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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01494038.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002907, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the association between preexisting vitamin D deficiency and incident tuberculosis (TB). We assessed the impact of baseline vitamins D levels on TB disease risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between baseline vitamin D and incident TB in a prospective cohort of 6,751 HIV-negative household contacts of TB patients enrolled between September 1, 2009, and August 29, 2012, in Lima, Peru. We screened for TB disease at 2, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. We defined cases as household contacts who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of the index patient. For each case, we randomly selected four controls from among contacts who did not develop TB disease, matching on gender and year of age. We also conducted a one-stage individual-participant data (IPD) meta-analysis searching PubMed and Embase to identify prospective studies of vitamin D and TB disease until June 8, 2019. We included studies that assessed vitamin D before TB diagnosis. In the primary analysis, we defined vitamin D deficiency as 25-(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, insufficiency as 50-75 nmol/L, and sufficiency as >75nmol/L. We estimated the association between baseline vitamin D status and incident TB using conditional logistic regression in the Lima cohort and generalized linear mixed models in the meta-analysis. We further defined severe vitamin D deficiency as 25-(OH)D < 25 nmol/L and performed stratified analyses by HIV status in the IPD meta-analysis. In the Lima cohort, we analyzed 180 cases and 709 matched controls. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TB risk among participants with baseline vitamin D deficiency compared to sufficient vitamin D was 1.63 (95% CI 0.75-3.52; p = 0.22). We included seven published studies in the meta-analysis and analyzed 3,544 participants. In the pooled analysis, the aOR was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04-2.10; p = 0.03). The aOR for severe vitamin D deficiency was 2.05 (95% CI 0.87-4.87; p trend for decreasing 25-(OH)D levels from sufficient vitamin D to severe deficiency = 0.02). Among 1,576 HIV-positive patients, vitamin D deficiency conferred a 2-fold (aOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.22-3.90; p = 0.01) increased risk of TB, and the aOR for severe vitamin D deficiency compared to sufficient vitamin D was 4.28 (95% CI 0.85-21.45; p = 0.08). Our Lima cohort study is limited by the short duration of follow-up, and the IPD meta-analysis is limited by the number of possible confounding covariates available across all studies. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest vitamin D predicts TB disease risk in a dose-dependent manner and that the risk of TB disease is highest among HIV-positive individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency. Randomized control trials are needed to evaluate the possible role of vitamin D supplementation on reducing TB disease risk.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(7): 1103-1109, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590318

