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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the era of immunotherapy, the treatment for bulky locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) remains challenging. This study explored the feasibility of induction immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) plus chemotherapy before definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for bulky LA-NSCLC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with bulky unresectable stage III NSCLC (primary tumor ≥ 5 cm in greatest dimension or metastatic lymph nodes ≥ 2 cm in shortest diameter) receiving ICI and chemotherapy before CRT from 2018 to 2022 were identified. Survival outcomes and toxicity were analyzed. Radiotherapy plans on CT images before and after 2 cycles of induction chemoimmunotherapy were simulated to evaluate dosimetric impact. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were included. One- and 2-year overall-survival (OS) rates were 91.5% (95% CI, 85.2-98.3) and 75.1% (95% CI, 64.1-88.0), respectively. One- and 2-year progression-free-survival (PFS) rates were 85.8% (95% CI, 78.0-94.4) and 64.2% (95% CI, 52.5-78.6), respectively. Median OS was not reached (NR). Median PFS was 30.6 months (95% CI, 25.9-NR). Grade 2 and ≥ 3 pneumonitis occurred in 26.7% and 9.3%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 pneumonitis significantly related to poorer OS (P=0.003) and PFS (P=0.018). Treatment discontinuation was significantly associated with shorter OS (P=0.023) and PFS (P=0.047). Patients with consolidation ICI exhibited numerically better OS than those without consolidation ICI (2-year OS 85.8% versus 64.2%, P=0.170). Objective response rate was 76.1% for induction treatment and 86.7% for induction treatment plus CRT. Disease control rate after 2 cycles of induction therapy was significantly greater that after 4 (P=0.046) or more cycles (P=0.025). Simulated radiation plans indicated all target volumes, mean lung dose, lung V5, V20, and V30 significantly decreased after 2 cycles (all P<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Two cycles of induction ICI plus chemotherapy before definitive CRT are feasible for bulky LA-NSCLC, with significant tumor reduction and normal lung protection. Further investigations on CRT combined with induction and consolidation ICI are warranted.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1052542, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466925

RESUMO

Background: Currently, the role of immunotherapy in neoadjuvant setting for patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is gradually attracting attention. Few studies compared the efficacy of neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy (NICT) and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). Our study aimed to compare treatment response and postoperative complications after NICT followed by surgery with that after conventional NCRT in patients with locally advanced ESCC. Methods: Of 468 patients with locally advanced ESCC, 154 received conventional NCRT, whereas 314 received NICT. Treatment response, postoperative complications and mortality between two groups were compared. Pathological response of primary tumor was evaluated using the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system. Pathological complete response (pCR) of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) was defined as no viable tumor cell within all resected metastatic LNs. According to regression directionality, tumor regression pattern was summarized into four categories: type I, regression toward the lumen; type II, regression toward the invasive front; type III, concentric regression; and type IV, scattered regression. Inverse probability propensity score weighting was performed to minimize the influence of confounding factors. Results: After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the R0 resection rates (90.9% vs. 89.0%, P=0.302) and pCR (ypT0N0) rates (29.8% vs. 34.0%, P=0.167) were comparable between two groups. Patients receiving NCRT showed lower TRG score (P<0.001) and higher major pathological response (MPR) rate (64.7% vs. 53.6%, P=0.001) compared to those receiving NICT. However, NICT brought a higher pCR rate of metastatic LNs than conventional NCRT (53.9% vs. 37.1%, P<0.001). The rates of type I/II/III/IV regression patterns were 44.6%, 6.8%, 11.4% and 37.1% in the NICT group, 16.9%, 8.2%, 18.3% and 56.6% in the NCRT group, indicating a significant difference (P<0.001). Moreover, there were no significant differences in the incidence of total postoperative complications (35.8% vs. 39.9%, P=0.189) and 30-d mortality (0.0% vs. 1.1%, P=0.062). Conclusion: For patients with locally advanced ESCC, NICT showed a R0 resection rate and pCR (ypT0N0) rate comparable to conventional NCRT, without increased incidence of postoperative complications and mortality. Notablely, NICT followed by surgery might bring a promising treatment response of metastatic LNs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1020937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478730

