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1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918630

RESUMO

Nutritional deficiencies are a leading underlying risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. In Pakistan, late adolescence is considered a nutritionally vulnerable period, as micronutrient requirements are increased to support maturation, and dietary staples are nutrient poor. However, there has been limited evaluation of micronutrient status beyond anemia and its determinants. Using cross-sectional data from late adolescent and young women (15-23 years) at enrolment in the Matiari emPowerment and Preconception Supplementation (MaPPS) Trial, we aimed to describe the prevalence of key micronutrient deficiencies of public health concern, and generate hierarchical models to examine associations with proxies for social determinants of health (SDoH). The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies was high: 53.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.0-54.3%) had anemia; 38.0% (95% CI: 36.4-39.6%) iron deficiency anemia; 31.8% (95% CI: 30.2-33.3%) vitamin A deficiency; and 81.1% (95% CI: 79.8-82.4%) vitamin D deficiency. At least one deficiency was experienced by 91.0% (95% CI: 90.1-92.0%). Few SDoH were maintained in the final hierarchical models, although those maintained were often related to socioeconomic status (e.g., education, occupation). To improve the micronutrient status of late adolescent and young women in Pakistan, a direct micronutrient intervention is warranted, and should be paired with broader poverty alleviation methods.

2.
Nutr Rev ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846729

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Approximately 7.3 million births occur annually among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. Pregnant adolescents constitute a nutritionally vulnerable group that could benefit from intervention to mitigate the mortality and adverse birth outcomes associated with adolescent pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the following: (1) the effect of multiple-micronutrient (MMN) supplementation vs iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation among adolescents on maternal morbidity, birth outcomes, and mortality outcomes, (2) the effects of MMN supplementation in adolescents compared with the effects in adult women, and (3) the effect modification, if any, of MMN supplementation by baseline and geographic characteristics of adolescents. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched, along with the reference lists of relevant reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Multiple-micronutrient supplementation trials in pregnancy that were conducted in a low- or middle-income country and had included at least 100 adolescents (10-19 years of age) were eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility. DATA EXTRACTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials conducted in Africa and Asia were identified from 1792 reviews and 1578 original trials. Individual-level data was shared by study collaborators and was checked for completeness and extreme values. One- and two-stage individual participant data meta-analyses were conducted using data from randomized controlled trials of MMN supplementation. RESULTS: A total of 15 283 adolescents and 44 499 adult women with singleton births were included in the individual participant data meta-analyses of MMN supplementation vs IFA supplementation. In adolescents, MMN supplementation reduced low birth weight (1-stage OR = 0.87, 95%CI 0.77-0.97; 2-stage OR = 0.81; 95%CI 0.74-0.88), preterm birth (1-stage OR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.80-0.98; 2-stage OR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.79-0.95), and small-for-gestational-age births (1-stage OR = 0.90, 95%CI 0.81-1.00; 2-stage OR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.79-0.95) when compared with IFA supplementation. The effects of MMN supplementation did not differ between adolescents and older women, although a potentially greater reduction in small-for-gestational-age births was observed among adolescents. Effect modification by baseline characteristics and geographic region was inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple-micronutrient supplementation can improve birth outcomes among pregnant adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. Policy related to antenatal care in these settings should prioritize MMN supplementation over the currently recommended IFA supplementation for all pregnant women, especially adolescents.

3.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-18, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896306

RESUMO

Introduction: Established in 1994, Pakistan's polio program demonstrated early success. However, despite over 120 supplementary immunization activities in the last decade, polio eradication efforts in Pakistan have been unable to achieve their objective of halting polio transmission. Variable governance, and inconsistent leadership and accountability have hindered the success of the polio program and the quality of the campaigns. Insecurity and terrorism has interrupted polio activities, and community fears and misbeliefs about polio vaccinations continue to persist.Areas covered: The article consists of a systematic review of the barriers and facilitators associated with the delivery of polio eradication activities in Pakistan. We also provide a comprehensive review of the policy and programmatic decisions made by the Pakistan Polio Programme since 1994. Searches were conducted on Embase and Medline databases and 25 gray literature sources.Expert opinion: Polio eradication efforts must be integrated with other preventive health services, particularly immunization services. Addressing the underlying causes of polio refusals including underdevelopment and social exclusion will help counteract resistance to polio vaccination. Achieving polio eradication will require building health systems that provide comprehensive community-centered care, and improving governance and systems of accountability.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e681-e690, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865473

RESUMO

This paper shows the scale of global health research and the context in which we frame the subsequent papers in the Series. In this Series paper, we provide a historical perspective on clinical trial research by revisiting the 1948 streptomycin trial for pulmonary tuberculosis, which was the first documented randomised clinical trial in the English language, and we discuss its close connection with global health. We describe the current state of clinical trial research globally by providing an overview of clinical trials that have been registered in the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry since 2010. We discuss challenges with current trial planning and designs that are often used in clinical trial research undertaken in low-income and middle-income countries, as an overview of the global health trials landscape. Finally, we discuss the importance of collaborative work in global health research towards generating sustainable and culturally appropriate research environments.