RESUMO

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) rates are high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations, even when on treatment. Still, only a subset of all births in HIV-infected pregnant women result in PTB, suggesting that risk factors other than HIV infection itself are also important. Inflammation is a known risk factor in uninfected populations, but its role in HIV-infected population have not been studied; in addition, the immune pathways involved are not clear and noninvasive immune markers with predictive value are lacking. Our objective was to determine the association of select markers of inflammation with PTB in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. Methods: Within a randomized trial of pregnant women receiving nevirapine (Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine [SWEN] trial), we nested a case-control study (n = 107; 26 cases, 81 controls) to determine the association of maternal inflammation with PTB. Cases were defined as PTB (<37 weeks' gestational age). We assessed inflammation by measuring plasma levels of markers of general inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), intestinal barrier dysfunction (intestinal fatty acid binding protein [I-FABP]), and microbial translocation/monocyte activation (soluble CD14 [sCD14] and CD163 [sCD163]). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds of PTB per log2 increase of each marker. Results: In multivariable models, there was increased odds of PTB per unit increase of log2 sCD14 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-4.86), log2 sCD163 (aOR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.43-10.49), and log2 I-FABP (aOR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.18-4.41) but not log2 CRP (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI, .48-1.09). Conclusions: Our results show that select immune markers can identify women at higher risk for PTB in HIV-1-infected populations and suggest that modulating gut barrier integrity and microbial translocation may affect PTB. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00061321.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sex Transm Dis ; 44(6): 371-375, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499289
5.
J Clin Virol ; 88: 26-32, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies in recent years have documented the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV infection and wide diversity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes among HIV-seropositive women. Yet, information on changes in HPV genotype-specific incidence and clearance rates over time, and their correlation with clinical or immunologic factors among HIV-seropositive women is scarce. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective study to investigate the incidence and clearance rates of cervical HPV genotypes among HIV-seropositive women in India and expand the evidence base in this area of research. STUDY DESIGN: Cervical samples were collected from n=215 HIV-seropositive women in Pune, India who underwent two screening visits separated by a median of 11-months (interquartile range: 8-18 months). HPV genotypes were determined by Roche Linear Array HPV assay. Individual genotype-specific and carcinogenicity-grouping-specific HPV incidence and clearance rates were calculated and the associations between incidence/clearance and age and HIV-related metrics were explored. RESULTS: Incidence and clearance rates for 'any HPV' and 'carcinogenic HPV' genotypes were 11.1 and 18.3, and 6.7 and 33.8, per 100 person-years, respectively. Incidence and clearance rates for HPV genotypes of alpha-9 species (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52 and HPV58) and alpha-7 species (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59 and HPV68) were 5.8 and 2.04, and 32.1 and 53.5, per 100 person-years, respectively. Clearance of any HPV type was associated with increasing age of participants (odds ratio: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.004-1.17), although the association marginally lost its statistical significance when adjusted for CD4 counts and antiretroviral therapy status. CONCLUSIONS: Genotype-specific clearance rates of HPV were higher than corresponding incidence rates. The suggestion of a positive associations of increasing age with HPV clearance points to the need for etiologic studies on age-related hormonal changes on clearance of cervical HPV infection.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/virologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
N Engl J Med ; 375(18): 1726-1737, 2016 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation with CD4 counts of at least 350 cells per cubic millimeter to zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine plus a 1-to-2-week postpartum "tail" of tenofovir and emtricitabine (zidovudine alone); zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (zidovudine-based ART); or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (tenofovir-based ART). The primary outcomes were HIV transmission at 1 week of age in the infant and maternal and infant safety. RESULTS: The median CD4 count was 530 cells per cubic millimeter among 3490 primarily black African HIV-infected women enrolled at a median of 26 weeks of gestation (interquartile range, 21 to 30). The rate of transmission was significantly lower with ART than with zidovudine alone (0.5% in the combined ART groups vs. 1.8%; difference, -1.3 percentage points; repeated confidence interval, -2.1 to -0.4). However, the rate of maternal grade 2 to 4 adverse events was significantly higher with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (21.1% vs. 17.3%, P=0.008), and the rate of grade 2 to 4 abnormal blood chemical values was higher with tenofovir-based ART than with zidovudine alone (2.9% vs. 0.8%, P=0.03). Adverse events did not differ significantly between the ART groups (P>0.99). A birth weight of less than 2500 g was more frequent with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (23.0% vs. 12.0%, P<0.001) and was more frequent with tenofovir-based ART than with zidovudine alone (16.9% vs. 8.9%, P=0.004); preterm delivery before 37 weeks was more frequent with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (20.5% vs. 13.1%, P<0.001). Tenofovir-based ART was associated with higher rates than zidovudine-based ART of very preterm delivery before 34 weeks (6.0% vs. 2.6%, P=0.04) and early infant death (4.4% vs. 0.6%, P=0.001), but there were no significant differences between tenofovir-based ART and zidovudine alone (P=0.10 and P=0.43). The rate of HIV-free survival was highest among infants whose mothers received zidovudine-based ART. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal ART resulted in significantly lower rates of early HIV transmission than zidovudine alone but a higher risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; PROMISE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01061151 and NCT01253538 .).


