing in developed as well as low middle-income countries during the pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: The current paper aims to identify the probable reasons of increase in childhood obesity during this pandemic and offers suggestions to reduce the burden of it. Literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for the key terms "childhood obesity," "obesity," "pandemic," and/or childhood obesity. All the relevant articles were included to support the argument for this viewpoint. RESULTS: Childhood obesity is a complicated disorder having diverse outcomes. The incidence of childhood obesity is clearly analysed from Bronfenbrenner's model of child development. The model examines an overabundance of bio-psycho-social backgrounds, risks, and probable outcomes on the development of a child. COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the ecosystem of this dynamic model and has created an economic and social-cultural crisis that has ignited a chain reaction of stressors upon children and their families. In this paper, we have described how this Bronfenbrenner's model of child development also known as the Bioecological Model can be effective for the estimation and prevention of childhood obesity. CONCLUSION: We propose that this Bioecological Model will help the children and their families further to understand and manage the problem of childhood obesity during this pandemic on their own.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 766645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966400

RESUMO

Micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger is a serious challenge toward societal well-being. Vigna stipulacea (Lam.) Kuntz (known locally as Minni payaru), is an underutilized legume that has the potential to be a global food legume due to its rich nutrient profile. In the present study, 99 accessions of V. stipulacea were tested for iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), protein, and phytate concentrations over two locations for appraisal of stable nutrient-rich sources. Analysis of variance revealed significant effects of genotype for all the traits over both locations. Fe concentration ranged from 29.35-130.96 mg kg-1 whereas Zn concentration ranged from 19.44 to 74.20 mg kg-1 across both locations. The highest grain Ca concentration was 251.50 mg kg-1 whereas the highest grain protein concentration was recorded as 25.73%. In the case of grain phytate concentration, a genotype with the lowest value is desirable. IC622867 (G-99) was the lowest phytate containing accession at both locations. All the studied traits revealed highly significant genotypic variances and highly significant genotype × location interaction though less in magnitude than the genotypic variance. GGE Biplot analysis detected that, for grain Fe, Zn, and Ca concentration the 'ideal' genotypes were IC331457 (G-75), IC331610 (G-76), and IC553564 (G-60), respectively, whereas for grain protein concentration IC553521 (G-27) was the most "ideal type." For phytate concentration, IC351407 (G-95) and IC550523 (G-99) were considered as 'ideal' and 'desirable,' respectively. Based on the desirability index, Location 1 (Kanpur) was identified as ideal for Fe, Zn, Ca, and phytate, and for grain protein concentration, Location 2 (New Delhi) was the ideal type. A significant positive correlation was detected between grain Fe as well as grain Zn and protein concentration considering the pooled analysis over both the locations where as a significant negative association was observed between phytate and protein concentration over the locations. This study has identified useful donors and enhanced our knowledge toward the development of biofortified Vigna cultivars. Promoting domestication of this nutrient-rich semi-domesticated, underutilized species will boost sustainable agriculture and will contribute toward alleviating hidden hunger.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(10): 3738-3747, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934674

RESUMO

Introduction: Pregnancy brings about many changes in mothers' body which continue even after the baby is born. After a vaginal delivery, taking good care of the mother is an essential part of postpartum care and to maintain overall fitness. Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a physiotherapeutic intervention to improve the maternity fitness of Indian women. Methodology: It was a three-group RCT (randomized controlled trial). The target population consisted of women in ante and postnatal stage, 50 participants (58 were included in the end) in each group, randomly selected from Obstetrics and Gynecology OPD of a tertiary care hospital in North India. The study was carried out in the department of PRM (Physiotherapy). A total of 174 participants was included in the study and was divided into three groups, two intervention groups, and one control group. The target population consisted of women in ante and postnatal stage, randomly selected from ANC (Antenatal clinic) and PNC (Post-natal clinic). The study was conducted over a period of 4 years (2014-2018). They were advised to do exercise, postural correction, regular walking, and electrotherapy modalities and six follow-ups throughout their pregnancy. Outcome measures like (Visual Analogue Scale = VAS): Low and upper back pain relief (n = 158), Leg cramps (n = 41), Coccyx pain (n = 36), Sacro-iliac joint pain (n = 26) was considered. Results: The impact of the intervention package on both ante-natal and post-natal women with fitness-related health problems showed significant improvement. Conclusion: Pain, leg cramp and heaviness in the lower limb, coccyx pain, etc., during pregnancy are common complaints that start early in pregnancy and may persist throughout life if treatment does not start early in the pregnancy.