5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e691-e700, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865474

RESUMO

In global health research, short-term, small-scale clinical trials with fixed, two-arm trial designs that generally do not allow for major changes throughout the trial are the most common study design. Building on the introductory paper of this Series, this paper discusses data-driven approaches to clinical trial research across several adaptive trial designs, as well as the master protocol framework that can help to harmonise clinical trial research efforts in global health research. We provide a general framework for more efficient trial research, and we discuss the importance of considering different study designs in the planning stage with statistical simulations. We conclude this second Series paper by discussing the methodological and operational complexity of adaptive trial designs and master protocols and the current funding challenges that could limit uptake of these approaches in global health research.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e701-e710, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865475

RESUMO

Evaluating whether an intervention works when trialled in groups of individuals can pose complex challenges for clinical research. Cluster randomised controlled trials involve the random allocation of groups or clusters of individuals to receive an intervention, and they are commonly used in global health research. In this paper, we describe the potential reasons for the increasing popularity of cluster trials in low-income and middle-income countries. We also draw on key areas of global health research for an assessment of common trial planning practices, and we address their methodological shortcomings and pitfalls. Lastly, we discuss alternative approaches for population-level intervention trials that could be useful for research undertaken in low-income and middle-income countries for situations in which the use of cluster randomisation might not be appropriate.

7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885740

RESUMO

Importance: Detailed information about the association of COVID-19 with outcomes in pregnant individuals compared with not-infected pregnant individuals is much needed. Objective: To evaluate the risks associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with not-infected, concomitant pregnant individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study that took place from March to October 2020, involving 43 institutions in 18 countries, 2 unmatched, consecutive, not-infected women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each infected woman was identified, at any stage of pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed up until hospital discharge. Exposures: COVID-19 in pregnancy determined by laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 and/or radiological pulmonary findings or 2 or more predefined COVID-19 symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measures were indices of (maternal and severe neonatal/perinatal) morbidity and mortality; the individual components of these indices were secondary outcomes. Models for these outcomes were adjusted for country, month entering study, maternal age, and history of morbidity. Results: A total of 706 pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis and 1424 pregnant women without COVID-19 diagnosis were enrolled, all with broadly similar demographic characteristics (mean [SD] age, 30.2 [6.1] years). Overweight early in pregnancy occurred in 323 women (48.6%) with COVID-19 diagnosis and 554 women (40.2%) without. Women with COVID-19 diagnosis were at higher risk for preeclampsia/eclampsia (relative risk [RR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.27-2.43), severe infections (RR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.63-7.01), intensive care unit admission (RR, 5.04; 95% CI, 3.13-8.10), maternal mortality (RR, 22.3; 95% CI, 2.88-172), preterm birth (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30-1.94), medically indicated preterm birth (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.56-2.51), severe neonatal morbidity index (RR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.69-4.18), and severe perinatal morbidity and mortality index (RR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.66-2.75). Fever and shortness of breath for any duration was associated with increased risk of severe maternal complications (RR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.92-3.40) and neonatal complications (RR, 4.97; 95% CI, 2.11-11.69). Asymptomatic women with COVID-19 diagnosis remained at higher risk only for maternal morbidity (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54) and preeclampsia (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.63). Among women who tested positive (98.1% by real-time polymerase chain reaction), 54 (13%) of their neonates tested positive. Cesarean delivery (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.18-3.91) but not breastfeeding (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85) was associated with increased risk for neonatal test positivity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multinational cohort study, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with consistent and substantial increases in severe maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal complications when pregnant women with and without COVID-19 diagnosis were compared. The findings should alert pregnant individuals and clinicians to implement strictly all the recommended COVID-19 preventive measures.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low/middle-income countries (LMICs) face triple burden of malnutrition associated with infectious diseases, and non-communicable diseases. This review aims to synthesise the available data on the delivery, coverage, and effectiveness of the nutrition programmes for conflict affected women and children living in LMICs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases and grey literature using terms related to conflict, population, and nutrition. We searched studies on women and children receiving nutrition-specific interventions during or within five years of a conflict in LMICs. We extracted information on population, intervention, and delivery characteristics, as well as delivery barriers and facilitators. Data on intervention coverage and effectiveness were tabulated, but no meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Ninety-one pubblications met our inclusion criteria. Nearly half of the publications (n=43) included population of sub-Saharan Africa (n=31) followed by Middle East and North African region. Most publications (n=58) reported on interventions targeting children under 5 years of age, and pregnant and lactating women (n=27). General food distribution (n=34), micronutrient supplementation (n=27) and nutrition assessment (n=26) were the most frequently reported interventions, with most reporting on intervention delivery to refugee populations in camp settings (n=63) and using community-based approaches. Only eight studies reported on coverage and effectiveness of intervention. Key delivery facilitators included community advocacy and social mobilisation, effective monitoring and the integration of nutrition, and other sectoral interventions and services, and barriers included insufficient resources, nutritional commodity shortages, security concerns, poor reporting, limited cooperation, and difficulty accessing and following-up of beneficiaries. DISCUSSION: Despite the focus on nutrition in conflict settings, our review highlights important information gaps. Moreover, there is very little information on coverage or effectiveness of nutrition interventions; more rigorous evaluation of effectiveness and delivery approaches is needed, including outside of camps and for preventive as well as curative nutrition interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019125221.

