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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472814

RESUMO

Around 300- 400 AD, ancient Indian physicians described a condition akin to diabetes mellitus which was called "Madhumeha". Sushrutha and Charaka, are also credited with describing two types of diabetes which would roughly correspond to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the history of diabetes in India between the first and 19th century AD. A thorough search of literature revealed a large number of publications on diabetes from India in the 1800s and early 1900s, mostly from Calcutta and the Madras Presidency, suggesting that the prevalence of diabetes was high in these two places. Building on the observations made by a number of English physicians, Chunilal Bose in 1907 suggested the link between diabetes and lifestyle in India. Amazingly, India did not have to wait long after the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best at Toronto in 1921, to get its own supply. Around this time, Dr. J.P. Bose, eminent physician and diabetologist from Calcutta made remarkable contributions to the study of diabetes in India. He was also the first to describe the dramatic effects of insulin administration to children with type 1 diabetes in India. All these facts have remained largely forgotten which prompted the authors to delve deep into the history of diabetes in pre-independence India. This has led to the unearthing of several pearls of knowledge which are presented in this article as a fitting tribute to the 100th year of Insulin Discovery.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Médicos , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Insulina , Masculino
2.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2643-2650, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on 132,373 individuals aged 35-70 years from 21 countries were analyzed. White rice consumption (cooked) was categorized as <150, ≥150 to <300, ≥300 to <450, and ≥450 g/day, based on one cup of cooked rice = 150 g. The primary outcome was incident diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a multivariable Cox frailty model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 9.5 years, 6,129 individuals without baseline diabetes developed incident diabetes. In the overall cohort, higher intake of white rice (≥450 g/day compared with <150 g/day) was associated with increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.40; P for trend = 0.003). However, the highest risk was seen in South Asia (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.13-2.30; P for trend = 0.02), followed by other regions of the world (which included South East Asia, Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, and Africa) (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.86; P for trend = 0.01), while in China there was no significant association (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.77-1.40; P for trend = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Higher consumption of white rice is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes with the strongest association being observed in South Asia, while in other regions, a modest, nonsignificant association was seen.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Oryza/efeitos adversos , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , América do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 8(1): 1-12, Apr., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1100200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Diabetes Mellitus , Ciências da Nutrição , Hipertensão , Endocrinologia
5.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 21(4): 588-593, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670545

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the weight gain during pregnancy (using Institute of Medicine guidelines) among Asian Indians across different body mass index (BMI) categories (using World Health Organization Asia Pacific BMI cut points) and to compare the pregnancy outcomes in each of the different BMI categories. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective records of 2728 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and private maternity centers in Chennai, South India, from January 2011 to January 2014 were studied. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in relation to BMI and weight gain across different BMI categories. RESULTS: Overweight and obese women who gained more weight during pregnancy were at high risk of delivering macrosomic infants (overweight - odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.2, P = 0.02 and obese - OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, P = 0.01). In addition, obese women who gained more weight were also at high risk of preterm labor (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8; P = 0.01), cesarean section (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5; P < 0.001), and preeclampsia (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.2, P = 0.03). Normal weight and overweight women who gained less weight had a protective effect from cesarean section and macrosomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women who gained more weight than recommended are at a high risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Normal and overweight women who gained weight less than recommended have low risk for cesarean section and macrosomia. However, they have a higher (statistically insignificant) risk for low birth weight and preterm birth. This highlights the need for gaining adequate weight during pregnancy.

6.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 21(1): 184-189, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28217520

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) cut point for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HbA1c as a prognostic indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: HbA1c estimations were carried out in 1459 pregnant women attending antenatal care centers in urban and rural Tamil Nadu in South India. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out using 75 g anhydrous glucose, and GDM was diagnosed using the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. RESULTS: GDM was diagnosed in 195 women. Receiver operating curves showed a HbA1c cut point of ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol) have a sensitivity of 66.2% and specificity of 56.2% for identifying GDM (area under the curve 0.679, confidence interval [CI]: 0.655-0.703). Women with HbA1c ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol) were significantly older and had higher body mass index, greater history of previous GDM, and a higher prevalence of macrosomia compared to women with HbA1c < 5.0% (<31 mmol/mol). The adjusted odds ratio for macrosomia in those with HbA1c ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol) was 1.92 (CI: 1.24-2.97, P = 0.003). However, other pregnancy outcomes were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: In Asian Indian pregnant women, a HbA1c of 5.0% (31 mmol/mol) or greater is associated with increased risk of macrosomia.

