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1.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 39(6): 451-458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the differences in mean ocular dimensions between urban and rural children and identify possible influencing factors. METHODS: This work uses previously published data from the Shandong Children Eye Study, which was based on a random cluster sampling applied to a cross-sectional school-based study design in the rural Guanxian County and Weihai city. All children underwent auto-refractometry and biometry under cycloplegia. RESULTS: The study included 3290 children (aged 9.35 ± 2.93 years), consisting of 888 pairs of boys and 757 pairs of girls matched by sex, age and refractive error (each pair matching one child from urban cohort with one from the rural cohort). Overall urban children were significantly taller and heavier than rural children (t-test; p < 0.001), which was confirmed for all age groups for weight. Urban ocular axial lengths were significantly longer by 0.23 mm compared to the rural population (t-test; p < 0.001), mostly in younger children and boys. Meanwhile, corneal curvatures were flatter in the urban cohort by 0.08 mm (p < 0.001). This association of axial length with urban vs rural region was reduced in magnitude by 69.7% after accounting for height. CONCLUSIONS: For the same, matched refractive error, children from urban regions had significantly longer eyes and flatter corneal curvature than rural children. Since corneal curvature is defined during the first 2 years of life, early environmental factors may be the source of these differences in ocular dimensions.

2.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 919-927, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624054

RESUMO

Fibrillin-2 (FBN2) is an important component of microfibers which are involved in the formation of elastic fibers in connective tissue throughout the human body. Hereditary connective tissue diseases may result from genetic mutations of FBN2 causing heterogeneity of fibrin. Genetic mutations of FBN2 are associated with a variety of hereditary connective tissue diseases including Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyl (CCA), Macular Degeneration (MD), and myopathy. Studies have shown that the FBN2 gene is recognized as the only pathogenic gene related to CCA and that CCA patients have different clinical presentations depending on the identified genetic mutations at different FBN2 sites. In this review, we summarize the roles of FBN2, its mutations and impact on the physiological and pathological processes of many hereditary connective tissue diseases. We include brief descriptions of clinical manifestations of these diseases providing a basis for further exploration of the specific molecular mechanism of FBN2 gene mutation pathogenesis which provides a theoretical basis for the therapy and medications for refractory diseases caused by FBN2 gene mutation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fibrilina-2/genética , Humanos , Mutação
3.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 43(4): 247-50, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Restraint manipulation is necessary for observing the effect of acupuncture or moxibustion stimulation on various variables in the experimental study. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the impact of restraint manipulation on rats' learning-memory ability, visional acuity, and body mass, so as to have a reasonable assessment on the influence of restraint stress. METHODS: Normal Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a restraint group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). In the restraint group, self-made restraint devices were used to bind the rats for 30 min daily for 30 consecutive days. The body mass of the rats was monitored daily; and the learningmemory ability and the visional acuity assessed using visual water task. RESULTS: After 30 days' restraint, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the training times for acquiring a correct rate of 80% in the learning-memory tests, and visional acuity and body mass (P ï¹¥0.05). CONCLUSION: Thirty days' restraint has no obvious impact on the increase of body weight, learning-memory and visional acuity in normal rats, suggesting an applicable of restraint device in acupuncture study.

4.
Brain Res Bull ; 132: 199-203, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602762

RESUMO

In our previous study, we found that the normalized levels of the synaptosomal filament actin (F-actin) to monomeric global actin (G-actin) ratio in the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats was significantly lower on postnatal day (P) 45 compared with P30, however, the synaptic density in the monocular area of primary visual cortex (V1M) maintained a stable high level from P30 to P45. The mechanisms underlying the different patterned of change in synaptic density and actin rearrangements from P30 to P45 are unclear. During visual development, there is a synaptic pruning process in the binocular segment of primates' visual cortex (V1B) and we suppose the pruning activity may contribute to the decreased synaptosomal F-actin to G-actin ratio. To address this issue, first, samples were derived from the region of V1B for TEM analysis but no significant difference was demonstrated between the P30 and P45 groups. In addition, the expression of PSD-95 detected by immunobloting in the synaptosomes of V1 at P30 and P45 also showed no significant difference. Combined with the previous results of actin dynamics in the V1 and synaptic density in the V1M, we conclude that the synaptic density and actin dynamics in the rats' primary visual cortex are inter-related but not absolutely identical. This study suggests actin cytoskeleton not only provides the structural basis but also regulates a various array of cellular activities underlying synaptic function. Besides, it highlights a further research of synaptic pruning.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/ultraestrutura , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Sinaptossomos/ultraestrutura , Córtex Visual/ultraestrutura
6.
EBioMedicine ; 17: 134-144, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256400