10.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(5): 483-493, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646288

RESUMO

Importance: The etiologic complexities of preterm birth remain inadequately understood, which may impede the development of better preventative and treatment measures. Objective: To examine the association between specific preterm-birth phenotypes and clinical, growth, and neurodevelopmental differences among preterm newborns compared with term newborns up to age 2 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: The INTERBIO-21st study included a cohort of preterm and term newborn singletons enrolled between March 2012 and June 2018 from maternity hospitals in 6 countries worldwide who were followed up from birth to age 2 years. All pregnancies were dated by ultrasonography. Data were analyzed from November 2019 to October 2020. Exposures/Interventions: Preterm-birth phenotypes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Infant size, health, nutrition, and World Health Organization motor development milestones assessed at ages 1 and 2 years; neurodevelopment evaluated at age 2 years using the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment (INTER-NDA) tool. Results: A total of 6529 infants (3312 boys [50.7%]) were included in the analysis. Of those, 1381 were preterm births (mean [SD] gestational age at birth, 34.4 [0.1] weeks; 5148 were term births (mean [SD] gestational age at birth, 39.4 [0] weeks). Among 1381 preterm newborns, 8 phenotypes were identified: no main maternal, fetal, or placental condition detected (485 infants [35.1%]); infections (289 infants [20.9%]); preeclampsia (162 infants [11.7%]); fetal distress (131 infants [9.5%]); intrauterine growth restriction (110 infants [8.0%]); severe maternal disease (85 infants [6.2%]); bleeding (71 infants [5.1%]); and congenital anomaly (48 infants [3.5%]). For all phenotypes, a previous preterm birth was a risk factor for recurrence. Each phenotype displayed differences in neonatal morbidity and infant outcomes. For example, infants with the no main condition detected phenotype had low neonatal morbidity but increased morbidity and hospitalization incidence at age 1 year (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.7). Compared with term newborns, the highest risk of scoring lower than the 10th centile of INTER-NDA normative values was observed in the fine motor development domain among newborns with the fetal distress (OR, 10.6; 95% CI, 5.1-22.2) phenotype. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that phenotypic classification may provide a better understanding of the etiologic factors and mechanisms associated with preterm birth than continuing to consider it an exclusively time-based entity.