RESUMO

Background: Palliative care is an essential intervention to improve the quality of life for patients with cancer, whereas the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to supportive and palliative care providers. This survey aims to explore the current status of palliative care practice for cancer and the influence of COVID-19, from the perspective of oncologists. Methods: The semi-structure electronic questionnaire was designed. Mixed-mode surveys including electronic questionnaires, face-to-face interactions, and telephone interviews were adopted according to the willingness of respondents. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were based on same questions in the online questionnaire. Participants working in cancer-related departments with frontline palliative care experience during the COVID-19 outbreak were included. Surveys covered experiences and perspectives regarding the impact of COVID-19 on clinical work, personal lives, and palliative care practice. Suggestions on coping strategies were further proposed and qualitatively analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven oncologists participated in this study from September 2021 to January 2022. The majority of them believed COVID-19 significantly and negatively affected their clinical work routines (75.7%), personal daily lives (67.6%), and palliative care practice (64.9%). Most specialists considered that currently the palliative care system remained underdeveloped (73.0%), and other factors besides COVID-19 were associated with this situation (78.4%). Seventeen participants further made suggestions on how to promote palliative care during COVID-19, and three themes emerged through the qualitative analysis: (1) Remote or online service (88.2%); (2) Publicity, education, or shared decision-making for patients (29.4%); (3) Guidelines, training, or programs for care providers (23.6%). Conclusion: Oncologists consider that COVID-19 has an adverse impact on their palliative care practice and daily routine. In addition to COVID-19, other factors affecting palliative care should not be neglected. Corresponding measures are warranted to encourage palliative care practice during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Pandemias , Neoplasias/terapia
4.
Front Oncol ; 12: 998238, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439431

RESUMO

Background: It is still uncertain whether the newly released eighth American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) post-neoadjuvant pathologic (yp) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage for esophageal carcinoma can perform well regarding patient stratification. The current study aimed to assess the prognostication ability of the eighth AJCC ypTNM staging system and attempted to explore how to facilitate the staging system for more effective evaluation of prognosis. Materials and methods: A total of 486 patients treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy (nRT/CRT) were enrolled. ypN stage was reclassified by recursive partitioning. Prognostic performance, monotonicity, homogeneity, and discriminatory of yp and modified yp (myp) staging systems were assessed by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC), linear trend log-rank test, likelihood ratio χ2 test, Harrell's c statistic, and Akaike information criterion (AIC). Results: The ypT stage, ypN stage, and pathologic response were significant prognostic factors of overall survival. Survival was not discriminated well using the eighth AJCC ypN stage and ypTNM stage. Recursive partitioning reclassified mypN0-N2 as metastasis in 0, 1-2, and ≥3 regional lymph nodes. Applying the ypT stage, mypN stage, and pathologic response to construct the myp staging system, the myp stage performed better in time-dependent ROC, linear trend log-rank test, likelihood ratio χ2 test, Harrell's c statistic, and AIC. Conclusions: The eighth AJCC ypTNM staging system performed well in differentiating prognosis to some extent. By reclassifying the ypN stage and enrolling pathologic response as a staging element, the myp staging system holds significant potential for prognostic discrimination.

5.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 14: 17588359221131526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324733

RESUMO

Background: The surrogacy of progression-free survival (PFS) for overall survival (OS) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unelucidated. This study aimed to determine the validity of PFS as a surrogate endpoint for OS in ESCC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy or definitive chemoradiotherapy (dRT/dCRT), as well as characterize the prognostic factors and survival of such patients. Methods: A total of 3662 patients from 10 cancer centers were enrolled. One-, 2-, and 3-year PFS (PFS12, PFS24, and PSF36, respectively) were used as time points for analysis. At each time point, ESCC-specific mortality and OS were characterized using competing risk and conditional survival models, while correlation between PFS and OS was evaluated by linear regression. Results: At PFS12, PFS24, and PFS36, a progressive decrease in 5-year ESCC-specific mortality (35.2%-13.4%) and increase in 5-year OS (46.6%-62.9%) were observed. Regardless, the OS of patients remained markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched Chinese general population. TNM stage remained a significant prognostic factor at PFS36. Strong correlation was found between 3-year PFS and 5-year OS, which was further externally validated. Conclusions: Three-year PFS may act as a potential surrogate endpoint for 5-year OS. TNM stage was considered a significant prognostic factor for OS, and may represent the optimal prognostic tool to guide clinical decision-making and post-treatment follow-up.