RESUMO

To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2-3weeks) which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1) or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2) received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15µg) three times in intervals of 9days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00ng, respectively). In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.


Assuntos
Anfirregulina/farmacologia , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Anfirregulina/administração & dosagem , Anfirregulina/imunologia , Anfirregulina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Cobaias , Injeções Intraoculares , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Brain Res Bull ; 130: 173-179, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28163071

RESUMO

Until recently most researches on myopia mechanisms have mainly been focused on the eye ball and few investigations were explored on the upper visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. The roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the retinal and in the upper visual pathway are inter-correlated. As the retinal glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA, and the mRNA levels of GABA receptors increased during the concave lens induced myopia formation, however, whether GABA alterations also occurred in the visual cortex during the concave lens induction is still unknown. In the present study, using HPLC, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Real-Time Quantitative-PCR (RT-PCR) methods, we observed the changing trends of GABA, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA receptors in the visual cortex of concave lens-induced myopic guinea pigs. Similar to the changing patterns of retinal GABA, the concentrations of GAD, GABA and the mRNA levels of GABA receptors in the visual cortex also increased. These results indicate that the exploration on myopia mechanisms should possibly be investigated on the whole visual pathway and the detailed significance of cortical GABA alterations needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Miopia/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Córtex Visual/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Cobaias , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(2): 901-906, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159977

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze morphologic features of segmental parapapillary diffuse choroidal atrophy (PDCA) in children. Methods: The study group included children (age ≤15 years) with high myopia who attended the Tokyo High Myopia Clinic. Control groups comprised participants of the population-based Gobi Desert Children Eye Study (GobiDCES). Fundus photographs were examined for presence of PDCA and choroidal thickness (CT) was measured by optical coherence tomography. Results: The study group included 41 eyes of 21 children with PDCA (mean age: 9.4 ± 3.7 years; mean refractive error: -11.5 ± 3.1 diopters) and the GobiDCES included 1463 children (age: 11.8 ± 3.5 years). In the study group, all eyes showed an extreme and abrupt thinning of the temporal parapapillary choroid. At 2500 µm nasal to the foveola, CT was <60 µm in 31 (76%) eyes of the study group but in none (0/1463) of the GobiDCES (P < 0.001), except for one child with PDCA. Conclusions: Parapapillary diffuse choroidal atrophy in children is associated with abrupt segmental thinning of the choroid in the temporal parapapillary region, in addition to the thinning of the subfoveal choroid after adjusting for refractive error and age.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho/patologia , Corioide/patologia , Fóvea Central/patologia , Miopia/patologia , Refração Ocular , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adolescente , Atrofia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 45(2): 112-119, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the corneal diameter and its associations in children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand twenty-six children aged 4-18 years were included in the Shandong Children Eye Study. METHODS: Horizontal corneal diameter was measured by laser interferometry-based ocular biometry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Horizontal corneal diameter. RESULTS: Corneal diameter measurements were available for 5970 (99.1%) children. In multivariate analysis, larger horizontal corneal diameter (mean: 12.02 ± 0.38 mm; range: 10.1-15.0 mm) was associated with longer corneal curvature radius longer axial length, male gender, younger maternal age, rural region of habitation and lower intraocular pressure measurements. Higher prevalence of abnormally large corneas (macrocorneas; horizontal diameter ≥ 12.76 mm; mean value +2 × standard deviations; mean: 2.6%; 95% CI: 2.2, 3.0) was associated with longer corneal curvature radius, longer axial length, younger maternal age and male gender. Higher prevalence of abnormally small corneas (horizontal diameter ≤ 11.24mm; mean value -2 × standard deviations; mean: 2.4%; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.8) was correlated with shorter corneal curvature radius, shorter axial length and urban region of habitation. Neither abnormally large nor small corneas were correlated with time spent indoors/outdoors. CONCLUSIONS: In 4 to 18-year-old children, larger corneal diameter was associated most strongly with flatter corneal curvature, followed by longer axial length and male gender. Corneal diameter was independent of age beyond an age of 4 years. Abnormally large and abnormally small corneas may be defined as being ≥12.76 and ≤11.24 mm in diameter, respectively. Corneal diameter was not correlated with time spent indoors/outdoors.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , População Rural , População Urbana , Adolescente , Biometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Interferometria , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0157829, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. METHODS: Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. RESULTS: Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at the age of 16 years or older. Lower stereoacuity was associated with lower best corrected visual acuity and higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity, higher cylindrical and spherical refractive errors, higher inter-eye difference in refractive error, higher intereye difference in axial length, and rural region of habitation.


