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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574663

RESUMO

Limited access to health care and the lack of robust data systems means non-fatal drownings are largely missed in low-and middle-income countries. We report morbidity among individuals who experienced non-fatal drowning in the Barishal Division, Bangladesh. A representative household survey was conducted in the Barishal Division in southern Bangladesh between September 2016 and February 2017, covering a population of 386,016. The burden of non-fatal drowning was assessed using the WHODAS 2.0 disability assessment tool, a generic assessment instrument for health and disability. A total of 5164 non-fatal drowning events occurred in the one year preceding the survey. Among these 18% were multiple events. From these, 4235 people were administered the WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire. Non-fatal drowning incidence rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years at 5810 per 100,000 population, and among males. Non-fatal drowning was associated with lower socio-economic status and larger family sizes. Few respondents (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5-8.4%) reported some level of disability (WHODAS-12 score > 8). Incidence of non-fatal drowning is high in the population, however limited impact on morbidity was found. There is a need to develop tools and methodologies for reliable and comparable data for non-fatal drowning, especially to capture post-event disability in children.

6.
Trop Doct ; 51(3): 415-421, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832378

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance in India. A country-level evidence gap map was developed to identify gaps on epidemiology of leptospirosis. It is the first such on leptospirosis globally and on any single disease condition in India. The steps for development of evidence gap map were development of a framework to map evidence, retrieval of evidence, data extraction parameters and mapping of available evidence in evidence gap map framework. The prevalence evidence gap map consisted of 157 studies (102 in humans, 55 in animals, and 12 in both). The evidence gap map on risk factors had 120 studies (102 in humans, 11 in animals and 7 in both). There were inter-state differences in availability of research and disparity between animal and human research. Research on high-risk groups was limited and studies did not use the One Health approach to identify epidemiology, which can help understand the issue more comprehensively. The study demonstrates the potential of evidence gap maps to inform research priorities.

7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(5): 915-922, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650776

RESUMO

This review presents publication trends, characteristics, and quality of systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antihypertensive drugs (AHTDs). Between 1985 and 2017, 1,173 SRs were published, and in the last 20 years, 10, 35, and 116 were published in the year 1996, 2006, and 2016, respectively. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers were the most common class of drugs studied. Fourteen percent of the SRs were prospectively registered/published protocol. Three-fourth of the SRs did not report a full search strategy, and 45% did not report a PRISMA or similar diagram. Of the 34 SRs published in the five high impact factor journals in the last 10 years, 15%, 21%, and 65% have unclear, low, and high risk of bias, respectively. There has been a steady increase in the publication of SRs of RCTs of AHTDs. However, adherence to standard methods of conduct and reporting continues to be low.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Viés , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693843

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an emerging public health problem in India. We developed an evidence gap map (EGM) on prevention, control and management of leptospirosis in India to inform research priorities. The EGM framework was developed in consultation with stakeholders and noted key parameters to influence state and national level research priorities. We searched six electronic databases and three relevant websites and included 27 studies (humans, 23; animals, 4; both, 0). Most studies (17/27 [63%]) were from three high-burden states. Controlled clinical trials (non-randomised, 6/27 [22%]; randomised, 2/27 [7%]) and pre-post studies (6/27 [22%]) suitable for evaluating interventions were sparse. Only 26% studies (6/23 human studies) included high-risk groups like animal caretakers, tribal people, relief/sanitation workers, pregnant women and people from slums. Nearly 56% of studies (15/27) evaluated pharmacological interventions at an individual level. Community-level interventions were limited (4/27 [15%]) with no studies on vaccination, personal protection, antibiotic policy or water, sanitation and hygiene interventions. Health systems and policy or multicomponent studies were rare (5/27 [19%]) with no reporting of key outcomes like healthcare coverage, quality of care and other relevant outcomes to evaluate interventions. There is a need for prioritising research to evaluate prevention and control interventions, including the One Health approach. Embedding national-level EGMs for research prioritisation exercises should be considered.