6.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(11): e1116, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a reliable biomarker for relapse/metastasis early detection and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy (RT/CRT) initiation requires comprehensive investigation. METHODS: Treatment-naive locally advanced ESCC patients with available baseline plasma samples were prospectively enrolled from November 2018 to January 2020. RT/CRT was delivered with a simultaneous integrated boost of radiation dose. Serial plasma samples were collected at baseline (T0 ), week 4 of RT/CRT (T1 ), 1-3 (T2 ) and 3-6 months post-RT/CRT (T3 ). ctDNA was analysed using next-generation sequencing of 474 cancer-relevant genes. RESULTS: A total of 128 plasma samples from 40 eligible patients were analysed (median age: 64 [range: 40-78], 88% males, 95% stage III/IV), and the median follow-up time was 20.6 months (range: 12.2-33.3). During the post-RT/CRT surveillance including 36 patients, radiological progression was observed in 16 patients, and 69% (11/16) had detectable post-RT/CRT ctDNA prior to radiological progression, with a median lead time of 4.4 months compared with radiological imaging. ctDNA positivity at T1 (hazard ratio, HR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.30-10.01) or T2 (HR: 5.45, 95% CI: 1.72-17.26) indicated inferior progression-free survival (PFS). ctDNA clearance between T0 -T1 (HR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.08-1.13) or T0 -T2 (HR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02-0.61) was associated with relatively favourable PFS. Similar results were obtained when focusing on patients without esophagectomy after RT/CRT. Notably, detectable ctDNA at T1 was a potential indicator of high local recurrence risks (HR: 4.43, 95% CI: 1.31-15.04). CONCLUSIONS: ctDNA was identified as a robust biomarker for early detection of disease progression and post-RT/CRT prognosis stratification in ESCC. Detectable ctDNA at week 4 of RT/CRT might indicate higher local recurrence risks, implying the potential clinical utility of ctDNA tests in guiding post-RT/CRT treatments for locoregional control in ESCC.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/radioterapia , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(42): e31215, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281080

RESUMO

Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare type of esophageal cancer; however, few studies have investigated the effects of radiotherapy in locally advanced patients. This study aimed to report experience of the safety and efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal carcinosarcoma and review the literature. By searching the institutional database between January 2010 and December 2020, along with the literature review, 25 patients were eligible for the study. The clinical and radiologic information of all patients with esophageal carcinosarcoma who underwent radiotherapy were collected. Survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier plots. In our series, 5 patients were in the curative/neoadjuvant radiotherapy group and 10 patients were in the adjuvant group. Most tumors were protruding (n = 10, 66.7%). All patients underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy. In the curative/neoadjuvant radiotherapy group, 2 patients underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy before surgery, and the other three received radiotherapy alone as the initial treatment. The median follow-up time was 43.1 months. All patients showed a partial response at the efficacy evaluation. The median time of overall survival and progression-free survival were 40.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.1-67.3 months) and 19.0 months (95% CI, 13.9 months-24.1 months) for the entire cohort, but were not reached for curative/neoadjuvant radiotherapy group. Overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81, 95% CI, 0.15-4.43; P = .805) and progression-free survival (HR 1.68, 95% CI, 0.35-8.19; P = .514) did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. When considering the literature review data in the final analysis, overall survival (HR 0.84, 95% CI, 0.25-2.81; P = .779) and progression-free survival (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.26-1.76; P = .425) were also not different between the 2 groups. Treatment based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy with neoadjuvant or curative intent may be an option for patients with unresectable esophageal carcinosarcoma. Further research with a larger sample size is needed to validate the reliability.


Assuntos
Carcinossarcoma , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinossarcoma/radioterapia
8.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 11(9): 1763-1795, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248338