Assuntos
Olho , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Refração Ocular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
11.
J Glaucoma ; 25(11): 883-885, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present and evaluate modified scleral tunnel in prevention of tube exposure following Ahmed valve implantation in refractory glaucoma. METHODS: In the Affiliated Eye Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a retrospective study was conducted in 36 eyes of 34 patients who were diagnosed with refractory glaucoma and underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. In the surgery, the modified scleral tunnel was done to prevent tube exposure. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up (mean 21.68±9.25 mo), there was no conjunctival tube exposure in all 36 eyes. The mean intraocular pressure was 18.3±6.79 mmHg, and 8 eyes needed 1 to 3 types of drugs to decrease intraocular pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The modified scleral tunnel technique in Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation is able to prevent conjunctival tube exposure in the patients with refractory glaucoma.


Assuntos
Implantes para Drenagem de Glaucoma , Glaucoma/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Esclera/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Cateteres , Túnica Conjuntiva/cirurgia , Feminino , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cápsula de Tenon/cirurgia , Tonometria Ocular , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154554, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since high myopia in the younger generation may differ etiologically from high myopia in older generations, we examined whether education-related parameters differ between high myopia in today´s school children and high pathological myopia in today´s elderly generation. METHODS: The investigation included the adult populations of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (BES) (3468 adults;mean age:64.6±9.8years;range:50-93years) and Central India Eye and Medical Study (CIEMS) (4711 adults;age:49.±13.2years;range:30-100years), and the children and teenager populations of the Shandong Children Eye Study (SCES) (6026 children;age:9.7±3.3years;range:4-18years;cycloplegic refractometry), Gobi Desert Children Eye Study (1565;age:11.9±3.5years;range:6-21 years;cycloplegic refractometry), Beijing Pediatric Eye Study (681 children;age:7.7±1.6years;range:5-13 years;non-cycloplegic refractometry,calculation of axial length to corneal curvature radius ratio), Beijing Children Eye Study (15066 children;age:13.2±3.4years;range:7-18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry), Beijing High School Teenager Eye Study (4677 children;age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry). RESULTS: In the BES and CIEMS, educational level did not differ significantly between, or was significantly lower in the highly myopic group (myopic refractive error ≥6 diopters) than in the non-highly myopic group. In all non-adult study populations, higher prevalence of high myopia was significantly associated with higher degree of education related parameters such as attendance of high-level schools, and more time spent for indoors near work versus time spent outdoors. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing associations of old or genetic high myopia in adults with new or acquired high myopia in school children revealed that education-related parameters did not show a clear association with old or genetic high myopia, while in contrast, new high myopia showed strong associations with education. It confirms previous studies that the two forms of high myopia not only differed in age of onset, but also in associations with education as well. The data support the notion of two types of high myopia. Future studies may assess whether the risk of pathologic myopic maculopathy and high myopia associated open-angle glaucoma differs between both types of high myopia.