9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease. Snakebite causes at least 120 000 death each year and it is estimated that there are three times as many amputations. Snakebite survivors are known to suffer from long-term physical and psychological sequelae, but not much is known on the mental health manifestations postsnakebite. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review and searched five major electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE(R), Global Health, APA PsycINFO, EMBASE classic+EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), contacted experts and conducted reference screening to identify primary studies on mental health manifestations after snakebite envenomation. Two reviewers independently conducted titles and abstract screening as well as full-text evaluation for final inclusion decision. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We extracted data as per a standardised form and conducted narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We retrieved 334 studies and finally included 11 studies that met our eligibility criteria. Of the 11 studies reported, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most commonly studied mental health condition after snakebite, with five studies reporting it. Estimate of the burden of PTSD after snakebite was available from a modelling study. The other mental health conditions reported were focused around depression, psychosocial impairment of survivors after a snakebite envenomation, hysteria, delusional disorders and acute stress disorders. CONCLUSION: There is a need for more research on understanding the neglected aspect of psychological morbidity of snakebite envenomation, particularly in countries with high burden. From the limited evidence available, depression and PTSD are major mental health manifestations in snakebite survivors.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Psicoterapia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
10.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(3): 219-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295290

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (Covid-19), which originated in China, is now a full-blown pandemic which has thrown governments and societies off-track in an unprecedented manner. War metaphors have been used widely to describe the scenario, but many critics decry them as harmful narratives. In this piece, we discuss the utility of the war metaphor to build solidarity and fraternity, which will be essential to get through the crisis. We also explain how concerns regarding increased authoritarianism and state excesses due to the use of these narratives are misplaced. We then tease out the colonial era concept of war that guides the arguments against the use of war metaphors in pandemics. We argue that in the post-modern world and in South Asian and African philosophies, wars are seen through the prism of the larger cause of dharma or ubuntu and that individual losses or gains in these contexts are part of a larger cause. The use of war metaphors reflects the need to get together for a societal cause. These metaphors are largely understood across societies while other alternatives are exclusionary, poetic and tangential in nature.

Keywords : Covid-19, pandemics, war metaphors, communication, philosophy, SARS-CoV-2

.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação , Metáfora , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Comportamento Social , Conflitos Armados , Ásia , Compreensão , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Filosofia , Sistemas Políticos , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1077, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality in India. India has rolled out Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC) reforms including population based screening for hypertension and diabetes, facilitated by frontline health workers. Our study assessed blood pressure and blood sugar coverage achieved by frontline workers using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). METHODS: LQAS Supervision Areas were defined as catchments covered by frontline workers in primary health centres in two districts each of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. In each Area, 19 households for each of four sampling universes (males, females, Above Poverty Line (APL) and Below Poverty Line (BPL)) were visited using probability proportional to size sampling. Following written informed consent procedures, a short questionnaire was administered to individuals aged 30 or older using tablets related to screening for diabetes and hypertension. Using the LQAS hand tally method, coverage across Supervision Areas was determined. RESULTS: A sample of 2052 individuals was surveyed, median ages ranging from 42 to 45 years. Caste affiliation, education levels, and occupation varied by location; the sample was largely married and Hindu. Awareness of and interaction with frontline health workers was reported in Uttar Pradesh and mixed in Delhi. Greater coverage of CVD risk factor screening (especially blood pressure) was seen among females, as compared to males. No clear pattern of inequality was seen by poverty status; some SAs did not have adequate BPL samples. Overall, blood pressure and blood sugar screening coverage by frontline health workers fell short of targeted coverage levels at the aggregate level, but in all sites, at least one area was crossing this threshold level. CONCLUSION: CVD screening coverage levels at this early stage are low. More emphasis may be needed on reaching males. Sex and poverty related inequalities must be addressed by more closely studying the local context and models of service delivery where the threshold of screening is being met. LQAS is a pragmatic method for measuring program inequalities, in resource-constrained settings, although possibly not for spatially segregated population sub-groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Amostragem para Garantia da Qualidade de Lotes , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008727, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease that leads to more than 120,000 deaths every year. In 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) launched a strategy to decrease its global burden by 2030. There is a range of issues around different interventions for the management of snakebite. Decisions around these interventions should be informed by evidence from systematic reviews (SR). METHODS: An overview of SRs was conducted by searching 12 electronic databases, PROSPERO, contacting experts and screening the bibliography of included reviews. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment (through AMSTAR-2) was done by at least two overview authors independently with discrepancies sorted by consensus. A narrative synthesis was conducted. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The overview found 13 completed SRs that has looked at various aspects of management of snakebite envenomation. There was one SR on first aid, nine on effectiveness and safety of snake anti-venom (SAV), two on drugs to prevent adverse reactions due to SAV therapy, and one on surgical interventions for management of snakebite envenomation. All, except one, SR was appraised to have critically low confidence as per AMSTAR-2 Criteria. Evidence base was restricted to few studies for most interventions. DISCUSSION: High quality evidence from SRs is required to inform guidelines and health system decisions which can bring down the burden of snakebite. The review indicates the need to fund high-quality SRs, evidence gaps and core outcome sets which can inform guideline recommendations, funding priorities for conduct of future trials. Variation in species distribution as well as intra-species variation in venom composition implies the need for conduct of region or, nation or state (sub-national) specific randomised controlled trials and SRs on different SAVs and their dosing regimens.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Animais , Antivenenos/efeitos adversos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/mortalidade , Serpentes , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 572638, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117771