11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD000230, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that low serum zinc levels may be associated with suboptimal outcomes of pregnancy, such as prolonged labour, atonic postpartum haemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preterm labour and post-term pregnancies, although these associations have not yet been established. This is an update of a review first published in 1997 and subsequently updated in 2007, 2012 and 2015. OBJECTIVES: 1. To compare the effects on maternal, fetal, neonatal and infant outcomes in healthy pregnant women receiving zinc supplementation versus no zinc supplementation, or placebo. 2. To assess the above outcomes in a subgroup analysis reviewing studies performed in women who are, or are likely to be, zinc-deficient. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (3 July 2020), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of zinc supplementation versus no zinc supplementation or placebo administration during pregnancy, earlier than 27 weeks' gestation. We excluded quasi-randomised controlled trials. We intended to include studies presented only as abstracts, if they provided enough information or, if necessary, by contacting authors to analyse them against our criteria; we did not find any such studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors applied the study selection criteria, assessed trial quality and extracted data. When necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: For this update, we included 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving over 18,000 women and their babies. The overall risk of bias was low in half of the studies. The evidence suggests that zinc supplementation may result in little or no difference in reducing preterm births (risk ratio (RR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.03; 21 studies, 9851 participants; low-certainty evidence). Further, zinc supplementation may make little or no difference in reducing the risk of stillbirth (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.88; 7 studies, 3295 participants; low-certainty evidence), or perinatal deaths (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.51; 2 studies, 2489 participants; low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether zinc supplementation reduces neonatal death, because the certainty of the evidence is very low. Finally, for other birth outcomes, zinc supplementation may make little or no difference to mean birthweight (MD 13.83, 95% CI -15.81 to 43.46; 22 studies, 7977 participants; low-certainty evidence), and probably makes little or no difference in reducing the risk of low birthweight (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.13; 17 studies, 7399 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and small-for-gestational age babies when compared to placebo or no zinc supplementation (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.12; 9 studies, 5330 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We did not conduct subgroup analyses, as very few studies used normal zinc populations. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence that zinc supplementation during pregnancy results in improvements in maternal or neonatal outcomes. Future research to address ways of improving the overall nutritional status of pregnant women, particularly in low-income regions, and not looking at zinc in isolation, should be an urgent priority.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Zinco/sangue
12.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 647-652, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737749

RESUMO

Many observational studies and some randomized trials demonstrate how fetal growth can be influenced by environmental insults (for example, maternal infections)1 and preventive interventions (for example, multiple-micronutrient supplementation)2 that can have a long-lasting effect on health, growth, neurodevelopment and even educational attainment and income in adulthood3. In a cohort of pregnant women (n = 3,598), followed-up between 2012 and 2019 at six sites worldwide4, we studied the associations between ultrasound-derived fetal cranial growth trajectories, measured longitudinally from <14 weeks' gestation, against international standards5,6, and growth and neurodevelopment up to 2 years of age7,8. We identified five trajectories associated with specific neurodevelopmental, behavioral, visual and growth outcomes, independent of fetal abdominal growth, postnatal morbidity and anthropometric measures at birth and age 2. The trajectories, which changed within a 20-25-week gestational age window, were associated with brain development at 2 years of age according to a mirror (positive/negative) pattern, mostly focused on maturation of cognitive, language and visual skills. Further research should explore the potential for preventive interventions in pregnancy to improve infant neurodevelopmental outcomes before the critical window of opportunity that precedes the divergence of growth at 20-25 weeks' gestation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feto/embriologia , Crânio/embriologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cefalometria , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Gravidez
13.
Lancet ; 397(10282): 1400-1418, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691095

RESUMO

As the world counts down to the 2025 World Health Assembly nutrition targets and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, millions of women, children, and adolescents worldwide remain undernourished (underweight, stunted, and deficient in micronutrients), despite evidence on effective interventions and increasing political commitment to, and financial investment in, nutrition. The COVID-19 pandemic has crippled health systems, exacerbated household food insecurity, and reversed economic growth, which together could set back improvements in undernutrition across low-income and middle-income countries. This paper highlights how the evidence base for nutrition, health, food systems, social protection, and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions has evolved since the 2013 Lancet Series on maternal and child nutrition and identifies the priority actions needed to regain and accelerate progress within the next decade. Policies and interventions targeting the first 1000 days of life, including some newly identified since 2013, require renewed commitment, implementation research, and increased funding from both domestic and global actors. A new body of evidence from national and state-level success stories in stunting reduction reinforces the crucial importance of multisectoral actions to address the underlying determinants of undernutrition and identifies key features of enabling political environments. To support these actions, well-resourced nutrition data and information systems are essential. The paper concludes with a call to action for the 2021 Nutrition for Growth Summit to unite global and national nutrition stakeholders around common priorities to tackle a large, unfinished undernutrition agenda-now amplified by the COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Feminino , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
14.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(5): 367-384, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691083