7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(9): 3268-3272, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760742

RESUMO

Background: Pregnancy is a positive, fulfilling experience for many, but it can put the mother at the risk of suffering ill-health, disability, or even maternal death. The common causes of maternal death include pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) or gestational hypertension or hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), post-partum hemorrhage, and pulmonary embolism. Modifications in lifestyle and diet have been widely advocated as a cost-effective strategy to prevent PIH. Objectives: To assess the role of dietary factors in PIH attending antenatal care services at a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women who were attending the antenatal clinic who were diagnosed with hypertension in pregnancy and normotensive before the pregnancy were included in the study. As per the protocol, informed written consent, demographic details with clinical data were obtained from the patients. A total of 225 antenatal cases having hypertension in pregnancy were included in our study. Results: Majority of the study subjects (81.8%) were taking mixed diets, 50.2% consumed additional salt in their diet, the intake history of visible fat was given by 25.3% and 96.4% consumed tea while 52.9% had a history of consuming junk food. Among the 41 vegetarian study subjects with hypertension in pregnancy, the maximum subjects (73.1%) had preeclampsia followed by gestational hypertension in 23.6% the subjects. The relation between the type of diet and hypertension in pregnancy was found to be statistically insignificant. The relation between visible fat consumption and hypertension in pregnancy was found to be statistically significant. Discussion: The association of dietary factors with HDP could be explained by several factors. One being the high-calorie intake by women with known HDP and those without HDP. The imbalance between the energy intake and expenditure is a potential risk factor and leads to overweight or obesity. Conclusion: The consumption of additional salt in the diet, visible fat, and obesity was found to be associated with HDP in our study.

8.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(8): 2739-2744, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660398

RESUMO

The meaning of "vaccine diplomacy (VD)" is defined as "the use of vaccines to increase a country's diplomatic relations and influence over other nations." The golden era of vaccine science diplomacy started during the time of Cold War between the United States (US) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) with the development of a prototype of oral polio vaccine by the US Scientist Dr Albert Sabin working along with his Soviet counterparts. The foundation stone was already laid down by Edward Jenner when he shared his technique of the smallpox vaccine with other major countries to curb the spread of smallpox. Eventually, such a step led to the eradication of such a deadly disease. Only time has changed, not the tide. Even today, vaccines continue to remain as one of the important tools for achieving Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs) and other targets in developing countries like India. During the wake of the Corona Virus Diseases-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, India's role in developing its vaccine science diplomacy has been a point of attraction. The phase-3 trial of Covaxin being developed by Bharat Biotech started in Lucknow and Gorakhpur in October 2020, and it is widely considered as the forerunner for the Indian vaccine market. As per the Union Health Ministry of India- "The Union Government is working on at least five distinct ways, ranging from free vaccines to guaranteed supply, in which it can help its immediate neighbours and countries in West Asia, Africa and even Latin America-officials familiar with the plan said on conditions of anonymity. The idea is to leverage the country's standing as the world's vaccine factory to merge diplomatic ties. Historically, it is observed that by the development and introduction of newer vaccines from time to time, many dismaying hurdles to vaccine science diplomacy (VSD) arise from ongoing wars and political instability. The current scenario is that both VSD and VD are at crossroads, and there is a possibility of getting a good direction if we make a piggyback policy approach of vaccine diplomacy along with the foreign policy. The lessons learned from the past must be followed now and, in the future, to make a better world for all. We acknowledge that the COVID-19 episode has again highlighted the dire need for VSD, and we assume that not only COVID-19 but in future, emerging and re-emerging diseases will occur so we have to prepare ourselves for combatting those future emerging and re-emerging diseases.

9.
AIMS Public Health ; 8(3): 553-562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395705

RESUMO

The burden of vaccine-preventable diseases is increasing day by day across all age groups. However as per the universal immunization programme, we vaccinate only under-fives and antenatal mothers, a large portion of the vulnerable population remain unvaccinated and the concept of "life course approach" regarding vaccination is missing. It increases the overall burden to the already constrained Indian health care system. As India, now has become the largest manufacturer of multiple vaccines, we have continuous chain healthcare points (primary-tertiary level), with dedicated manpower in the public health sector that is why in this paper we are proposing to expand the horizon of the vaccination process using a "life course approach". It will not only directly benefit the vulnerable populations (individual level), but also it can benefit the nation, indirectly. Although we may face challenges at multiple phases (conception to implementation), they can be overcome by multisectoral and multipronged innovations.