RESUMO

Background: The bidi industry in India is predominantly an unorganized sector. It continues to enjoy tax benefits, arguably, to protect bidi workers' interests and employment. Our objective was to study trends in employment and wage differentials in the bidi industry using nationally representative data. Methods: We studied trends in employment and wages in the bidi industry using secondary data from the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) and the Central Statistics Office (CSO), Government of India-the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) (2000-2001 to 2011-2012) and Enterprises Survey (2000-2001, 2005-2006, 2010-2011). Results: The bidi industry contributed to only 0.65% of the total gross value added (GVA) by the entire manufacturing industry. Employment in this industry was primarily through contractors. Bidi workers earned only 17% of wages compared to workers in other manufacturing industries. Although females constituted the majority of bidi workers, they earned INR 7,000 to 8,000 (USD 155.7 to 178) less than male bidi workers annually. Despite the increase in bidi industry profits from INR 1.7 billion (USD 37.8 million) in 2005-2006 to INR 12.8 billion (USD 285 million) in 2010-2011, the wages of bidi workers have continued to decline over this period. Conclusion: Bidi workers earn much less compared to workers in other manufacturing industries and are subject to income inequality. There is a need to increase registration of the bidi industry for better administration of taxes and prevention of exploitation of the bidi workers. Skill building and alternative employment could provide better job quality, wages, social security and employment benefits.


Assuntos
Salários e Benefícios , Produtos do Tabaco , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino
14.
Inj Prev ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sundarbans in India is a rural, forested region where children are exposed to a high risk of drowning due to its waterlogged geography. Current data collection systems capture few drowning deaths in this region. METHODS: A community-based survey was conducted in the Sundarbans to determine the drowning mortality rate for children aged 1 to 4 years and 5 to 9 years. A community knowledge approach was used. Meetings were held with community residents and key informants to identify drowning deaths in the population. Identified deaths were verified by the child's household through a structured survey, inquiring on the circumstances around the drowning death. RESULTS: The drowning mortality rate for children aged 1 to 4 years was 243.8 per 100 000 children and for 5 to 9 years was 38.8 per 100 000 children. 58.0% of deaths were among children aged 1 to 2 years. No differences in rates between boys and girls were found. Most children drowned in ponds within 50 metres of their homes. Children were usually unaccompanied with their primary caretaker engaged in household work. A minority of children were treated by formal health providers. CONCLUSIONS: Drowning is a major cause of death among children in the Sundarbans, particularly those aged 1 to 4 years. Interventions keeping children in safe spaces away from water are urgently required. The results illustrate how routine data collection systems grossly underestimate drowning deaths, emphasising the importance of community-based surveys in capturing these deaths in rural low- and middle-income country contexts. The community knowledge approach provides a low-resource, validated methodology for this purpose.

