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1.
Animal ; 15(12): 100393, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844184

RESUMO

Social contact during suckling, in an enriched social environment, can reduce the aggressive behaviours of piglets during regrouping at weaning, and improve their production performance and welfare. The aim of this study was to determine the possible impact of suckling social contact on gut microbes. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing to measure the faecal microbial structure and function in piglets experiencing social contact. Eighteen-litter piglets were allocated to two treatments: an early continuous social contact (CSC) group where piglets from adjacent pens shared a mutual pen starting at 14 days postpartum and a control (CON) group where piglets had no contact with individuals from adjacent pens during the suckling period. The piglets were regrouped at 36 days of age. The litter weights at 35 and 63 days of age were measured. Faecal samples were randomly collected at 16, 35, 42, and 63 days of age and faecal DNA was determined. The results showed that the litter weight of piglets in the CSC group was significantly decreased at 63 days compared with the CON group. Continuous social contact also significantly decreased the microbial richness at 16 and 35 days of age (P < 0.05). Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum in both groups at all detected time-points and the abundance increased with social contact. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant bacterium after weaning and the abundance increased in the piglets with social contact. Compared with the faecal microbiota of control piglets, a total of 22 genera at 16 days, 20 genera at 35 days, 12 genera at 42 days, and 27 genera at 63 days in the faeces of CSC piglets were observed to be significantly different in abundance (linear discriminant analysis score > 3, P < 0.05). Furthermore, functional analysis of the microbial composition showed that the changes induced by early CSC mainly altered the relative abundance of metabolic and related pathways. The social contact notably had an effect on the abundance of microbial pathways for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. In conclusion, CSC changed the microbial composition in the faeces of piglets, which might have a negative effect on nutrient metabolism for the suckling-growing piglets. Our study provided new insight into the influence of social contact on the suckling-growing piglets.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(24): 241103, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213924

RESUMO

We report the discovery of an extended very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray source around the location of the middle-aged (207.8 kyr) pulsar PSR J0622+3749 with the Large High-Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). The source is detected with a significance of 8.2σ for E>25 TeV assuming a Gaussian template. The best-fit location is (right ascension, declination) =(95.47°±0.11°,37.92°±0.09°), and the extension is 0.40°±0.07°. The energy spectrum can be described by a power-law spectrum with an index of -2.92±0.17_{stat}±0.02_{sys}. No clear extended multiwavelength counterpart of the LHAASO source has been found from the radio to sub-TeV bands. The LHAASO observations are consistent with the scenario that VHE electrons escaped from the pulsar, diffused in the interstellar medium, and scattered the interstellar radiation field. If interpreted as the pulsar halo scenario, the diffusion coefficient, inferred for electrons with median energies of ∼160 TeV, is consistent with those obtained from the extended halos around Geminga and Monogem and much smaller than that derived from cosmic ray secondaries. The LHAASO discovery of this source thus likely enriches the class of so-called pulsar halos and confirms that high-energy particles generally diffuse very slowly in the disturbed medium around pulsars.

3.
Science ; 373(6553): 425-430, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261813

RESUMO

The Crab Nebula is a bright source of gamma rays powered by the Crab Pulsar's rotational energy through the formation and termination of a relativistic electron-positron wind. We report the detection of gamma rays from this source with energies from 5 × 10-4 to 1.1 peta-electron volts with a spectrum showing gradual steepening over three energy decades. The ultrahigh-energy photons imply the presence of a peta-electron volt electron accelerator (a pevatron) in the nebula, with an acceleration rate exceeding 15% of the theoretical limit. We constrain the pevatron's size between 0.025 and 0.1 parsecs and the magnetic field to ≈110 microgauss. The production rate of peta-electron volt electrons, 2.5 × 1036 ergs per second, constitutes 0.5% of the pulsar spin-down luminosity, although we cannot exclude a contribution of peta-electron volt protons to the production of the highest-energy gamma rays.