10.
Infect Chemother ; 53(1): 96-106, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is one of the most daunting challenges a physician faces in such settings. Among AUFI, rickettsial infections are most common and related infections (such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and Q fever) which are caused by an unusual type of bacteria that can live only inside the cells of another organism. The present study was therefore planned with an objective to estimate the prevalence of rickettsial infection among patients of undifferentiated fever and to determine any association of socio-demographic characteristics with rickettsial disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients presenting with febrile illness and admitted or attending out-patient department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar was approached and recruited in the study. Weil Felix Assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay were done to detect the anti-rickettsial antibodies. Serological evidence of a fourfold increase in IgG-specific antibody titer reactive with spotted fever group rickettsial antigen by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assays between paired serum specimens was considered a confirmatory diagnosis for the rickettsial disease. RESULTS: Most of the patients were males 61.6%, and most 46.2% were in the age group of 20 -39 years. Most of the patients, 80.8% belonged to rural areas, and 48% belonged to the upper middle (II) class of the socio-economic class according to modified Kuppuswamy scale. Of the studied participants, a majority, 47.0%, were determined undiagnosed, while 15.4% studied participants were diagnosed to have a rickettsial disease. In patients positive for typhus group, 67.8% were IgM positive, 28.5% were IgG positive, and only 3% were positive for IgM and IgG. In patients positive for Scrub Typhus Group, 32.7% were positive for IgM, and 62.0% were positive for IgG, and only 5.0% were positive for both IgM and IgG. In patients positive for spotted fever group, 36.1% were positive for IgM, and 58.5% were positive for IgG, and only 5.5% were positive for both IgM and IgG. The prevalence of rickettsial disease was found to be 11.3%. CONCLUSION: Rickettsial diseases, typhoid and brucellosis, were the most prevalent diseased diagnosed among patients reporting to hospitals with undifferentiated febrile illness. Clinicians must consider rickettsial diseases as one of the differential diagnosis while treating patients with fever.

11.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is a comprehensive measurement of patients' happiness with the level of health care delivered to them both inside and outside the physician's office. It is commonly used as an indicator to assess the health-care quality and affects a wide range of components related to the provision of health services such as ease of access, medical malpractice, and clinical outcomes. The study aimed to analyze patients' satisfaction with the quality of health care they received at the outpatient department of Klinik Kesihatan Maharani Muar Healthcare Facility (KMMHF), Johor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August and December 2019 period. Demographic information and information on patients' feelings about their physicians, treatment, and health facilities provided were collected from 407 consented patients in a simple random sampling survey using a researcher-made, an adapted Medical Interview Satisfaction, questionnaire which was pilot tested before administration to the patients. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics and correlational and group comparison analyses were utilized. RESULTS: Of the 407 patients studied for physician-patient satisfaction, the overall mean of all the respondents responding was 4.089 ± 0.5, which was ranked the highest among the three objectives. The effectiveness of treatment came as the second highest with the overall mean of 4.088 ± 0.5. Finally, the overall health-care facilities had the lowest overall mean of 4.077 ± 0.5 among the three. CONCLUSION: Most patients who visited KMMHF were mostly satisfied with the outcomes of physician-patient interaction in the clinic.

12.
Indian J Community Med ; 46(2): 178-181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321721

RESUMO

Recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have shown promising success in optimizing health-care processes and improvising health services research and practice leading to better health outcomes. However, the role of public health ethics in the era of AI is not widely evaluated. This article aims to describe the responsible approach to AI design, development, and use from a public health perspective. This responsible approach should focus on the collective well-being of humankind and incorporate ethical principles and societal values. Such approaches are important because AI concerns and impacts the health and well-being of all of us collectively. Rather than limiting such discourses at the individual level, ethical considerations regarding AI systems should be analyzed enlarge, considering the complex socio-technological reality around the world.

15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(4): 1554-1561, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123891

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases are already acknowledged as a double burden, and now childhood obesity is putting extra strain on our health system. The current paper aimed to analyze the ongoing health and related programmes/policies in India, and we discussed the existing opportunities in the programmes to address the issue of childhood obesity in India. We searched the "MEDLINE," "PsycINFO," "Scopus," "Web of Science," and "Google Scholar" databases using the following keywords: ("overweight") and ("obesity"), ("childhood obesity"), ("nutritional programmes in India"), ("Health policies in India"), ("malnourished children in India") in combination with each other and in truncated form. All the relevant articles and policy documents (MOHFW, INDIA) available in the public domain were included to support the argument for this narrative review. We found that we have programme gaps like guidelines issues by Food Safety Standards Authority of India to tackle childhood obesity and it has not been strictly implemented due to multiple reasons. School health programme has an opportunity to address the issue of childhood obesity, but at the ground level the outcomes are not very promising. The National Nutrition Mission have only focussed on undernutrition and anemia problem, ignoring the overweight/childhood obesity. Primary care physicians are key players in the treatment of childhood obesity, yet rates of obesity management in the primary care setting are low. National Programme for prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases & stroke is dealing with health promotion and prevention, early diagnosis, and management of all ages, except children. Diet provided in Integrated Child Development Scheme is calculated based on calories, not by the quality which is a concern to us. The breastfeeding promotion programme named Mothers Absolute Affection programme has not been implemented with letter and spirit. Other than health programmes, we assume that Ministry of Urban Planning, Foreign Direct Investment policy, Advertisement Council of India and many more sector/policy/programme are indirectly responsible for the increasing burden of childhood obesity in India. Lack of awareness and wrong perception also responsible for the development of childhood obesity. We have multiple National Health Programmes and Policies to address the childhood malnutrition, but are focussing the undernutrition component only, ignoring overnutrition problem in the children, which is emerging as quadruple burden to our health system. Appropriate actions and inclusion of suggestions provided in this study for the improvement of the programmes at the practical level needs to be considered by the policy makers to halt the ever-rising trend of childhood obesity and primary care physicians should play a leadership role.