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/efeitos adversos
7.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162979, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689883

RESUMO

Latest World Health Organization guidelines recommend weight-based nevirapine prophylaxis for all HIV-exposed infants in resource-limited settings, yet low birth weight (LBW) infants (< 2500 g) have been understudied. Using data from the NIH-funded India six-week extended-dose nevirapine (SWEN) study, a randomized clinical trial of SWEN versus single-dose nevirapine (SD) for prevention of breast-milk HIV-1 transmission, we examined the relative impact of SWEN among 737 mother-infant pairs stratified by infant birth weight. Birth weight groups were defined as very LBW (VLBW) ≤ 2000 g, moderate LBW (MLBW) >2000 g and ≤ 2500 g, and normal birth weight (NBW) > 2500 g. Outcomes were HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 infection or death by 12 months, and severe adverse events (SAEs). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate probability of efficacy outcomes in birth weight groups, and differential effects of SWEN by birth weight group were examined using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for independent risk factors for HIV maternal-to-child transmission and significant covariates. Among 50 VLBW, 249 MLBW, and 433 NBW infants, 50% were randomized to SWEN; median gestational age was 36, 38 and 38 weeks, respectively; and there was no difference in breastfeeding duration (p = 0.99). Compared to SD: SWEN-treated VLBW had lower estimates of HIV-1 infection (13% vs. 38%, p = 0.004) and HIV-1 infection or death (13% vs. 41%, p = 0.002); SWEN-treated MLBW had lower estimated HIV-1 infection (13% vs. 17%, p = 0.042); and efficacy endpoints were similar by treatment arm in NBW. In multivariate analysis, SWEN was associated with reduced risk of HIV-1 infection or death by 83% (p = 0.03) in VLBW versus 45% (p = 0.05) in MLBW. SAE frequency was similar by treatment arm in VLBW (68% vs. 76%, p = 0.53) and MLBW (37% vs. 36%, p = 0.93). SWEN may safely increase HIV-free survival among HIV-exposed LBW infants with greatest protective advantage among infants ≤ 2000 g.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 193(12): 1421-8, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765255

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pregnant women with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk for development of TB, especially if infected with HIV. OBJECTIVES: To assess the performance of LTBI tests in pregnant and postpartum women infected with HIV, investigate the immunology behind discordance in pregnancy, and explore the implications for the development of postpartum TB. METHODS: We screened pregnant women in their second/third trimester and at delivery for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON Gold). A subset of antepartum women had longitudinal testing, with repeat testing at delivery and postpartum and additional cytokines measured from the IGRA supernatant. The kappa statistic and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to determine agreement and comparison of cytokine concentrations, respectively. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 252 enrolled, 71 (28%) women had a positive IGRA but only 27 (10%) had a positive TST (P < 0.005). There was 75% agreement (kappa, 0.25). When stratified by pregnancy versus delivery, 20% had IGRA(+)/TST(-) discordance at each time point. A positive IGRA was associated with known TB contact (odds ratio, 3.6; confidence interval, 1.2-11.1; P = 0.02). Compared with IGRA(+)/TST(+), women with IGRA(+)/TST(-) discordance had significantly less IFN-γ (1.85 vs. 3.48 IU/ml; P = 0.02) and IL-2 (46.17 vs. 84.03 pg/ml; P = 0.01). Five developed postpartum TB, of which three had IGRA(+)/TST(-) discordance during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Choice of LTBI test in pregnant women infected with HIV affects results. Pregnant women with IGRA(+)/TST(-) discordance had less IFN-γ and IL-2 than those with concordant-positive results and may represent an especially high-risk subset for the development of active TB postpartum.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/complicações , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Teste Tuberculínico/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Infect Dis ; 213(5): 762-5, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443598