7.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 43(3): 468-475, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28026897

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the impact of a structured model of care (MOC) prepared for resource-constrained settings, on the pregnancy outcomes of Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Pregnant women were screened under the Women in India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) MOC for GDM using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Women with GDM went through a structured MOC that included medical nutrition therapy (MNT), regular physical activity (PA); and insulin when indicated. Fasting blood glucose and post-prandial blood sugar were monitored every 2 weeks. The pregnancy outcomes of women with GDM who underwent the MOC were compared with those without GDM. RESULTS: Under the MOC, 212 women with GDM were followed through pregnancy, of whom 33 (15.6%) required insulin and 179 (84.4%) were managed with MNT and PA. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with GDM were similar to the non-GDM women: there were no significant differences in pregnancy complications such as cesarean section, macrosomia, pre-eclampsia, oligo/polyhydramnios, preterm delivery, neonatal death, fetal distress, hyperbilirubinemia and low birthweight. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a structured MOC for women with GDM helped achieve pregnancy outcomes similar to those without GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
8.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 20(5): 707-715, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27730085

RESUMO

AIM: The Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) project was conducted with the aim of developing a model of care (MOC) suitable for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low- and middle-income countries. METHODOLOGY: The WINGS project was carried out in Chennai, Southern India, in two phases. In Phase I, a situational analysis was conducted to understand the practice patterns of health-care professionals and to determine the best screening criteria through a pilot screening study. RESULTS: Phase II involved developing a MOC-based on findings from the situational analysis and evaluating its effectiveness. The model focused on diagnosis, management, and follow-up of women with GDM who were followed prospectively throughout their pregnancy. An educational booklet was provided to all women with GDM, offering guidance on self-management of GDM including sample meal plans and physical activity tips. A pedometer was provided to all women to monitor step count. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) was the first line of treatment given to women with GDM. Women were advised to undergo fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose testing every fortnight. Insulin was indicated when the target blood glucose levels were not achieved with MNT. Women were evaluated for pregnancy outcomes and postpartum glucose tolerance status. CONCLUSIONS: The WINGS MOC offers a comprehensive package at every level of care for women with GDM. If successful, this MOC will be scaled up to other resource-constrained settings with the hope of improving lives of women with GDM.

9.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 20(4): 491-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27366715

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the existing maternal and fetal outcomes in Asian Indian women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) before the development of the Women in India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) GDM model of care (MOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of pregnant women were extracted retrospectively from three maternity centers in Chennai. GDM was diagnosed using the International Association for Pregnancy Study Groups criteria or the Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Demographic details, obstetric history, antenatal follow-up, treatment for GDM, and outcomes of delivery were collected from the electronic medical records. RESULTS: Of the 3642 records analyzed, 799 (21.9%) had GDM, of whom 456 (57.1%) were treated with insulin and medical nutrition therapy (MNT), 339 (42.4%) with MNT alone, and 4 (0.5%) with metformin. Women with GDM were older than those without (28.5 ± 4.5 vs. 27.1 ± 4.5 years; P < 0.001) and had higher mean body mass index at first booking (26.4 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) vs. 25.2 ± 5.1 kg/m(2); P < 0.001). Rates of cesarean section (26.2% vs. 18.7%; P < 0.001), preeclampsia (1.8% vs. 0.8%; P = 0.04), and macrosomia (13.9% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.02) were significantly higher among women with GDM. In women with GDM treated with insulin and MNT, emergency cesarean section (16.2% vs. 36.6%; P < 0.0001), preeclampsia (0.7% vs. 3.2%; P = 0.015), and macrosomia (9.9% vs. 18.6%; P = 0.0006) were significantly lesser compared to those treated with MNT alone. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy outcomes were in general worse in GDM women. Treatment with insulin was associated with a significantly lower risk of complications. However, in countries with limited access to insulin and other medicines may lead to poor follow-up and management of GDM. Data from this retrospective study will form the basis for the development of the WINGS GDM MOC, which will address these gaps in GDM care in low-resource settings.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 117: 22-7, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329018