Assuntos
Educação , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Cell Prolif ; 49(3): 386-94, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a parenchymal cell, the photoreceptor is more susceptible to alterations in outer micro-environmental conditions than other cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate inhibitory effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in murine photoreceptor-derived cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated effects of ZnO nanoparticles on murine photoreceptor cell viability and on expression and activity of MnSOD using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, immunofluorescence analysis, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: ZnO nanoparticles were found to have higher cytotoxic effects in concentration- and time-dependent manners, to elevate intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, and thus to induce overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to cell damage. Moreover, ZnO nanoparticles also significantly reduced expression of MnSOD at both the mRNA and protein levels, reduced its activity, and further aggravated oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. CONCLUSION: Overall, ZnO nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity was associated with elevated levels of oxidative stress due to overproduction of ROS and reduced expression and activity of MnSOD.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Fotorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Células Fotorreceptoras/citologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
15.
Cornea ; 35(10): 1333-7, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27100659

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess whether anterior corneal curvature radius (CCR) is associated with the increased prevalence of myopia in Asia. METHODS: The investigation included the adult populations of the Central India Eye and Medical Study (CIEMS; 4711 adults) and Beijing Eye Study (BES; 3468 adults) and the children and teenager populations of the Shandong Children Eye Study (6026 children; age: 9.7 ± 3.3 years; range: 4-18 years) and Beijing Pediatric Eye Study (681 children; age: 7.7 ± 1.6 years; range: 5-13 years). RESULTS: In both adult study populations, CCR was not significantly (BES: P = 0.60; CIEMS: P = 0.14) associated with the level of education. In highly myopic subgroups, longer CCR was associated with a lower educational level [CIEMS: P = 0.04; standardized regression coefficient ß = -0.23; nonstandardized regression coefficient B: -0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.11 to 0.01] or showed a tendency toward a lower educational level (BES: P = 0.09; ß = -0.25; B: -0.06; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.01). In the young study populations, longer CCR was significantly associated with parameters indicating a lower educational level, such as lower educational level of father (P = 0.001; ß: -0.04; B: -0.01; 95% CI, -0.02 to -0.01) and mother (P = 0.0.02; ß: -0.14; B: -0.05; 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.01) and more time spent outdoors (P = 0.001; ß: 0.15; B: 0.05; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.07) and less time spent indoors (P < 0.001; ß: -0.15; B: -0.04; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02). In all study populations, longer CCR was significantly correlated (multivariate analysis) with longer axial length and lower prevalence of high myopia. CONCLUSIONS: Adult study populations and schoolchildren populations did not differ in the associations of longer CCR with parameters indicating a lower educational level, longer axial length, and lower prevalence of high myopia. CCR was not useful for the differentiation between high myopia in schoolchildren and high pathological myopia in adults.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho/patologia , Córnea/patologia , Escolaridade , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia Degenerativa/etnologia , Prevalência
16.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 9(1): 124-31, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26949622

RESUMO

AIM: To systematically review the current evidence based on the efficacy and cost of Ex-PRESS implantation and trabeculectomy (Trab) for uncontrolled glaucoma. METHODS: Clinical trials were identified by electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of science and Cochrane library), and data, such as intraocular pressure (IOP), the complete and qualified success rate, the postoperative complications and the cost, were exacted from these relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Eleven relevant publications and two abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The efficacy of Ex-PRESS was similar to that of Trab in the percentage of IOP reduction (IOPR %) at 1, 2y (WMD: -2.01; 95% CI: -7.92-3.90; P=0.50 and WMD: 2.89; 95% CI: -8.05-13.83; P=0.60, respectively). Ex-PRESS possessed a significant higher complete and qualified success rate (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.07-2.35; P=0.02 and OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.86; P=0.03, respectively). Moreover, Ex-PRESS exerted a significantly lower frequency of hypotony and hyphema than Trab (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72; P=0.003 and OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.69; P=0.003, respectively). However, there was no consistent result on the cost between the two groups according to the previous three studies. CONCLUSION: Both Trab and Ex-PRESS have equivalent efficacy in lowering IOP, yet Ex-PRESS had a lower risk of hypotony and hyphema than Trab. Nevertheless, whether the cost of Ex-PRESS was less than that of Trab should be further investigated to ensure evidence-based conclusion in the long run.