RESUMO

Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for most cases. While radiotherapy has historically served as a palliative modality in metastatic NSCLC, considerable advances in its technology and the continuous development of cutting-edge therapeutic agents, such as targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), are increasing its role in the multi-disciplinary management of the disease. Methods: International radiotherapy experts were convened to consider and reach consensuses on the clinical utilities of radiotherapy in metastatic NSCLC, with the aim to provide patient-focused, up to date, evidence-based, recommendations to assist cancer specialists in the management of patients with metastatic NSCLC worldwide. Results: Timely radiotherapy can offer rapid symptom alleviation and allow subsequent aggressive treatment approaches in patients with heavy tumor burden and/or oncologic emergencies. In addition, appropriate incorporation of radiotherapy as concurrent, consolidation, or salvage therapy makes it possible to achieve long-term survival, or even cure, for patients with oligo-metastatic disease. Cranial radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain metastasis, potentially augmenting the response and prolonging survival associated with targeted agents and ICIs. However, key questions remain, such as the appropriate choice of radiation techniques, optimal sequence of systemic therapies and radiotherapy, and optimal patient selection for such combination strategies. Although a strong rationale for combining radiotherapy and ICIs exists, its optimal parameters in this setting remain to be established. Conclusions: In the modern era, radiotherapy serves not only as a palliative tool in metastatic NSCLC, but also plays active roles in patients with oligo-focal disease, CNS metastasis and receiving ICIs.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thymic neuroendocrine tumors (TNETs) are a collection of slow-progressing neoplasms located in the anterior mediastinum. Relatively few previously published studies have focused on thymic carcinomas. This study investigated the basic clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of TNETs. METHODS: Patients were enrolled in the study from January 2003 to December 2017 who had been diagnosed with TNETs through pathological screening and treated at our institution. Demographic data from each patient, the Masaoka stage, histology and size of the tumor, tumor invasion characteristics, and therapeutic strategies were gathered. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess patient survival. In addition, the log-rank test was used to carry out univariate analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. The median age of the patients was 46.5 (25-69) years. The tumor median maximum diameter was 7.9 cm (from 3 to 19 cm). Twenty-four patients were treated surgically. Nineteen patients completed radiation therapy, and sixteen patients underwent chemotherapy. A median follow-up time of 54.95 months was observed. The survival rate for three years was 75.0% and 70.6% for five years. The corresponding progression-free survival rates for three and five years were 55.7% and 37.7%, respectively. The local, regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rates were 87.2% and 81.7%, and the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 55.7% and 37.7%, at three and five years, respectively. Local recurrence (six patients) and bone metastasis (six patients) were observed as the most frequent failures. CONCLUSION: TNET was observed to be an aggressive but rare malignant lesion. While the predominant treatment was complete resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were also required due to the high recurrence rate.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 244: 109103, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049602

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) survivors are more likely to produce a potent immune response to SARS-CoV-2 after booster vaccination. We assessed humoral and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 in previously vaccinated SARS-CoV-1 survivors and naïve healthy individuals (NHIs) after a booster Ad5-nCoV dose. Boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors had a high neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 (WA1), Beta, and Delta but is limited to Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5). Most boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors had robust SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. While booster vaccination in NHIs elicited less or ineffective neutralization of WA1, Beta, and Delta, and none of them induced neutralizing antibodies against Omicron subvariants. However, they developed comparable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses compared to boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors. These findings suggest that boosted Ad5-nCoV would not elicit effective neutralizing antibodies against Omicron subvariants in SARS-CoV-1 survivors and NHIs but induced comparable robust T cell responses. Achieving a high antibody titer in SARS-CoV-1 survivors and NHIs is desirable to generate broad neutralization.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vacinas contra a SAIDS , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BCG , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche , Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , SARS-CoV-2 , Sobreviventes
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(15): 6227-6254, 2022 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromobox (CBX) proteins are important Polycomb family proteins in the development of gastric cancer. Nonetheless, the relationship between CBXs and gastric cancer microenvironment remains unclear. METHODS: Multiple databases were used for the analysis of CBXs expression and clinical value in gastric cancer patients. A Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic importance of CBXs. Thereafter, regression analysis of LASSO Cox was used to construct the prognostic model. Spearman's correlation between risk score and immune infiltration was analyzed using the McP-counter algorithm. A predicted nomogram was developed to predict the overall survival of gastric cancer patients after 1, 2, and 3 years. RESULTS: In contrast with normal tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CBX2/3 were significantly high in gastric cancer tissues, whereas those of CBX6/7 were low. CBXs significantly correlated with immune subtypes and molecular subtypes. A prognostic gene model based on five CBX genes (CBX1, CBX2, CBX3, CBX7, and CBX8) predicted the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A significant correlation was noted between the risk score of the CBXs-related prognostic gene model and immune-cell infiltration. Low risk patients could achieve a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. A predictive nomogram constructed using the above five CBX genes revealed that overall survival rates over 1, 2, and 3 years could be reasonably predicted. Therefore, the roles of CBXs were associated with chromatin modifications and histone methylation, etc. Conclusion: In summary, we identified a prognostic CBXs model comprising five genes (CBX1, CBX2, CBX3, CBX7, and CBX8) for gastric cancer patients through bioinformatics analysis.


