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1.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947655

RESUMO

Proliposomes were used to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of nifedipine. Nifedipine proliposomes were prepared by methanol injection-spray drying method. The response surface method was used to optimize formulation to enhance the encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of nifedipine. The particle size of nifedipine proliposomes after rehydration was 114 nm. Surface morphology of nifedipine proliposomes was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and interaction of formulation ingredients was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The solubility of nifedipine is improved 24.8 times after forming proliposomes. In vitro release experiment, nifedipine proliposomes had a control release effect, especially in simulated gastric fluid. In vivo, nifedipine proliposomes significantly improved the bioavailability of nifedipine. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of nifedipine proliposomes was about 10 times than nifedipine after oral administration. The elimination half-life (T1/2ß) of nifedipine was increased from 1.6 h to 6.6 h. In conclusion, proliposomes was a promising system to deliver nifedipine through oral route and warranted further investigation.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5331, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767849

RESUMO

Wave trapping and manipulation are at the heart of modern integrated photonics and acoustics. Grand challenges emerge on increasing the integration density and reducing the wave leakage/noises due to fabrication imperfections, especially for waveguides and cavities at subwavelength scales. The rising of robust wave dynamics based on topological mechanisms offers possible solutions. Ideally, in a three-dimensional (3D) topological integrated chip, there are coexisting robust two-dimensional (2D) interfaces, one-dimensional (1D) waveguides and zero-dimensional (0D) cavities. Here, we report the experimental discovery of such a dimensional hierarchy of the topologically-protected 2D surface states, 1D hinge states and 0D corner states in a single 3D system. Such an unprecedented phenomenon is triggered by the higher-order topology in simple-cubic sonic crystals and protected by the space group [Formula: see text]. Our study opens up a new regime for multidimensional wave trapping and manipulation at subwavelength scales, which may inspire future technology for integrated acoustics and photonics.

4.
Int J Endocrinol Metab ; 17(3): e85413, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497040

RESUMO

Context: Recently, the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has attracted worldwide attention. However, the results related to plasma BCAAs concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) lack statistical power due to the small sample size of a single article. Objectives: This study quantitatively summarized current observational studies to evaluate the association between plasma BCAAs concentration levels and GDM. Methods: A systematic search was performed to select eligible publications using PubMed and EMBASE databases until July 23, 2018. The references of relevant articles were also manually searched. The quality evaluation of included studies was according to the guidelines of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 and STATA 14.0 software. In total, seven articles (including eight studies) involving 432 subjects were included. Results: The results showed that all three-individual plasma BCAAs concentration levels in the GDM group were higher than those in the control group (leucine: SMD = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.70 - 5.82, P (SMD) < 0.001; isoleucine: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI: 1.42 - 4.87, P (SMD) < 0.001; valine: SMD = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.21 - 4.32, P (SMD) = 0.001), and the differences were statistically significant. In addition, subgroup analysis indicated that age, body mass index (BMI), publication year, and ethnicity were positively associated with plasma BCAAs concentrations in GDM. Conclusions: Plasma BCAAs, as potential biomarkers, might be associated with GDM risk, which provides useful information for the prevention and early diagnosis of GDM.

5.
Oncotarget ; 10(46): 4761-4775, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413817

RESUMO

Over 95% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDACs), as well as a large fraction of other tumor types, such as colorectal adenocarcinoma, are driven by KRAS activation. However, no direct RAS inhibitors exist for cancer therapy. Furthermore, the delivery of therapeutic agents of any kind to PDAC in particular has been hindered by the extensive desmoplasia and resultant drug delivery challenges that accompanies these tumors. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising modality for anti-neoplastic therapy due to its precision and wide range of potential therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, siRNA therapy is limited by low serum half-life, vulnerability to intracellular digestion, and transient therapeutic effect. We assessed the ability of a peptide based, oligonucleotide condensing, endosomolytic nanoparticle (NP) system to deliver siRNA to KRAS-driven cancers. We show that this peptide-based NP is avidly taken up by cancer cells in vitro, can deliver KRAS-specific siRNA, inhibit KRAS expression, and reduce cell viability. We further demonstrate that this system can deliver siRNA to the tumor microenvironment, reduce KRAS expression, and inhibit pancreatic cancer growth in vivo. In a spontaneous KPPC model of PDAC, this system effectively delivers siRNA to stroma-rich tumors. This model has the potential for translational relevance for patients with KRAS driven solid tumors.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(23): 233903, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298912

RESUMO

The studies of topological phases of matter have been developed from condensed matter physics to photonic systems, resulting in fascinating designs of robust photonic devices. Recently, higher-order topological insulators have been investigated as a novel topological phase of matter beyond the conventional bulk-boundary correspondence. Previous studies of higher-order topological insulators have been mainly focused on the topological multipole systems with negative coupling between lattice sites. Here we experimentally demonstrate that second-order topological insulating phases without negative coupling can be realized in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals. We visualize both one-dimensional topological edge states and zero-dimensional topological corner states by using the near-field scanning technique. Our findings open new research frontiers for photonic topological phases and provide a new mechanism for light manipulating in a hierarchical way.