17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 57(3): 979-88, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26962694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe prevalence and associations of anisometropia in children. METHODS: The cross-sectional school-based study included children aged 4 to 18 years. RESULTS: The study included 6025 (94.7%) of 6364 eligible children. Mean refractive anisometropia was 0.37 ± 0.57 diopters (median: 0.25 diopters; range: 0-7.88 diopters; prevalence [≥1 diopter]: 7.0% ± 0.3%). In multivariate analysis (regression coefficient r: 0.66), higher refractive anisometropia was associated with older age (P < 0.001; ß: 0.07; B: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.01-0.02), higher maternal education level (P < 0.001; ß: 0.04; B: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01-0.03), more total time spent indoors reading or writing (P = 0.001; ß: 0.04; B: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.01-0.02), larger intereye difference in axial length (P < 0.001; ß: 0.57; B: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.15-1.24), shorter mean axial length of both eyes (P = 0.03; ß: -0.03; B: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.03 to -0.001), larger intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (P < 0.001; ß: 0.14; B: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.54-2.12), and lower stereoacuity (P < 0.001; ß: 0.08; B: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.22-0.39). Refractive anisometropia showed a U-shaped correlation with refractive error. Higher anisomyopia was associated (r: 0.57) with older age (P = 0.001; ß: 0.05; B: 0.006; 95% CI: 0.002-0.009), higher level of paternal education (P = 0.001; ß: 0.01; B: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.01-0.02), more total time spent indoors reading or writing (P = 0.01; ß: 0.03; B: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.01), larger intereye difference in axial length (P < 0.001; ß: 0.22; B: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.23-0.29), greater myopic refractive error (P < 0.001; ß: -0.46; B: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.08 to -0.07), and lower corneal astigmatism (P < 0.001; ß: -0.10; B: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.08 to -0.05). In the same multivariate model, hyperopic anisometropia was not significantly associated with time spent indoors with reading (P = 0.18). Cylindrical anisometropia (mean: 0.30 ± 0.32 diopters; prevalence [≥1 diopter]: 3.7% ± 0.2%) increased with higher refractive anisometropia (P < 0.001; ß: 0.16; B: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.08-0.11), greater myopic refractive error (P < 0.001; ß: -0.06; B: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.01 to -0.01), higher corneal astigmatism (P < 0.001; ß: -0.22; B: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.17 to -0.13), and lower mean BCVA (P < 0.001; ß: 0.11; B: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.68-1.17). CONCLUSIONS: In 4- to 18-year-old children, refractive anisometropia and anisomyopia increased with systemic parameters such as age, parental education level, and lifestyle of the children, for example, more time spent indoors reading or writing. In contrast, hyperopic anisometropia and cylindrical anisometropia were not related with lifestyle parameters.