RESUMO

Malnutrition-consisting of undernutrition, overweight and obesity, and micronutrient deficiencies-continues to afflict millions of women and children, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since the 2013 Lancet Series on maternal and child nutrition, evidence on the ten recommended interventions has increased, along with evidence of newer interventions. Evidence on the effectiveness of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in reducing the risk of stillbirths, low birthweight, and babies born small-for-gestational age has strengthened. Evidence continues to support the provision of supplementary food in food-insecure settings and community-based approaches with the use of locally produced supplementary and therapeutic food to manage children with acute malnutrition. Some emerging interventions, such as preventive small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements for children aged 6-23 months, have shown positive effects on child growth. For the prevention and management of childhood obesity, integrated interventions (eg, diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy) are most effective, although there is little evidence from LMICs. Lastly, indirect nutrition strategies, such as malaria prevention, preconception care, water, sanitation, and hygiene promotion, delivered inside and outside the health-care sector also provide important nutritional benefits. Looking forward, greater effort is required to improve intervention coverage, especially for the most vulnerable, and there is a crucial need to address the growing double burden of malnutrition (undernutrition, and overweight and obesity) in LMICs.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Saúde Materna , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrição/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estilo de Vida , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Saneamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(Suppl 1)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While much progress was made throughout the Millennium Development Goals era in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, both remain unacceptably high, especially in areas affected by humanitarian crises. While valuable guidance on interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health in both non-crisis and crisis settings exists, guidance on how best to deliver these interventions in crisis settings, and especially in conflict settings, is still limited. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the available literature on the delivery on maternal and neonatal health interventions in conflict settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases using terms related to conflict, women and children, and maternal and neonatal health. We searched websites of 10 humanitarian organisations for relevant grey literature. Publications reporting on conflict-affected populations in low-income and middle-income countries and describing a maternal or neonatal health intervention delivered during or within 5 years after the end of a conflict were included. Information on population, intervention, and delivery characteristics were extracted and narratively synthesised. Quantitative data on intervention coverage and effectiveness were tabulated but no meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: 115 publications met our eligibility criteria. Intervention delivery was most frequently reported in the sub-Saharan Africa region, and most publications focused on displaced populations based in camps. Reported maternal interventions targeted antenatal, obstetric and postnatal care; neonatal interventions focused mostly on essential newborn care. Most interventions were delivered in hospitals and clinics, by doctors and nurses, and were mostly delivered through non-governmental organisations or the existing healthcare system. Delivery barriers included insecurity, lack of resources and lack of skilled health staff. Multi-stakeholder collaboration, the introduction of new technology or systems innovations, and staff training were delivery facilitators. Reporting of intervention coverage or effectiveness data was limited. DISCUSSION: The relevant existing literature focuses mostly on maternal health especially around the antenatal period. There is still limited literature on postnatal care in conflict settings and even less on newborn care. In crisis settings, as much as in non-crisis settings, there is a need to focus on the first day of birth for both maternal and neonatal health. There is also a need to do more research on how best to involve community members in the delivery of maternal and neonatal health interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019125221.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Saúde da Criança , Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Materna , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez
16.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(3): 271-275, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631771