RESUMO

Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control study (49 pairs of infants and their HIV-infected mothers) within the Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine trial. Median peripartum maternal log2 sCD14 concentration was higher among transmitters (defined as pairs in which maternally transmitted HIV infection occurred by 12 months of age) than nontransmitters (20.29 pg/mL vs 19.41 pg/mL; P = .005). There was an increased odds of MTCT for every log2 increase in maternal sCD14 concentration, after adjustment for maternal HIV load, CD4 count and cART exposure (adjusted odds ratio, 3.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-10.21). Maternal monocyte activation may adversely influence the risk of MTCT of HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Leite Humano/virologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e92308, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24658103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The sensitivity of the widely-used tuberculin skin test (TST), however, may be reduced during pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study comparing the TST with the QuantiFERON Gold In-tube (QGIT) in 401 HIV-negative women presenting antepartum (n = 154), at delivery (n = 148), or postpartum (n = 99) to a government hospital in Pune, India. A subset of 60 women enrolled during pregnancy was followed longitudinally and received both tests at all three stages of pregnancy. RESULTS: The QGIT returned significantly more positive results than the TST. Of the 401 women in the cross-sectional study, 150 (37%) had a positive QGIT, compared to 59 (14%) for the TST (p<0.005). Forty-nine (12%) did not have their TST read. Of 356 who had both results available, 46 (13%) were concordant positive, 91 (25%) were discordant (12 (3%) TST+/QGIT-; 79 (22%) TST-/QGIT+), and 206 (57%) concordant negative. Comparison by stage of pregnancy revealed that QGIT percent positivity remained stable between antepartum and delivery, unlike TST results (QGIT 31-32% vs TST 11-17%). Median IFN-γ concentration was lower at delivery than in antepartum or postpartum (1.66 vs 2.65 vs 8.99 IU/mL, p = 0.001). During postpartum, both tests had significantly increased positives (QGIT 31% vs 32% vs 52%, p = 0.01; TST 17% vs 11% vs 25%, p<0.005). The same trends were observed in the longitudinal subset. CONCLUSIONS: Timing and choice of LTBI test during pregnancy impact results. QGIT was more stable and more closely approximated the LTBI prevalence in India. But pregnancy stage clearly affects both tests, raising important questions about how the complex immune changes brought on by pregnancy may impact LTBI screening.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Programas de Rastreamento , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos
11.
Vaccine ; 32(13): 1466-72, 2014 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24486350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. METHODS: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions of samples with protective antibody concentration (≥0.35µg/ml) to serotypes 1, 4, 5, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F between 74 HIV-infected and 98 HIV-uninfected mother-infant pairs who had not received pneumococcal immunization in South Asia. Multivariable analysis was performed to assess the influence of HIV on protective antibody concentrations. RESULTS: HIV-infected mothers and their infants exhibited lower GMCs and GMRs than their uninfected counterparts. This was significant for all serotypes except maternal GMC to serotype 1 and GMR for serotype 6B. In multivariate analysis, HIV was significantly associated with reduced odds of having protective pneumococcal IgG levels; 56-73% reduction for 3 maternal serotypes (4, 5, 23F) and 62-90% reduction for all cord samples except serotype 6B. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal HIV infection is associated with lower levels of maternal pneumococcal antibodies and disproportionately lower cord antibodies, relative to maternal antibodies, suggesting that HIV infection compromises transplacental transfer. Reassessment of maternal and/or infant pneumococcal immunization strategies is needed in HIV-infected women and their infants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Índia , Lactente , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
HIV Clin Trials ; 13(5): 278-83, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23134628

RESUMO

A recent report from Tanzania demonstrated an increased risk of being HIV infected or of dying at birth among children born to breastfeeding mothers with low baseline vitamin D levels. We conducted a nested case-control study among HIV-infected pregnant women in western India to confirm the association between maternal vitamin D levels and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were common among HIV-infected pregnant women, but were not associated with mother to child HIV transmission at 1 year postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.30-1.45; P = .30).