Assuntos
Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1 , Neoplasias Gástricas , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Humanos , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/genética , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
13.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 14: 17588359221108693, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923925

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine the long-term survival of patients with cT4 esophageal cancer (EC) and whether neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy/radiotherapy plus surgery (nCRT/RT + S) is superior to definitive CRT(dCRT)/RT in terms of survival in cT4 EC downstaged after nCRT/RT. Summary background data: Treatment options for cT4 EC include dCRT/RT and nCRT/RT + S, but it is not clear whether the latter provides survival benefit in patients downstaged after nCRT/RT. Methods: From 2002 to 2017, 726 patients with cT4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients achieving clinical complete response (cCR) or partial response (PR) after 4-week RT (median dose, 40.7 Gy) and considered fit for surgery were offered esophagectomy. Of the 726 patients, 308 (42.4%) achieved cCR/PR, while 74 patients received subsequent surgery (nCRT/RT + S group), 234 patients received dCRT/RT. Results: Median follow-up was 58 months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for all patients were 33.3% and 35.6%, respectively. The corresponding OS and PFS rates were 54.8% and 48.5% in the nCRT/RT + S group versus 30.0% and 22.1% in the dCRT/RT group (both p < 0.0001). After adjusting the confounding variables with inverse probability of treatment weighting, the adjusted 3-year OS rates were 50.4% in the nCRT/RT + S group versus 50.8% in the dCRT/RT group (p = 0.15). However, the adjusted 3-year PFS rates were significantly different between the two groups (49.0% and versus 38.3%, p = 0.004). Postoperative complications occurred in 18 (24.3%) patients. Conclusion: The long-term survival of cT4 ESCC was improved after the use of three-dimensional CRT. In cT4, EC responded to nCRT/RT, surgery improves PFS but not OS.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 906815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032151

RESUMO

Objective: High activity of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 (IDO1) in lung cancer patients converts tryptophan (Trp), which is the essential amino acid for T-cell metabolism, to kynurenine (Kyn) and consequently suppresses anti-tumor immune responses. We aimed to track the dynamics of IDO1 activity in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received first-line radiotherapy (RT) and explore its association with survival outcomes. Materials and methods: Systemic IDO1 activity was calculated by Kyn : Trp ratio. Plasma levels of Kyn and Trp in 113 thoracic RT-received stage III NSCLC patients were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography before the initiation of RT. The dynamic change of IDO1 activity was followed in 24 patients by measuring the Kyn : Trp ratio before, during, and after RT administration. Results: In 24 patients with dynamic tracking of plasma IDO1 activity, there were no significant alterations observed among the three time points (Friedman test, p = 0.13). The changing pattern of the Kyn : Trp ratio was divided into four groups: decreased consistently during RT, first increased, then decreased, increased consistently, first decreased then increased. Patients whose Kyn : Trp ratio kept decreasing or first increased then decreased were defined as the good-change group. The good-change status was identified as an independent positive factor for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.04; p = 0.01) in multivariate analysis among evaluated parameters. Patients with good change showed significantly superior local control than the bad-change group (p = 0.01, HR = 0.22). In 113 stage III NSCLC patients with pre-radiation Kyn : Trp ratio, a trend that high baseline IDO1 activity was associated with short OS was observed (p = 0.079). Conclusion: Favorable change in IDO1 activity during RT was associated with superior OS, PFS, and local control. IDO1 activity is a promising biomarker for prognosis in stage III NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Quimiorradioterapia , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase , Cinurenina , Triptofano
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 918787, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795657