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, continues to plague children across the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The situation has worsened alongside the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic because of major systemic disruptions to food supply, healthcare, and employment. Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) is a potential strategy for improving micronutrient intakes through the addition of vitamins and minerals to staple foods and improving the nutritional status of populations at large. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence unquestionably supports the use of LSFF to improve micronutrient status. Evidence syntheses have also demonstrated impact on some functional outcomes, including anemia, wasting, underweight, and neural tube defects, that underpin poor health and development. Importantly, many of these effects have also been reflected in effectiveness studies that examine LSFF in real-world situations as opposed to under-controlled environments. However, programmatic challenges must be addressed in LMICs in order for LSFF efforts to reach their full potential. SUMMARY: LSFF is an important strategy that has the potential to improve the health and nutrition of entire populations of vulnerable children. Now more than ever, existing programs should be strengthened and new programs implemented in areas with widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/tendências , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/terapia , Alimentos Fortificados/provisão & distribução , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e045862, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative is an international consortium comprising four harmonised but independently powered trials to evaluate whether an integrated intervention starting preconceptionally will reduce non-communicable disease risk in their children. This paper describes the protocol of the India study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study set in rural Mysore will recruit ~6000 married women over the age of 18 years. The village-based cluster randomised design has three arms (preconception, pregnancy and control; 35 villages per arm). The longitudinal multifaceted intervention package will be delivered by community health workers and comprise: (1) measures to optimise nutrition; (2) a group parenting programme integrated with cognitive-behavioral therapy; (3) a lifestyle behaviour change intervention to support women to achieve a diverse diet, exclusive breast feeding for the first 6 months, timely introduction of diverse and nutritious infant weaning foods, and adopt appropriate hygiene measures; and (4) the reduction of environmental pollution focusing on indoor air pollution and toxin avoidance.The primary outcome is adiposity in children at age 5 years, measured by fat mass index. We will report on a host of intermediate and process outcomes. We will collect a range of biospecimens including blood, urine, stool and saliva from the mothers, as well as umbilical cord blood, placenta and specimens from the offspring.An intention-to-treat analysis will be adopted to assess the effect of interventions on outcomes. We will also undertake process and economic evaluations to determine scalability and public health translation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the institutional ethics committee of the lead institute. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. We will interact with policy makers at local, national and international agencies to enable translation. We will also share the findings with the participants and local community through community meetings, newsletters and local radio. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN20161479, CTRI/2020/12/030134; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , População Rural , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez
18.
J Adolesc ; 88: 58-66, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sexual development in females and males are routinely measured according to the Tanner Stages. Sparse data exist on the timing of pubertal milestones in Pakistan. To fill this gap, the age of attainment of pubertal milestones and their relationship with nutritional status was explored among children and adolescents living in the rural district of Matiari, Pakistan. METHODS: Anthropometry, nutrition biomarkers and Tanner Stage were assessed among girls aged 9.0-14.9 years (n = 723) and boys aged 10.0-15.9 years (n = 662) who were free from known disease in the rural District of Matiari, Pakistan. Median age was calculated for all Tanner Stages and menarche. Multivariable linear regressions were undertaken to determine covariates associated with the timing (age) of pubertal milestones. RESULTS: Among participants living in this rural community, the median age of puberty onset for girls was 11.9 years (95%CI:10.9; 12.5) and boys was 12.3 years (95%CI:11.5; 12.9). Age at first menarche was 12.9 years (95%CI:12.1; 13.3). Undernutrition was widespread among adolescents in this community. Thirty-seven percent of females and 27.0% of males were stunted while 20.5% of females and 31.3% of males were thin. Only 8% (n = 58) of females and 12% (n = 78) of males were free from any nutrient deficiency with most adolescents having two or three nutrient deficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition (stunting or thinness) was associated with relatively older ages for early puberty stages but not puberty completion. This may decrease the duration of the pubertal growth spurt and curtail potential catch-up growth that may occur during puberty. Efforts to decrease nutrient deficiencies, stunting and thinness beyond childhood should be made in rural Pakistan.

19.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517816

RESUMO

Introduction: Infections during pregnancy are a preventable public health concern globally, with the highest burden occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Despite clear interventions to reduce these infections, their impact on preventing stillbirths is unclear, with conflicting evidence.Areas covered: The purpose of this review is to discuss data regarding infectious causes of stillbirths, and interventions for the prevention and/or treatment of these infections. We discuss the limitations in evaluating the true effect of the interventions on stillbirths, and highlight the importance of preventing infections in the grand scheme of improving maternal and infant pregnancy outcomes. We used PubMed to identify relevant studies, reviews, and meta-analysis until January 2021.Expert opinion: Maternal infections during pregnancy, especially malaria and syphilis, are notable causes of stillbirth in low- and middle-income countries. Despite considerable global advocacy, there is scant recognition of the potential to reduce the burden of antepartum stillbirths related to infections. Reducing stillbirths overall must become an important indicator for quality of care and accountability, and progress must also be assessed by coverage of key interventions that impact stillbirths, which includes population-based screening, prevention and timely treatment of infections during pregnancy.

20.
Nutr Rev ; 79(3): 289-300, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570583

RESUMO

Worldwide, there is an array of clinical trials under way to evaluate treatment options against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Concurrently, several nutritional therapies and alternative supportive treatments are also being used and tested to reduce the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19. In the context of COVID-19, improved nutrition that includes micronutrient supplementation to augment the immune system has been recognized as a viable approach to both prevent and alleviate the severity of the infection. The potential role of micronutrients as immune-boosting agents is particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries, which already have an existing high burden of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. A systematic literature review was performed to identify nutritional interventions that might prevent or aid in the recovery from COVID-19. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched electronically from February to April 2020. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined for their relevance to this review. The information gathered was collated under various categories. Deficiencies of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, zinc, iron, and selenium, are common among vulnerable populations in general and among COVID-19 patients in particular and could plausibly increase the risk of mortality. Judicious use of need-based micronutrient supplementation, alongside existing micronutrient fortification programs, is warranted in the current global pandemic, especially in low- and middle-income economies.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Micronutrientes , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , /imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Ferro , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Vitamina A , Zinco
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