7.
Pharmaceutics ; 11(7)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277236

RESUMO

Vitamin D3 is an effective skin protective substance to prevent photoaging. Liposomes were used as a carrier to deliver vitamin D3 to improve the stability and to enhance the treatment effect of vitamin D3. The stability of vitamin D3 liposomes, average cumulative penetration, and retention of vitamin D3 in the skin were then evaluated and compared with free vitamin D3. Finally, the treatment effect of vitamin D3 liposomes in a rat photoaging model was appraised and Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining was used to assess the histology changes of the skin after vitamin D3 liposome treatment. The results indicated that liposomes could significantly improve the stability of vitamin D3. The average skin retention of vitamin D3 liposomes was 1.65 times that of the vitamin D3 solution. Vitamin D3 liposomes could repair the surface morphology of skin in the photoaging model and promote the production of new collagen fibers. Vitamin D3 liposomes as a potential skin care agent could significantly improve skin appearance and repair damage in the histology of photoaging.

8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(5): 2265-2270, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087865

RESUMO

The allelopathic effects of Myriophyllum elatinoides on algal growth were investigated and potential allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum elatinoides were analyzed. Myriophyllum elatinoides were co-cultivated with different initial concentrations (105, 106, 107, 108, and 109 ind.·L-1) of Microcystis aeruginosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The optical density of each group was measured daily. The results showed that 2.5 g·(200 mL)-1 of Myriophyllum elatinoides has significant inhibition effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth with initial concentrations of 107 ind.·L-1 and 108 ind.·L-1. However, there was no significant inhibition on the growth of Selenastrum capricornutum. Through solvent extraction and GC-MS analysis, hexadecanoic acid was extracted and determined as an allelochemical in Myriophyllum elatinoides. Additionally, three potentially novel allelochemical compounds secreted by Myriophyllum elatinoides were determined as follows:3-ethyl-3-methylheptane, triethyl phosphate and dibutyl phthalate.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Clorofíceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/química , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feromônios/química , Ácido Palmítico , Ácidos Ftálicos
9.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 35(5): e3142, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pancreas steatosis is the description of fat accumulation in the pancreatic gland. The prevalence and development mechanisms of pancreatic steatosis in patients with metabolic disorders still remain unclear. The aim of this study is to systematically review the association between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic co-morbidities. METHODS: We performed a systematic search strategy using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase) for relevant studies concerning the associations of pancreatic steatosis with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical relevance from inception until 30 September 2018. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred fifty one references were identified in the initial search, and a total of 13 studies involving 49 329 subjects were included. This analyses elucidated the presence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) and was associated with a significant increased risk of metabolic syndrome (RR = 2.25; 95% CI, 2.00-2.53; P < 0.0001; I2  = 42.8%; eight studies included), hypertension (RR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.90; P = 0.013; I2  = 94.7%; nine studies included), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (RR = 2.49; 95% CI, 2.06-3.02; P < 0.0001; I2  = 96.9%; nine studies included), diabetes mellitus (RR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.18-3.35; P = 0.01; I2  = 97.6%; 10 studies included), and central obesity (RR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.67-2.19; P < 0.0001; I2  = 95.9%; six studies included). The association between NAFPD and hyperlipidaemia was not statistically significant (RR = 1.33; 95% CI, 0.82-2.17; P = 0.249; I2  = 97%; five studies included). CONCLUSIONS: The existing evidence indicates that NAFPD is significantly associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and its components. Well-designed prospective cohort studies between pancreatic steatosis and MetS are needed to elaborate the causality in the future.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pancreatopatias/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Pancreatopatias/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(1): 70-74, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644264