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Cancer ; 130(1): 234-40, 2012 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21387289

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in India and other developing country settings are living longer on antiretroviral therapy, yet their risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer remains unabated because of lack of cost-effective and accurate secondary prevention methods. Visual inspection after application of dilute acetic acid on the cervix (VIA) has not been adequately studied against the current standard: conventional cervical cytology (Pap smears) among HIV-infected women. We evaluated 303 nonpregnant HIV-infected women in Pune, India, by simultaneous and independent screening with VIA and cervical cytology with disease ascertainment by colposcopy and histopathology. At the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) disease threshold, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value estimates of VIA were 80, 82.6, 47.6 and 95.4% respectively, compared to 60.5, 59.6, 22.4 and 88.7% for the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or severe (ASCUS+) cutoff on cytology, 60.5, 64.6, 24.8 and 89.4% for the low-grade squamous intraepithelial cells or severe (LSIL+) cutoff on cytology and 20.9, 96.0, 50.0 and 86.3% for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or severe (HSIL+) cutoff on cytology. A similar pattern of results was found for women with the presence of carcinogenic HPV-positive CIN2+ disease, as well as for women with CD4+ cell counts <200 and <350 µL(-1) . Overall, VIA performed better than cytology in this study with biologically rigorous endpoints and without verification bias, suggesting that VIA is a practical and useful alternative or adjunctive screening test for HIV-infected women. Implementing VIA-based screening within HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care programs may provide an easy and practical means of complementing the highly anticipated low-cost HPV-based rapid screening tests in the near future, thereby contributing to improve program effectiveness of screening.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Colo do Útero/patologia , Citodiagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , HIV/genética , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Índia , Programas de Rastreamento , Teste de Papanicolaou , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 53(10): 1015-8, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21940417

RESUMO

We evaluated tuberculosis (TB) screening among 799 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in India. Eleven (1.4%) had active TB. The negative predictive value of screening using cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss was 99.3%. Tuberculin skin test and targeted chest radiography provided no substantial benefit. TB symptom screening, as recommended by the World Health Organization, is effective for ruling out TB in HIV-infected pregnant women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Programas de Rastreamento , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS Care ; 23(12): 1562-9, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21711178

