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Acc Chem Res ; 51(12): 3104-3113, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462479


Silver and gold molecular nanoparticles (mNPs) are a relatively new class of molecular materials of fundamental interest. They are high-nuclearity metal-organic compounds, with ligated metal cores, where the different character of bonding in the ligand shell and metal core gives rise to many of the unique properties of these materials. Research has primarily focused on gold mNPs, due to their good stability and the ease with which they may be synthesized and processed. To understand these materials as a general class, however, it will be necessary to broaden research efforts to other metals. Gold and silver are isoelectronic and have the same atomic radius, making the comparison of gold and silver mNPs attractive. The optical and chemical differences of the two metals provide useful contrasts, however, as well as a means to access a wider range of properties. In this Account, we focus on the synthesis, structure, and reactivity of silver mNPs. First, we review the origins and history of the field, from the ill-defined gas-phase metal clusters of the 1980s to the precisely defined mNPs of 1996 and onward. Next, we discuss the role of silver as a complement to gold mNPs in the effort to generalize lessons learned from either material and extend them into new metals. The synthesis of silver mNPs is covered in some detail, noting the choices made as the chemistry and the materials were developed. The importance of coordinating solvents and thermodynamic stability are also noted. The need to reduce solvent use is discussed and a new approach to achieving this goal is presented. Next, the structures of silver mNPs are discussed, including the Ag44 and Ag17 archetypes, and focusing on the successful de novo structure prediction of the latter. Structure and prediction of ligand shell motifs are also discussed. Finally, the postsynthetic chemistry and reactivity of silver mNPs are presented, including some of the first efforts to elucidate reaction mechanisms, beginning in 2012. Silver nanoparticles are gaining in popularity, particularly compared with gold, as the potential for silver to make a technological and economic impact is recognized. The superior optical properties of silver already make it a valuable material for plasmonics, but this may also translate to molecular species for nonlinear optics, sensors, and optoelectronics. The higher reactivity may also lead to a greater diversity of chemistry for silver compared to gold, including as an important broad-spectrum antimicrobial. Conversely, the "ultrastability" of the Ag44 archetype has already enabled unprecedented scale up with molecular precision, and may lead to the first industrial-scale production of metal mNPs. Clearly, silver mNPs are one of the most promising and significant new materials being studied today.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 74(Pt 7): 987-993, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002900


Crystals of M4Au12Ag32(p-MBA)30 bimetallic monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs), where p-MBA is p-mercapto-benzoic acid and M+ is a counter-cation (M = Na, Cs) have been grown and their structure determined. The mol-ecular structure of triacontakis[(4-carboxylatophenyl)sulfanido]dodecagolddotriacontasilver, Au12Ag32(C7H5O2S)30 or C210H150Ag32Au12O60S30, exhib-its point group symmetry at 100 K. The overall diameter of the MPC is approximately 28 Å, while the diameter of the Au12Ag20 metallic core is 9 Å. The structure displays ligand bundling and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding, which gives rise to a framework structure with 52% solvent-filled void space. The positions of the M+ cations and the DMF solvent mol-ecules within the void space of the crystal could not be determined. Three out of the five crystallographically independent ligands in the asymmetric unit cell are disordered over two sets of sites. Comparisons are made to the all-silver M4Ag44(p-MBA)30 MPCs and to expectations based on density functional theory.