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of dual-pedicle abdominal flap for unilateral breast reconstruction. Methods: Between March 2014 and March 2018, a clinical data of 19 female patients underwent dual-pedicle abdominal flap reconstruction because of unilateral mastectomy defect was reviewed retrospectively. The median age was 45 years (range, 32-51 years), including 3 immediate breast reconstruction and 16 delayed breast reconstruction, and left side in 7 cases and right side in 12 cases. Unilateral breast reconstruction were performed for 8 patients with unilateral pedicle transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap and contralateral free TRAM flap, for 3 patients with pedicle TRAM flap and contralateral deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, for 7 patients with bilateral DIEP flaps, for 1 patient with free muscle-sparing TRAM flap and contralateral DIEP flap. The size of abdominal flap ranged from 24 cm×7 cm to 43 cm×13 cm. The donor sites were closed directly. Results: Vascular crisis ocuurred in 1 flap and relieved after surgical exploration. The other flaps survived. Poor wound healing in abdominal incision occurred in 1 patient and was successfully treated with debridement. The other donor sites healed without any other complication. The patients were followed up with a median period of 12 months (range, 4-42 months). Four patients received reparative operation of their reconstructive breast, and 2 patients received mamopexy of the contralateral breast due to mastoptosis. The abdominal BREAST-Q score was 84.1±11.7, chest score was 86.5±8.9, and breast score was 67.6±16.4 at last follow-up. Conclusion: The dual-pedicle abdominal flap for unilateral breast reconstruction provides adequate soft tissue volume and good blood supply. It is a reliable and effective breast reconstructive method for patients who need large tissue volume to make symmetric with the contralateral breast, or slim patients with few tissue in the donor site, or patients with scars in the donor site, especially vertical abdominal scars.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Mastectomia , Abdome , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reto do Abdome , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
11.
Food Funct ; 10(2): 554-564, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681124

RESUMO

Breast milk bacteria play an important role in the early development of the gut microbiota and the immune system. Dominant living bacteria of 89 healthy Chinese women from 11 cities in five regions were analysed by broad-range yeast extract, casitone, and fatty acid and de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe-based culturing coupled with 16S rRNA sequence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Principal coordinate analysis showed that human breast milk samples were classified into three groups, driven by Enterococcus (abundance in group 1, 63.13%), Streptococcus (abundance in group 2, 68.16%) and Staphylococcus (abundance in group 3, 55.17%). The microbiota profile was highly region-specific. Samples from the Northwest and North of China showed higher alpha diversity compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus were the dominant genera in all samples. Lactobacillus had a high occurrence in samples from the Northwest and North, dominated by Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus gasseri. Samples of mothers with a high postpartum body mass index showed more Staphylococcus and less Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. Staphylococcus was negatively correlated with Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. The mode of delivery also affected the composition of microbiota, even after culture. These findings indicate differences between the North and South, provide effective information for collection of samples in which Lactobacillus is the predominant genus, and lower the detection limit for small amounts of bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , China , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 135-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613142

RESUMO

Background: We previously developed cabazitaxel (CTX)-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (NPs-CTX) via a self-assembly method, and these NPs showed efficacy in prostate cancer therapy. Many studies have shown that the levels of folic acid (FA) receptor on the surface of various tumor cells are high. Therefore, FA-modified NPs-CTX may have enhanced antitumor effects compared with unmodified NPs-CTX. Methods: NPs-CTX were first prepared via self-assembly, and FA was conjugated on the surface of NPs-CTX through the -NH2 groups of the NPs to produce FA-NPs-CTX. The FA-NPs-CTX were evaluated in tumor cells with high FA receptor (FR) expression in vitro and in vivo. Results: Both NPs-CTX and FA-NPs-CTX exhibited good stability and morphology. Drug release from the NPs was not affected by FA conjugation. Compared with CTX dissolved in a mixture of Tween 80 and 13% ethanol (w/w) at a ratio of 1:4 (v/v) (Tween-CTX), the two nanoformulations had lower lytic activity against normal red blood cells. However, FA-NPs-CTX showed greater inhibition of tumor cells with overexpressed FR, compared with NPs-CTX, in the cytotoxicity experiments. Moreover, the cellular uptake of FA-NPs-CTX was enhanced through FR-mediated endocytosis in HeLa cells in vitro and HeLa xenograft tumors in vivo. Although Tween-CTX exhibited tumor growth inhibition similar to FA-NPs-CTX in vivo, this inhibition also caused adverse side effects; the median lethal dose (LD50) of Tween-CTX to mice was 5.68 mg/kg, while FA-NPs-CTX-treated mice survived at doses exceeding 400 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results showed that FA-NPs-CTX caused inhibition of tumor growth in a manner similar to that of Tween-CTX; however, the safety and tolerability of CTX were greatly improved by FA conjugation compared with those of Tween-CTX. In summary, FA-NPs-CTX have great potential in CTX delivery, and this formulation is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancers with high FR levels.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Receptor 2 de Folato/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Células A549 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias/patologia , Taxoides/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; 30(2): 122-136, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522414