RESUMO

Purpose: Whilst survival benefits of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) followed by immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) have been reported in patients with lung cancer, the potential high risk of treatment-related pneumonitis remains a concern. Asians may be more sensitive to lung toxicity than other races. This retrospective study intended to provide a comprehensive pneumonitis profile of TRT followed by ICI and investigate the risk factors from a Chinese cohort of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: From January 2016 to July 2021, 196 patients with lung cancer who received TRT prior to ICI were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment-related pneumonitis, including checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP), radiation pneumonitis (RP), and radiation recall pneumonitis (RRP), were recorded and graded through medical records and chest computed tomography. Characteristics predictive of pneumonitis were assessed using logistic regression models, and the receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to identify optimal cut points for quantitative variables. Results: With a median follow-up of 18 months, a total of 108 patients (55.1%) developed treatment-related pneumonitis during ICI therapy, with an incidence of 25.5% for grade 2 or higher (G2+) and 4.1% for G3+. The overall rates of CIP, RP and RRP were 8.2% (n=16), 46.9% (n=92) and 7.1% (n=14), respectively. With a total mortality rate of 1.5%, vast majority of the patients recovered from pneumonitis or remained stable. No patients died of RRP. Half of the patients with G2+ RP who withheld ICI therapy restarted ICI safely after resolution of RP. The history of chronic pulmonary diseases (P=0.05), mean lung dose (MLD, P=0.038), percent volume of lung receiving ≥5 Gy (V5, P=0.012) and percent volume of lung receiving ≥20 Gy (V20, P=0.030) predicted the occurrence of RRP in univariate analyses. Interval between TRT and ICI less than 3 months was an independent predictor for G2+ treatment-related pneumonitis in a multivariate model (Odds ratio OR=2.787, P=0.004). Conclusions: Treatment-related pneumonitis, especially RRP, is acceptable and manageable in the setting of TRT followed by ICI in this Asian population. Dosimetric parameters MLD, V5 and V20 may improve the predictions of RRP in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumonia , Pneumonite por Radiação , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonite por Radiação/diagnóstico , Pneumonite por Radiação/epidemiologia , Pneumonite por Radiação/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Med Dosim ; 47(4): 325-328, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842364

RESUMO

Performance of thoracic radiotherapy may be assisted by the use of thoracoabdominal flat immobilization devices (TAFIDs) and integrated cervicothoracic immobilization devices (ICTIDs). This study was performed to compare setup errors of TAFIDs and ICTIDs. Forty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed; 22 patients were immobilized with a TAFID and 22 with an ICTID. In total, 343 cone-beam computed tomography images of these patients were collected for radiotherapy setup. The 3-dimensional setup errors and the displacement of the acromioclavicular joint against the supraclavicular region were calculated. An independent-samples t-test and rank-sum test were used for statistical analyses. The translational setup errors of the TAFID group vs ICTID group in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were 0.14 ± 0.17 vs 0.14 ± 0.16 cm (p = 0.364), 0.23 ± 0.26 vs 0.15 ± 0.15 cm (p = 0.000), and 0.16 ± 0.15 vs 0.12 ± 0.14 cm (p = 0.049), respectively. The relative displacement of the acromioclavicular joint against the supraclavicular joint in the LR, SI, and AP directions were 0.10 ± 0.12 vs 0.09 ± 0.10 cm (p = 0.176), 0.13 ± 0.13 vs 0.11 ± 0.12 cm (p = 0.083), and 0.17 ± 0.16 vs 0.12 ± 0.11 cm (p = 0.001), respectively. The overall displacement of the supraclavicular region was 0.28 ± 0.19 vs 0.23 ± 0.15 cm (p < 0.001). The recommended planning target volume margins in the LR, SI, and AP directions were 0.46 vs 0.74 cm, 0.51 vs 0.47 cm, and 0.49 vs 0.41 cm, respectively. For patients with lung cancer, using an ICTID can reduce setup errors in the SI direction and displacements of the acromioclavicular joint and supraclavicular region compared with a TAFID. Therefore, an ICTID is preferred for patients with lung cancer with supraclavicular target volume.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Humanos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia/prevenção & controle , Imobilização , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos
18.
Lung Cancer ; 170: 98-104, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The newly released eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system for lung cancer seeks to improve prognostic accuracy but lacks external validation for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Moreover, previous studies posed a few questions concerning survival differences for patients with specific site N3 node involvement or single-site metastasis (SSM) in different distant organs. The aim of this study was to validate the eighth edition of the TNM classification for SCLC in an independent multi-institutional cohort from China and answer the questions raised by the previous research. METHODS: Patients with SCLC from four Chinese cancer centers between 2009 and 2019 were reclassified according to the seventh and eighth edition of the TNM classification. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparisons between adjacent categories and stage groups were performed using Cox proportional hazard regression. R2 statistics were calculated to evaluate the discriminating performance of editions. RESULTS: Of 3384 enrolled cases, 3358 had clinical stage, 537 had pathological stage, and 511 had both. Progressive deterioration of survival was observed with advancing of TNM categories and stages both in the seventh and the eighth edition. The eighth edition stages had a higher R2 statistic than the seventh edition (0.207 versus 0.197). Newly defined categories M1b and M1c and stages IIIC, IVA and IVB in the eighth edition discriminated groups with significantly different prognosis. Patients with N3 contralateral supraclavicular nodes had a significantly worse prognosis than those without (p = 0.032). For patients with single-site metastasis, liver involvement showed a worse prognosis compared to brain involvement (p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided an external validation of the eighth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer in Chinese patients with SCLC, and confirmed its improved prognostic accuracy compared with the seventh edition. Patients with N3 and M1b might represent heterogeneous populations that warrant further research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia
19.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735600