RESUMO

AIM: To determine postpartum glucose tolerance status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recruited under the Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) Model of Care (MOC). METHODS: Through the WINGS MOC programme, 212 women with GDM were followed till delivery between November 2013 and August 2015. All women were advised to return for a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6-12weeks after delivery. A multivariate logistic regression (MLR) model was developed to identify the risk factors for postpartum dysglycemia which was defined as presence of diabetes (DM) or prediabetes. RESULTS: 203/212(95.8%) women completed their postpartum OGTT. Of the 161 women (79.3%) who came back for the test between 6 and 12weeks, 2(1.2%) developed DM, 5(3.1%), isolated IFG, 13(8.1%), isolated IGT and 5(3.1%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 25(15.5%)]. 136 women (84.5%) reverted to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Of the 42 women who came back between 12weeks and a year, 5(11.9%) developed DM, 10(23.8%), isolated IFG and 1(2.4%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 16(38.1%)]. 26/42 women (61.9%) reverted to NGT. Thus overall dysglycemia occurred in 41/203 women (20.2%). MLR showed that BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) was significantly associated with postpartum dysglycemia (odds ratio: 4.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-11.2, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Among Asian Indian women with GDM, over 20% develop dysglycemia within one year postpartum, and BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) increased this risk four-fold. Early postpartum screening can identify high risk women and help plan strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 116: 253-62, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27321343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity (PA) patterns in pregnant woman with and without gestational diabetes (GDM) and to assess the effects of an exercise intervention on change in PA patterns, blood glucose levels and pregnancy outcomes in GDM women. METHODS: For the first objective, PA patterns were studied in 795 pregnant women with and without GDM. For the second objective, the Women in India with Gestational Diabetes Strategy-Model of Care (WINGS-MOC) intervention were evaluated in 151 women out of 189 with GDM. PA was assessed using a validated questionnaire and a pedometer. Changes in PA patterns, glycemic parameters and neonatal outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, only 10% of pregnant women performed recommended levels of PA. Women with GDM were significantly more sedentary compared to those without GDM (86.2 vs. 61.2%, p<0.001). After the MOC was implemented in women with GDM, there was a significant improvement in PA and a decrease in sedentary behaviour amongst women (before MOC, moderate activity: 15.2%, sedentary: 84.8% vs. after MOC-moderate: 26.5%, sedentary: 73.5%; p<0.001), and an increase in their daily step count from 2206/day to 2476/day (p<0.001). Fasting 1 and 2-h postprandial glucose values significantly decreased (p<0.001 for all). Sedentary behaviour was associated with a fourfold higher risk (p=0.02), and recreational walking with 70% decreased risk, of adverse neonatal outcomes (p=0.04) after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: PA levels are inadequate amongst this group of pregnant women studied i.e. those with and without GDM. However, a low-cost, culturally appropriate MOC can bring about significant improvements in PA in women with GDM. These changes are associated with improved glycemic control and reduction in adverse neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/fisiologia , Humanos , Índia , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 20(3): 364-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27186555

RESUMO

AIM: To obtain information on existing practices in the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among physicians/diabetologists/endocrinologists and obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) in India. METHODS: Details regarding diagnostic criteria used, screening methods, management strategies, and the postpartum follow-up of GDM were obtained from physicians/diabetologists/endocrinologists and OB/GYNs across 24 states of India using online/in-person surveys using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 3841 doctors participated in the survey of whom 68.6% worked in private clinics. Majority of OB/GYNs (84.9%) preferred universal screening for GDM, and screening in the first trimester was performed by 67% of them. Among the OB/GYNs, 600 (36.7%) reported using the nonfasting 2 h criteria for diagnosing GDM whereas 560 (29.4%) of the diabetologists/endocrinologists reported using the same. However, further questioning on the type of blood sample collected and the glucose load used revealed that, in reality, only 208 (12.7%) and 72 (3.8%), respectively, used these criteria properly. The survey also revealed that the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria was followed properly by 299 (18.3%) of OB/GYNs and 376 (19.7%) of physicians/diabetologists/endocrinologists. Postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing was advised by 56% of diabetologists and 71.6% of OB/GYNs. CONCLUSION: More than half of the physicians/diabetologists/endocrinologists and OB/GYNs in India do not follow any of the recommended guidelines for the diagnosis of GDM. This emphasizes the need for increased awareness about screening and diagnosis of GDM both among physicians/diabetologists/endocrinologists and OB/GYNs in India.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in urban and rural Tamil Nadu in southern India, using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) and the World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 criteria for GDM. METHODS: A total of 2121 pregnant women were screened for GDM from antenatal clinics in government primary health centres of Kancheepuram district (n = 520) and private maternity centres in Chennai city in Tamil Nadu (n = 1601) between January 2013 to December 2014. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were done after an overnight fast of at least 8 h, using a 75 g glucose load and venous samples were drawn at 0, 1 and 2 h. GDM was diagnosed using both the IADPSG criteria as well as the WHO 1999 criteria for GDM. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of GDM after adjusting for age, BMI, family history of diabetes and previous history of GDM was 18.5 % by IADPSG criteria with no significant urban/rural differences (urban 19.8 % vs rural 16.1 %, p = 0.46). Using the WHO 1999 criteria, the overall adjusted prevalence of GDM was 14.6 % again with no significant urban/rural differences (urban 15.9 % vs rural 8.9 %, p = 0.13). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GDM by IADPSG was high both using IADPSG as well as WHO 1999 criteria with no significant urban/rural differences. This emphasizes the need for increasing awareness about GDM and for prevention of GDM in developing countries like India.