RESUMO

Little is known about birth outcomes for HIV-infected women in India. We examine maternal and neonatal birth outcomes in HIV-infected women within the context of enhanced pre-natal care associated with a randomized clinical trial conducted in Pune, India. Birth outcomes of 212 HIV-infected pregnant women were compared with those of 130 HIV-uninfected pregnant women attending a government tertiary care hospital between 2002 and 2004. These women and children were participating in the Six Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) study. Birth outcomes and maternal morbidity data were collected at delivery. We found no differences between HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women with respect to the proportion with elevated intrapartum blood pressure, eclampsia, oligohydramnios, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery, or caesarean section (p>0.05). HIV-infected women were more likely to have peri-partum fever (3% versus 0%, p=0.04). There were no differences in neonatal parameters such as low birth weight (LBW), infants who were small for gestational age, or those having congenital anomalies (p>0.05). Compared with infants of HIV-infected women enrolled antenatally, infants of HIV-infected women enrolled in the post-partum ward had a higher risk of pre-term delivery (20% versus 8%, p=0.02) and LBW (41% versus 22%, p=0.002). HIV-infected women in this cohort in India were not found to have significant negative birth outcomes. Antenatal care was important as those not having received any antenatal care prior to deliver were at increased risk of having a pre-term delivery or an infant with LBW. Based on these data, regular antenatal care provided to HIV-infected women can reduce risk of adverse birth outcomes for their infants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Infect Dis ; 203(3): 358-63, 2011 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21208928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established. METHODS: The study population was 783 HIV-infected Indian mother-infant pair participants in randomized and ancillary HIV-infected cohorts of the Six Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) Study, a study comparing extended nevirapine versus single-dose nevirapine, to reduce MTCT of HIV among breast-fed infants. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the impact of maternal TB occurring during pregnancy and through 12 months after delivery on risk of MTCT. RESULTS: Of 783 mothers, 3 had prevalent TB and 30 had incident TB at 12 months after delivery. Of 33 mothers with TB, 10 (30%) transmitted HIV to their infants in comparison with 87 of 750 mothers without TB (12%; odds ratio [OR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-7.29; P = .02). In multivariable analysis, maternal TB was associated with 2.51-fold (95% CI, 1.05-6.02; P = .04) increased odds of HIV transmission adjusting for maternal factors (viral load, CD4 cell count, and antiretroviral therapy) and infant factors (breast-feeding duration, infant nevirapine administration, gestational age, and birth weight) associated with MTCT of HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal TB is associated with increased MTCT of HIV. Prevention of TB among HIV-infected mothers should be a high priority for communities with significant HIV/TB burden.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 5(1): e8634, 2010 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20072610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence estimates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among HIV-infected women in India have been based on cervical cytology, which may have underestimated true disease burden. We sought to better establish prevalence estimates and evaluate risk factors of CIN among HIV-infected women in Pune, India using colposcopy and histopathology as diagnostic tools. METHODOLOGY: Previously unscreened, non-pregnant HIV-infected women underwent cervical cancer screening evaluation including standardized diagnostic colposcopy by a gynecologist. Histopathologic confirmation was conducted among consenting women with clinical suspicion of CIN. The prevalence of CIN was evaluated by a composite diagnosis based on colposcopy and histopathology results. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of increasing severity of CIN. RESULTS: The median age of the n = 303 enrolled HIV-infected women was 30 years (interquartile range, 27-34). A majority of the participants were widowed or separated (187/303, 61.7%), more than one-third (114/302, 37.7%) were not educated beyond primary school, and nearly two-thirds (196/301, 64.7%) had a family per capita income of <1,000 Indian Rupees ( approximately US$22) per month. Cervical high-risk HPV-DNA was detected in 41.7% (124/297) of participants. The composite colposcopic-histopathologic diagnoses revealed no evidence of CIN in 220 out of 303 (72.6%) women, CIN1 in 33/303 (10.9%), CIN2 in 31/303 (10.2%), CIN3 in 18/303 (5.9%) and 1 (0.3%) woman was diagnosed with ICC. Thus, over a quarter of the participants [83/303: 27.7% (95% CI: 22.7-33.1)] had > or =CIN1 lesions and a sixth [50/303: 16.5% (95% CI: 12.2-21.9)] had evidence of advanced (> or =CIN2) neoplastic disease. The independent predictors of increasing severity of CIN as revealed by a proportional odds model using multivariable ordinal logistic regression included (i) currently receiving antiretroviral therapy [adjusted odds ratios (aOR): 2.24 (1.17, 4.26), p = 0.01] and (ii) presence of cervical high-risk HPV-DNA [aOR: 1.93 (1.13, 3.28), p = 0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected women in Pune, India have a substantial burden of cervical precancerous lesions, which may progress to invasive cervical cancer unless appropriately detected and treated. Increased attention should focus on recognizing and addressing this entirely preventable cancer among HIV-infected women, especially in the context of increasing longevity due to antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Colposcopia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
PLoS One ; 4(1): e4096, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19119321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN) trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP) or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV infection during the first year of life. METHODS/FINDINGS: Standard population sequencing and cloning for viral subpopulations present at > or =5% frequency were used to determine HIV genotypes from 94% of the 79 infected Indian infants studied. Timing of infection was defined based on when an infant's blood sample first tested positive for HIV DNA. SWEN-exposed infants diagnosed with HIV by six weeks of age had a significantly higher prevalence of NVP-resistance than those who received SD-NVP, by both standard population sequencing (92% of 12 vs. 38% of 29; p = 0.002) and low frequency clonal analysis (92% of 12 vs. 59% of 29; p = 0.06). Likelihood of infection with NVP-resistant HIV through breast-milk among infants infected after age six weeks was substantial, but prevalence of NVP-resistance did not differ among SWEN or SD-NVP exposed infants by standard population sequencing (15% of 13 vs. 15% of 20; p = 1.00) and clonal analysis (31% of 13 vs. 40% of 20; p = 0.72). Types of NVP-resistance mutations and patterns of persistence at one year of age were similar between the two groups. NVP-resistance mutations did differ by timing of HIV infection; the Y181C variant was predominant among infants diagnosed in the first six weeks of life, compared to Y188C/H during late breast-milk transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of SWEN to prevent breast-milk HIV transmission carries a high likelihood of resistance if infection occurs in the first six weeks of life. Moreover, there was a continued risk of transmission of NVP-resistant HIV through breastfeeding during the first year of life, but did not differ between SD-NVP and SWEN groups. As with SD-NVP, the value of preventing HIV infection in a large number of infants should be considered alongside the high risk of resistance associated with extended NVP prophylaxis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00061321.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV/metabolismo , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Leite Humano/virologia , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Carga Viral
19.
Lancet ; 372(9635): 300-13, 2008 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18657709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to assess whether daily nevirapine given to breastfed infants through 6 weeks of age can decrease HIV transmission via breastfeeding. METHODS: HIV-infected women breastfeeding their infants were eligible for participation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either single-dose nevirapine (nevirapine 200 mg to women in labour and nevirapine 2 mg/kg to newborns after birth) or 6 week extended-dose nevirapine (nevirapine 200 mg to women in labour and nevirapine 2 mg/kg to newborn babies after birth plus nevirapine 5 mg daily from days 8-42 for the infant). The randomisation sequences were generated by computer at a central data coordinating centre. The primary endpoint was HIV infection at 6 months of age in infants who were HIV PCR negative at birth. Analyses were by modified intention to treat, excluding infants with missing specimens and those with indeterminate or confirmed HIV infection at birth. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00074399, NCT00061321, and NCT00639938. FINDINGS: 2024 liveborn infants randomised in the study had at least one specimen tested before 6 months of age (1047 infants in the single-dose group and 977 infants in the extended-dose group). The modified intention-to-treat population included 986 infants in the single-dose group and 901 in the extended-dose group. At 6 months, 87 children in the single-dose group and 62 in the extended-dose group were infected with HIV (relative risk 0.80, 95% CI 0.58-1.10; p=0.16). At 6 weeks of age, 54 children in the single-dose group and 25 in the extended-dose group were HIV positive (0.54, 0.34-0.85; p=0.009). 393 infants in the single-dose group and 346 in the extended-dose group experienced grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events during the study (p=0.54). INTERPRETATION: Although a 6-week regimen of daily nevirapine might be associated with a reduction in the risk of HIV transmission at 6 weeks of age, the lack of a significant reduction in the primary endpoint-risk of HIV transmission at 6 months-suggests that a longer course of daily infant nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission via breast milk might be more effective where access to affordable and safe replacement feeding is not yet available and where the risks of replacement feeding are high. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health; US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Fogarty International Center.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Etiópia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Uganda
20.
AIDS Care ; 20(9): 1111-8, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18608074