4.
Nature ; 594(7861): 33-36, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002091

RESUMO

The extension of the cosmic-ray spectrum beyond 1 petaelectronvolt (PeV; 1015 electronvolts) indicates the existence of the so-called PeVatrons-cosmic-ray factories that accelerate particles to PeV energies. We need to locate and identify such objects to find the origin of Galactic cosmic rays1. The principal signature of both electron and proton PeVatrons is ultrahigh-energy (exceeding 100 TeV) γ radiation. Evidence of the presence of a proton PeVatron has been found in the Galactic Centre, according to the detection of a hard-spectrum radiation extending to 0.04 PeV (ref. 2). Although γ-rays with energies slightly higher than 0.1 PeV have been reported from a few objects in the Galactic plane3-6, unbiased identification and in-depth exploration of PeVatrons requires detection of γ-rays with energies well above 0.1 PeV. Here we report the detection of more than 530 photons at energies above 100 teraelectronvolts and up to 1.4 PeV from 12 ultrahigh-energy γ-ray sources with a statistical significance greater than seven standard deviations. Despite having several potential counterparts in their proximity, including pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants and star-forming regions, the PeVatrons responsible for the ultrahigh-energy γ-rays have not yet been firmly localized and identified (except for the Crab Nebula), leaving open the origin of these extreme accelerators.

5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(17): 7543-7549, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biological function of hsa-miR-375 in the progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the potential mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intestinal mucosa tissues of 26 IBD patients and 30 healthy volunteers who underwent colonoscopy were harvested for determining hsa-miR-375 level by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Binding of hsa-miR-375 to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was verified by the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Changes in the viability and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells influenced by hsa-miR-375 were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The regulatory effect of hsa-miR-375 on the intestinal epithelial barrier was examined by detecting transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and lucifer yellow flux. Relative levels of TLR4, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and inflammatory factors in Caco-2 cells were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Hsa-miR-375 was downregulated in intestinal mucosa tissues of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Knockdown of hsa-miR-375 decreased viability and TEER, but elevated apoptotic rate and lucifer yellow flux. Overexpression of hsa-miR-375 achieved the opposite trends. TLR4 was the direct downstream of hsa-miR-375, and its level was negatively mediated by hsa-miR-375. In addition, TLR4 level in Caco-2 cells was upregulated after LPS induction, while hsa-miR-375 level was unchangeable. Knockdown of hsa-miR-375 upregulated NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8, and downregulated ZO-1, occludin and anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: Hsa-miR-375 is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD by upregulating TLR4 and inducing NF-κB activation.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Apoptose , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
6.
Animal ; 13(10): 2319-2326, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829184

RESUMO

Music or other background sounds are often played in barns as environmental enrichment for animals on farms or to mask sudden disruptive noises. Previous studies looking at the effects of this practice on non-human animal well-being and productivity have found contradictory results. However, there is still a lack of discussion on whether piglets have the ability to distinguish different types of music. In this study, we exposed piglets to different music conditions to investigate whether the piglets preferred certain music types, in which case those types would have the potential to be used as environmental enrichment. In total, 30 piglets were tested for music type preference to determine whether growing pigs respond differently to different types of music. We used music from two families of instruments (S: string, W: wind) and with two tempos (S: slow, 65 beats/min (bpm); F: fast, 200 bpm), providing four music-type combinations (SS: string-slow; SF: string-fast; WS: wind-slow; WF: wind-fast). The piglets were given a choice between two chambers, one with no music and the other with one of the four types of music, and their behaviour was observed. The results showed that SS and WF music significantly increased residence time (P<0.01) compared with the other music conditions. Compared with the control group (with no music), the different music conditions led to different behavioural responses, where SS music significantly increased lying (P<0.01) and exploration behaviour (P<0.01); SF music significantly increased tail-wagging behaviour (P<0.01); WS music significantly increased exploration (P<0.01); and WF music significantly increased walking, lying, standing and exploration (all P<0.01). The results also showed that musical instruments and tempo had little effect on most of the behaviours. Fast-tempo music significantly increased walking (P=0.02), standing (P<0.01) and tail wagging (P=0.04) compared with slow-tempo music. In conclusion, the results of this experiment show that piglets are more sensitive to tempo than to musical instruments in their response to musical stimulation and seem to prefer SS and WF music to the other two types. The results also suggest a need for further research on the effect of music types on animals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Música , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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