15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), affects 213 countries or territories globally. We received a request from National Health Systems Resource Centre, a public agency in India, to conduct rapid evidence synthesis (RES) on community health workers (CHWs) for COVID-19 prevention and control in 3 days. METHODS: We searched PubMed, websites of ministries (n=3), public agencies (n=6), multilateral institutions (n=3), COVID-19 resource aggregators (n=5) and preprints (n=1) (without language restrictions) for articles on CHWs in pandemics. Two reviewers screened the records independently with a third reviewer resolving disagreements. One reviewer extracted data with another reviewer cross-checking it. A framework on CHW performance in primary healthcare not specific to pandemic was used to guide data extraction and narrative analysis. RESULTS: We retrieved 211 records and finally included 36 articles. Most of the evidence was from low-and middle-income countries with well-established CHW programmes. Evidence from CHW programmes initiated during pandemics and for CHW involvement in pandemic response in high-income countries was scant. CHW roles and tasks change substantially during pandemics. Clear guidance, training for changed roles and definition of what constitutes essential activities (ie, those that must to be sustained) is required. Most common additional activities during pandemics were community awareness, engagement and sensitisation (including for countering stigma) and contact tracing. CHWs were reported to be involved in all aspects of contact tracing - this was reported to affect routine service delivery. CHWs have often been stigmatised or been socially ostracised during pandemics. Providing PPE, housing allowance, equal training opportunities, transportation allowance, improving salaries (paid on time and for a broad range of services) and awards in high-profile public events contributed to better recruitment and retention. We also created inventories of resources with guiding notes on guidelines for health workers (n=24), self-isolation in the community (n=10) and information, education and counselling materials on COVID-19 (n=16). CONCLUSIONS: CHWs play a critical role in pandemics. It is important to ensure role clarity, training, supportive supervision, as well as their work satisfaction, health and well-being. More implementation research on CHWs in pandemics is required.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Papel Profissional , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2
16.
F1000Res ; 9: 25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399199

RESUMO

Introduction: Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease with a high burden in South and South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a roadmap which aims for a 50% reduction in death and disability due to snakebite globally by 2030. It is estimated that India has the highest number of snakebite deaths in the world. Objective: To synthesize evidence on the burden (incidence/ prevalence, mortality, morbidity, health facility and economic), and risk factors for snakebite in India. Methods: We will search for peer-reviewed literature and grey literature in six electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsychInfo, CENTRAL, SafetyLit) and hand-search IndMed, conference abstracts, relevant websites and citation tracking. Two reviewers will screen and extract data independently with a third reviewer acting as an arbiter for any inconsistencies. Quality of the included studies will be assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. For burden, data from facility based and community-based studies will be synthesised and reported separately, except for studies conducted concurrently. We will conduct meta-analysis for community-based studies at state-level for incidence/prevalence, mortality and morbidity , if appropriate. The PROGRESS Plus lens will be used to explore equity . Analyses for each individual risk factor-outcome pair will be conducted and reported separately. If appropriate, meta-analyses will be conducted as per JBI guidelines, assessing heterogeneity using Tau-squared, Cochran's Q test and Chi-squared (p > 0.05) tests. We plan to conduct sub-group analyses based on pre-specific parameters. A funnel plot will be generated if there are more than nine studies included in a specific meta-analysis, to assess publication bias When meta-analysis is not appropriate, structured tabulation of results across studies and/or by vote counting based on the direction of effect as per guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Inj Prev ; 26(5): 478-493, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic collisions contribute a significant burden of mortality and morbidity to children globally. The improper or non-use of child restraints can result in children sustaining significant injuries in the event of a collision. Systematic reviews on the effectiveness of various interventions to increase the use of child restraints already exist but to the best of our knowledge, there has been no qualitative evidence syntheses on the facilitators and barriers to child restraint usage. This review aims to fill that gap. METHODS: We searched for qualitative studies, which focused on perceptions, values and experiences of children, parents/caregivers or any other relevant stakeholders on the use of restraints for children travelling in motor vehicles in PubMed, EMBASE and Global Health and screened reference lists of all included studies. We assessed the quality of included studies with the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist and used the PROGRESS Plus lens for an equity focused analysis. RESULTS: We identified a total of 335 records from searching the databases and five records from other sources. After screening, we identified 17 studies that met our inclusion criteria. All but one study (which had children as participants) focused on the perceptions, attitudes and barriers of parents or caregivers. The included studies were from three high-income (n=14) and one upper-middle income (n=3) country. In addition, although many focused exclusively on participants from culturally and linguistically diverse minorities, the issue of equity was not well addressed. Five major themes emerged from the analysis. (1) perceived risk for injuries and perceived safety benefits of child restraint usage varies in different settings and between different types of caregivers; (2) practical issues around the use of child restraints is a major barrier to its uptake as a child safety measure; (3) restraint use is considered as a mechanism to discipline children rather than as a safety device by parents and as children became older they actively seek opportunities to negotiate the non-usage of restraints; (4) adoption and enforcement of laws shape perceptions and usage in all settings and (5) perceptions and norms of child safety differ among culturally and linguistically diverse groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic review should be considered when designing interventions to promote the uptake of child restraints. However, there is a need to conduct qualitative research around the facilitators and barriers to child restraint usage in low-income and middle-income countries. Furthermore, there is a need for more evidence conducted in semiurban and rural areas and to involve fathers, policy-makers, implementers and enforcement agencies in such studies.