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The mechanism of chemo-resistance in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is unclear. This study aims to explore the resistance-related genomic profiles of residual tumors after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in SCLC through the whole-exome sequencing (WES). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 416 limited diseases (LD) SCLC patients underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed, of which 40 patients received NAC. Then we selected 29 patients undergoing NAC (n = 19) and chemotherapy naïve (CTN, n = 10) to perform WES sequence with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples including tumor and paired para-tumor. RESULTS: In total, single nucleotide variation and mutation rate were similar between NAC and CTN groups. The mutation signatures were significantly discrepant between NAC and CTN groups, as well as among patients with partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease. There were more copy number variation deletions in NAC group compared with CTN group. The inactivation of TP53 and RB1 were the most significantly events in both NAC and CTN groups. RB1 nonsense mutations were recurrent in NAC group (9/19 vs. 0/9, 47.4% vs. 0%) with favorable survival, while the frame-shift deletions were frequent in CTN group (3/9 vs. 3/19, 33.3% vs.15.8%). Integrated function enrichment revealed that the frequently mutant genes were involved in cell cycle, metabolic reprogramming, and oncogenic signaling pathways in NAC group, such as BTG2 pathway, glycolysis in senescence and P53 pathway. A total of 27 genes presented frequently mutant in NAC group and might played a positive role in drug resistance. Multiple genes including BRINP3, MYH6, ST18, and PCHD15, which were associated with prognosis, occurred mutant frequently in PR and SD groups. CONCLUSION: Residual tumors after neo-adjuvant therapy exhibited different mutation signature spectrum. Multiple genes including RB1 nonsense mutations, BRINP3, MYH6, ST18, and PCHD15 were with frequent mutation in residual tumors, which might participate chemo-resistance and influenced the prognosis in patients with limited disease SCLC.

20.
Front Oncol ; 12: 872324, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651806

RESUMO

Background: Thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) with concurrent chemotherapy is the standard treatment of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). However, there is still a controversy surrounding the treatment strategy especially optimal dosing and fractionation schedule. Current practice patterns among Chinese oncologists are unknown. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 212 Chinese oncologists using a questionnaire including 50 questions designed by experienced oncologists. Questions covered demographic data, treatment recommendations, and self-assessed knowledge of guidelines or key clinical trials for SCLC. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were utilized to describe the result of the study. Results: The response rate was 97% (207/212). Of all the respondents, 69% preferred TRT QD, 29% preferred BID, and 2% chose HFRT. For those who prefer TRT QD, 72% preferred a total dose of 60 Gy, followed by 15% opting for 66 Gy, 12% for <60 Gy, and 1% for 70 Gy. Of those who prefer BID, 79% preferred a total dose of 45 Gy, with 4% choosing 30 Gy, 8% choosing 50 Gy, 7% choosing 54 Gy, and 2% choosing >54 Gy. Regarding PCI, 82% of participants believed that PCI should be performed when treatment is completed and 13% believed that PCI should begin immediately after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. As for other therapies, 26% of participants choose concurrent anti-angiogenic therapy during SCLC treatment, and 49% recommended small-molecule TKI as the main anti-angiogenic therapy. Conclusion: Substantial variation exists in how Chinese oncologists approach TRT dosing and fractionation for LS-SCLC. Almost 70% of respondents reported administering TRT QD more often in daily work. The most common doses were 60 Gy QD and 45 Gy BID.

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