14.
Acta Diabetol ; 53(1): 91-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25916215

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate usefulness of capillary blood glucose (CBG) for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in resource-constrained settings where venous plasma glucose (VPG) estimations may be impossible. METHODS: Consecutive pregnant women (n = 1031) attending antenatal clinics in southern India underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting, 1- and 2-h VPG (AU2700 Beckman, Fullerton, CA) and CBG (One Touch Ultra-II, LifeScan) were simultaneously measured. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated for different CBG cut points using the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria for the diagnosis of GDM as gold standard. Bland-Altman plots were drawn to look at the agreement between CBG and VPG. Correlation and regression equation analysis were also derived for CBG values. RESULTS: Pearson's correlation between VPG and CBG for fasting was r = 0.433 [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.596, p < 0.001], for 1H, it was r = 0.653 (ICC = 0.776, p < 0.001), and for 2H, r = 0.784 (ICC = 0.834, p < 0.001). Comparing a single CBG 2-h cut point of 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) with the IADPSG criteria, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.3 and 80.7 %, respectively. If CBG cut points of 120 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/l) or 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l) were used, the sensitivity improves to 78.3 and 92.5 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In settings where VPG estimations are not possible, CBG can be used as an initial screening test for GDM, using lower 2H CBG cut points to maximize the sensitivity. Those who screen positive can be referred to higher centers for definitive testing, using VPG.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Capilares/química , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/economia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/economia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/economia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 17(7): 462-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25723968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association in a South Indian population with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) of type 2 diabetes risk variants that have previously conferred susceptibility to GDM in other populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study groups comprised 518 women with GDM and 910 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Women with GDM were recruited from a tertiary diabetes center in Chennai, in south India, and NGT women were selected from antenatal clinics also in Chennai. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood using the phenol chloroform method. Twelve previously reported GDM-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near nine loci were genotyped using the MassARRAY™ system (Sequenom, San Diego, CA). RESULTS: Among the 12 SNPs genotyped, 11 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had a call rate of >95%. Of the 11 SNPs previously associated with GDM in other populations, significant association was observed only with the rs7754840 and rs7756992 SNPs of the CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1) gene in this population. The minor alleles of the SNPs rs7754840 and rs7756992 showed significant susceptibility to GDM with an odds ratio of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.60; P = 0.0013) and 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.72; P = 0.00004), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rs7754840 and rs7756992 SNPs of the CDKAL1 gene were found to be associated with GDM in this south Indian population. This is the first study describing genetic susceptibility of GDM in Asian Indians.


Assuntos
Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , tRNA Metiltransferases
16.
Endocr Pract ; 21(1): 7-13, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25100397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a need to identify biomarkers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Recently the soluble pro-renin receptor (s[Pro]RR) has been shown to be associated with GDM. We investigated the association of s(Pro) RR levels in Asian Indians with GDM. METHODS: We recruited 222 pregnant females, 147 without GDM (non-GDM) and 75 with GDM visiting antenatal clinics in Tamilnadu in South India. We included singleton pregnancy and excluded those with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed, and GDM was diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. s(Pro)RR was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify s(Pro) RR cut-off points to identify GDM. RESULTS: The mean levels of the s(Pro)RR were significantly higher in subjects with GDM (34.0 ± 12 ng/mL, P<.001) compared to non-GDM (21.4 ± 6.5 ng/mL). The proportions of subjects with GDM were 11 (15%) in the first tertile of s(Pro)RR (<19.61 ng/mL), 20 (27%) in the second (19.62-26.8 ng/mL), and 44 (59%) in the third tertile (>26.8 ng/mL). In multiple logistic regression analysis, s(Pro)RR showed a significant association with GDM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.201, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.065-1.355, P = .003) after adjusting for potential confounders. A s(Pro)RR cut-off of 23.3 ng/mL had a C statistic of 0.828 (95% CI: 0.738-0.918, P<.001), sensitivity of 68%, and specificity of 70% to identify GDM. CONCLUSIONS: s(Pro)RR levels are higher in females with GDM, and this could be used as a potential biomarker.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Curva ROC
17.
Acta Diabetol ; 51(6): 1007-13, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25315629