18.
Inj Prev ; 26(Supp 1): i83-i95, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drowning is a leading cause of injury-related mortality globally. Unintentional drowning (International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes W65-74 and ICD9 E910) is one of the 30 mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive causes of injury-related mortality in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. This study's objective is to describe unintentional drowning using GBD estimates from 1990 to 2017. METHODS: Unintentional drowning from GBD 2017 was estimated for cause-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), age, sex, country, region, Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile, and trends from 1990 to 2017. GBD 2017 used standard GBD methods for estimating mortality from drowning. RESULTS: Globally, unintentional drowning mortality decreased by 44.5% between 1990 and 2017, from 531 956 (uncertainty interval (UI): 484 107 to 572 854) to 295 210 (284 493 to 306 187) deaths. Global age-standardised mortality rates decreased 57.4%, from 9.3 (8.5 to 10.0) in 1990 to 4.0 (3.8 to 4.1) per 100 000 per annum in 2017. Unintentional drowning-associated mortality was generally higher in children, males and in low-SDI to middle-SDI countries. China, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh accounted for 51.2% of all drowning deaths in 2017. Oceania was the region with the highest rate of age-standardised YLLs in 2017, with 45 434 (40 850 to 50 539) YLLs per 100 000 across both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a decline in global drowning rates. This study shows that the decline was not consistent across countries. The results reinforce the need for continued and improved policy, prevention and research efforts, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries.

19.
Inj Prev ; 26(Supp 1): i12-i26, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. METHODS: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. RESULTS: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.

20.
Inj Prev ; 26(Supp 1): i36-i45, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research has shown how fires, heat and hot substances are important causes of health loss globally. Detailed estimates of the morbidity and mortality from these injuries could help drive preventative measures and improved access to care. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease 2017 framework to produce three main results. First, we produced results on incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, deaths, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life years from 1990 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. Second, we analysed these results to measure mortality-to-incidence ratios by location. Third, we reported the measures above in terms of the cause of fire, heat and hot substances and the types of bodily injuries that result. RESULTS: Globally, there were 8 991 468 (7 481 218 to 10 740 897) new fire, heat and hot substance injuries in 2017 with 120 632 (101 630 to 129 383) deaths. At the global level, the age-standardised mortality caused by fire, heat and hot substances significantly declined from 1990 to 2017, but regionally there was variability in age-standardised incidence with some regions experiencing an increase (eg, Southern Latin America) and others experiencing a significant decrease (eg, High-income North America). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and mortality of injuries that result from fire, heat and hot substances affect every region of the world but are most concentrated in middle and lower income areas. More resources should be invested in measuring these injuries as well as in improving infrastructure, advancing safety measures and ensuring access to care.

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