Assuntos
Anisometropia/epidemiologia , Comprimento Axial do Olho/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , População Rural , População Urbana , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Anisometropia/diagnóstico , Anisometropia/fisiopatologia , Comprimento Axial do Olho/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
18.
Ophthalmologica ; 235(2): 78-86, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate ocular axial length (AL) in Chinese children. METHODS: The Shandong Children Eye Study included 6,364 children aged 4-18 years. RESULTS: Longer AL (mean 23.45 ± 1.20 mm, range 18.80-28.59 mm) was associated (multivariate analysis; correlation coefficient r2: 0.61) with older age (p < 0.001, standardized correlation coefficient ß = 0.35, unstandardized regression coefficient B = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.15), male gender (p < 0.001, ß = -0.24, B = -0.10, 95% CI -0.29, -0.19), urban region (p < 0.001, ß = 0.10, B = 0.25, 95% CI 0.20, 0.31), body height (p < 0.001, ß = 0.22, B = 0.02, 95% CI 0.01, 0.02), maternal education (p < 0.001, ß = 0.07, B = 0.07, 95% CI 0.05, 0.10), paternal myopia (p < 0.001, ß = 0.09, B = 0.26, 95% CI 0.20, 0.33), maternal myopia (p < 0.001, ß = 0.08, B = 0.23, 95% CI 0.17, 0.30), more time spent indoors reading/writing (p < 0.001, ß = 0.05, B = 0.03, 95% CI 0.02, 0.04), less time spent outdoors (p = 0.005, ß = -0.03, B = -0.01, 95% CI -0.02, -0.003), longer corneal curvature radius (p < 0.001, ß = 0.36, B = 1.63, 95% CI 1.53, 1.74) and higher intraocular pressure (p = 0.008, ß = 0.03, B = 0.01, 95% CI 0.004, 0.02). High axial myopia (AL ≥26.0 mm) present in 202 children (3.4 ± 0.2%, 95% CI 2.92, 3.84) was associated with less time spent outdoors (p = 0.002, odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.87, 0.97) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In children in the less developed Eastern Chinese province of Shandong, the prevalence of high axial myopia was >10% among 16-year-olds. A modifiable factor associated with higher prevalence of high axial myopia was less time spent outdoors.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho , Miopia/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Miopia/patologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Chin J Integr Med ; 22(3): 214-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26129902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of Yanyankang powder on Th1/Th2 in rats with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). METHODS: The EAU models were induced in Lewis rats by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) 1177-1191 in complete Freund's adjuvant. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a model control group, a Yanyankang group, and a prednisone group, 9 rats in each group. The model control group was intervened with saline solution by gavage. The Yanyankang group was intervened with Yanyankang powder 4 g/(kg day) by gavage. The prednisone group were intervened with prednisone acetate tablets 5 mg/(kg d) by gavage. All groups were intervened after immunization once every 2 days for 18 days and monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscopy daily until day 18. The levels of gamma interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the supernatants of T cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology was used for measuring Th1 and Th2 related cytokine mRNA expressions. RESULTS: Slighter intraocular inflammation was found in the Yanyankang group and the prednisone group than the control group. The levels of the IFN-γ and IL-10 in the supernatants of the spleen lymph node cells were 382.33±6.30, 155.87±4.46 µg/L in the Yanyankang group and 270.93±7.76, 265.32±11.88 µg/L in the prednisone group. Both had significant differences compared with the control group (941.53±8.59, 20.67±4.65 µg/L; =0.01). The PCR results showed the same tendency. CONCLUSION: Yanyankang powder showed favorable effects in the rats with EAU by influencing the function of Th1 and Th2 cells.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte/imunologia , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Olho/patologia , Feminino , Imunização , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Pós , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Baço/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Uveíte/genética
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 56(13): 7646-52, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the thickness of the macular choroid and its associations in school children aged 6 to 18 years. METHODS: The school-based cross-sectional Shandong Children Eye Study included 6026 (94.7%) of 6364 eligible children fulfilling the inclusion criterion of an age from 4 to 18 years. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was performed for a subgroup of 972 school children aged 6+ years. All participants underwent ocular examinations, including measurement of visual acuity, cycloplegic refractometry, biometry, and SD-OCT (enhanced depth imaging mode) for measurement of choroidal thickness. RESULTS: The study included 972 children (501 girls) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 3.3 years (range, 6-18 years) and mean axial length of 24.10 ± 1.56 mm (range, 16.57-28.82 mm). Mean choroidal thickness was thicker (P < 0.001) at 500 µm temporal to the foveola (290 ± 67 µm) than in the subfoveal region (283 ± 67 µm; range, 113-507 µm) and the region 500 µm superior to the fovea (283 ± 66 µm), where it was thicker (P < 0.001) than at 500 µm inferior of the foveola (281 ± 66 µm), and it was thinnest (P < 0.001) at 500 µm nasal of the foveola (268 ± 67 µm). In multivariate analysis, thicker SFCT was (overall correlation coefficient r: 0.51) associated with shorter axial length (P < 0.001; standardized correlation coefficient ß: -0.48; B: -23.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -27.2 to -20.3), male sex (P = 0.006; ß: -0.08; B: -10.7; 95% CI: -18.3 to -3.11), and younger age (P = 0.04; ß: -0.07; B: -1.46; 95% CI: -2.85 to -0.07). CONCLUSIONS: As in adults, thicker SFCT in children and teenagers was markedly associated with shorter axial length, and to a lesser degree with male sex and older age. As in adults, increasing axial myopia in teenagers is associated with choroidal thinning and development of a leptochoroid.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho/anatomia & histologia , Biometria/métodos , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Envelhecimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fóvea Central/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Caracteres Sexuais
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