RESUMO

HIV-positive women of reproductive age face challenges in decision making related to pregnancy. Understanding factors influencing repeat pregnancies in women with known HIV status are necessary to guide interventions and counseling strategies to better inform and support them. We compared three groups of women attending a large antenatal clinic in Pune, India. They include: Group A--63 HIV-positive women coming for care for a repeat pregnancy after being diagnosed in a previous pregnancy; Group B--64 HIV-negative (repeat) pregnant women attending this antenatal clinic; and Group C--63 HIV-positive non-pregnant women currently enrolled in an ongoing clinical trial. Comparisons of Group A and B indicate that the likelihood of unplanned repeat pregnancies was significantly higher in HIV-positive (70%) than HIV-negative (36%) women (OR=4.1, CI: 2.0-8.7). Inability to terminate the pregnancy (31%) and familial obligations (40%) appear to be important for continuing the unplanned repeat pregnancy. Despite high reported contraceptive use by HIV-positive women, pregnancies still occurred. Death of their youngest child is an important factor as 21% of HIV-positive pregnant women lost their youngest child compared with 3% of HIV-negative women and 3% of HIV-positive non-pregnant women (p<0.001). Repeat pregnancies were more likely to occur for women who did not disclose their HIV status to their spouse. Thus the majority of the repeat pregnancies for HIV-positive women were both unplanned and unwanted.


Assuntos
Número de Gestações , Soropositividade para HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Aborto Induzido , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Tomada de Decisões , Conflito Familiar/etnologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada
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