17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(1): 116-121, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017712

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in an unprecedented loss of human lives and sufferings across the world. It has resulted in the collapse of public health systems and economy across the globe. As most of the national health systems lack organized surveillance infrastructure, resources, and expertise to respond to a pandemic, most of the countries failed to mount an effective response to contain the spread of this virus initially. As primary healthcare (PHC) has better access to the community, the settings where PHC services are inadequate or weak, hospitals are overwhelmed with patients, thus overburdening, and wasting meager specialist resources. PHC interventions can manage mild to moderate cases (>80% of total cases) and their contacts, along with addressing the needs of general population while only severe cases may require specialized hospital care. As PHC interventions have huge potential to tackle this pandemic, strengthening and inclusion of PHC in pandemic response could play a significant role in relieving the workload on secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and minimizing loss of lives and its short and long term socioeconomic consequences. This article explores the scope and importance of strengthening PHC in breaking the chain of the transmission of this infectious disease, building an adequate response to minimize its disastrous consequences and prevent future emerging and reemerging disease outbreaks, if any.

19.
Indian J Community Med ; 46(1): 4-6, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035566

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health concern, and it is considered one of the deadliest infections in the world, having nearly 1.2 million deaths annually. Around 75% of all global HBV carriers live in the Asia-Pacific region. In this regard, India has a prevalence ranging between 2% and 7% with exposure rates of 10%-60%. Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. In India, the World Health Organization protocol for hepatitis B vaccination has been followed, and it is given free of cost in public health facilities under the National Immunization Schedule. Despite the free hepatitis vaccination program in India, coverage and awareness are low. Low awareness, followed by low coverage of hepatitis vaccination, can prove dangerous for the Indian population in the long run. A majority of chronic hepatitis cases progress silently to end-stage liver disease without having many signs and symptoms. Once occurred, a complete cure is not possible with currently available drugs. The studies from neighboring countries such as China and Taiwan documented that the impact of single-dose booster for children of 10 years has made a significant difference from the cost-effectiveness perspective. They have also included the booster dose in their national vaccination program. Considering the low level of vaccination awareness, small coverage, high disease burden, and high treatment cost, now, it is high time for India to introduce hepatitis B booster vaccine.

20.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We know that risk communication is equally important as risk identification, which is usually not communicated properly to the patients and resulting in poor outcomes, especially in hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVE: Our study objective was to evolve and test a colour coded client segmentation based public health approach to educate the community to deal with problem of hypertension. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional pilot study was done in March 2020 among purposively approached in a primary health centre to 100 people aged above 18 years, among them 41 gave written consent for the study and their demographic information was noted. They were given colour coded cards as per the current blood pressure level and previous history of hypertension. On each colour coded card, specific advice was written for that category. For all the participants, blood pressure and treatment seeking behaviour was noted. For hypertensive patients, adherence to medication and non-pharmacological measures was noted. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 46.5 ± 13.06 years. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the participants were 135 ± 16.85 mm Hg and 86 ± 11.42 mm Hg, respectively. Among the participants, 10 (24.39%) had a known history of hypertension. Among them, as per the blood pressure levels measured on the day of the study 50% (5) had their blood pressure levels under control. Interestingly 16 (39%) participants were found hypertensive incidentally. DISCUSSION: It is evident from the studies that colour coded approach is used in multiple ways, in multiple settings, for multiple diseases. To our knowledge, little focus has been given for hypertensive disorders in the community level. We merely bother about making their risk profiling, even in the digital age. Sometimes physicians in emergency become puzzled whenever patients collapsed in front of them and we missed the "Golden Hour" for the treatment by searching patients' medical details. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The above problem can be solved by risk profiling of chronic patients by colour coded OPD/Health cards.

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