RESUMO

AIM: The Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India (DIPSI) guidelines recommend the non-fasting 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a single-step screening and diagnostic test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to compare the DIPSI criteria with the World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria for GDM. METHODS: A total of 1,031 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India, underwent a 75-g OGTT in both non-fasting and fasting states, 2-3 days apart. Venous plasma glucose was measured using an autoanalyser, and GDM was diagnosed by DIPSI, WHO 1999 and IADPSG criteria. RESULTS: Of the 83 women identified to have GDM by WHO 1999 criteria, only 23 were diagnosed by DIPSI criteria. Of the 106 women diagnosed to have GDM by the IADPSG criteria, only 24 were diagnosed by DIPSI. The DIPSI non-fasting OGTT 2-h VPG cut point of 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l) had a very low sensitivity when compared to the WHO 1999 criteria (sensitivity 27.7 %, specificity 97.7 %) and IADPSG criteria (sensitivity 22.6 %, specificity 97.8 %). CONCLUSIONS: The DIPSI non-fasting OGTT criteria cannot be recommended for diagnosis of GDM due to its low sensitivity. Thus, as a single-step diagnostic test for GDM, the fasting OGTT needs to be done. When this is not possible, the well-established two-step procedure using the 50-g glucose challenge test as an initial screening test, followed by the diagnostic fasting OGTT, can be continued.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Jejum/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 18(3): 400-6, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24944938

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the conversion rates to diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seen at a tertiary care diabetes center in urban south India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical case records of 898 women with GDM seen between 1991 and 2011 were extracted from the Diabetes Electronic Medical Records (DEMR) of a tertiary care diabetes center in Chennai, south India and their clinical profile was analyzed. Follow-up data of 174 GDM women was available. To determine the conversion rates to diabetes, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in these women. Glucose tolerance status postpartum was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 criteria. RESULTS: The mean maternal age of the women was 29 ± 4 years and mean age of gestation at first visit were 24 ± 8.4 weeks. Seventy percent of the women had a family history of diabetes. Seventy-eight percent of the women delivered full-term babies and 65% underwent a cesarean section. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 10.0 ± 4.2 kg. Macrosomia was present in 17.9% of the babies, hypoglycemia in 10.4%, congenital anomalies in 4.3%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 1.9%. Mean follow-up duration of the 174 women of whom outcome data was available was 4.5 years. Out of the 174, 101 women who were followed-up developed diabetes, of whom half developed diabetes within 5 years and over 90%, within 10 years of the delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indian women with GDM is rapid. There is an urgent need to develop standardized protocols for GDM care in India that can improve the maternal and fetal outcomes and help prevent future diabetes in women with GDM.

19.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 17(5): 906-9, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24083175

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to compare the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) and the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chennai, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the retrospective data of 1351 pregnant women who underwent screening for GDM at four selected diabetes centers at Chennai (three private and one government). All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test using 75g glucose load and fasting, 1-h, and 2-h samples were collected. The IADPSG and WHO criteria were compared for diagnosis of GDM. RESULTS: A total of 839 women had GDM by either the IADPSG or the WHO criteria, of whom the IADPSG criteria identified 699 and the WHO criteria also identified 699 women as having GDM. However, only 599/839 women (66.6%) were identified by both criteria. Thus, 140/839 women (16.7%) were missed by both the IADPSG and the WHO criteria. 687/699 (98.2%) of the women with GDM were identified by the WHO criteria. In contrast, each value of IADPSG criteria i.e., fasting, 1 h, and 2 h identified only 12.5%, 14%, and 22%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A single WHO cut-point of 2 h > 140 mg/dl appears to be suitable for large-scale screening for GDM in India and other developing countries.

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