RESUMO

A kind of tumor targeting nitric oxide donor nanoparticle with brushes is described in this paper. The poly(4-vinylphenylboronic acid) polymeric brush, which shows glucose and pH dual responsiveness, endows the ability of hollow S-nitrosothiols nanoparticle to accurate recognition and binding with the sialic acid over-expressed type tumor cells, such as HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. In vitro experiments, including cells capture and release experiments, confocal fluorescence microscope characterization, cytotoxicity assay with different cells, demonstrate the selective recognition and the controlled NO release to kill tumor cells for these S-nitrosothiols nanoparticles. Low concentration of the released NO from the S-nitrosothiols nanoparticles in the transmission would participate physiological activity and avoid serious side effects because the endogenous nature and the physiological necessity to regulate normal biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about polymer nanoparticles as NO donors with functional brushes to selectively identify tumor cells and release NO in a controlled manner.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Polímeros/química , S-Nitrosotióis/química , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/genética , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Porosidade , Compostos de Vinila/química
14.
Opt Express ; 26(19): 24531-24550, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469568

RESUMO

The topological phases in materials have been studied in recent decades for their unique boundary states and transport properties. Photonic systems with band structures embrace the topological phases closely, where they not only provide platforms to testify the topological band theory, but also shed light on designing novel optical devices. In this review, we present exciting developments, supported by brief descriptions of prominent milestones of topological phases in photonic systems in recent years. These studies may sustain further developments of optical devices and offer novel methods for light manipulations.

15.
Lab Chip ; 18(23): 3687-3702, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393802

RESUMO

Most cancer treatment strategies target cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and intravasation of tumor cells in an attempt to limit tumor growth and metastasis. An in vitro platform to assess tumor progression and drug sensitivity could provide avenues to enhance our understanding of tumor metastasis as well as precision medicine. We present a microfluidic platform that mimics biological mass transport near the arterial end of a capillary in the tumor microenvironment. A central feature is a quiescent perfused 3D microvascular network created prior to loading tumor cells or patient-derived tumor organoids in an adjacent compartment. The physiological delivery of nutrients and/or drugs to the tumor then occurs through the vascular network. We demonstrate the culture, growth, and treatment of tumor cell lines and patient-derived breast cancer organoids. The platform provides the opportunity to simultaneously and dynamically observe hallmark features of tumor progression including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell migration, and tumor cell intravasation. Additionally, primary breast tumor organoids are viable in the device for several weeks and induce robust sprouting angiogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of our platform for drug discovery and personalized medicine by analyzing the response to chemo- and anti-angiogenic therapy. Precision medicine-based cancer treatments can only be realized if individual tumors can be rapidly assessed for therapeutic sensitivity in a clinically relevant timeframe (⪅14 days). Our platform indicates that this goal can be achieved and provides compelling opportunities to advance precision medicine for cancer.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 5811-5822, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323583

RESUMO

Purpose: A liposome-based siRNA-drug combination was evaluated as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve the curative effect. Methods: A topoisomerase inhibitor SN38 prodrug was combined with a survivin siRNA through codelivery using transferrin (Tf)-L-SN38/P/siRNA. In this combination, SN38 was conjugated to the cell penetrating peptide TAT through a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker to synthesize TAT-PEG-SN38. The amphiphilic TAT-PEG-SN38 was used as an ingredient of liposomes to improve the cellular uptake. Protamine was added to form an electrostatic complex with siRNA in the core of the liposomes. Tf was introduced to enable tumor cell targeting of liposomes (Tf-L-SN38/P/siRNA). Results: Tf-L-SN38/P/siRNA exhibited a particle size of 148 nm and a ζ-potential of +7.8 mV. The cellular uptake and antitumor activity were dependent on Tf receptor targeting, TAT-PEG-SN38, and siRNA codelivery. Tf-L-SN38/P/siRNA was shown to be considerably more effective than liposomes carrying individual components. This combination induced potent tumor inhibition (76.8%) in HeLa cell xenograft tumor-bearing nude mice. Conclusion: These data indicated that Tf-L-SN38/P/siRNA was an effective system for codelivery of SN38 and a survivin siRNA and that its therapeutic potential deserved further evaluation.


Assuntos
Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose , Transporte Biológico , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/síntese química , Camptotecina/química , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Endocitose , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Irinotecano , Lipossomos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/patologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Survivina , Distribuição Tecidual , Transferrina/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin (Lf) is a multifunctional protein and one of the most abundant proteins in human milk. Various factors may affect its concentration in human milk, such as stage of lactation, ethnicity, and diet. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were to examine the dynamic change in milk Lf throughout the course of lactation and explore factors associated with milk Lf concentrations in various Chinese populations. METHODS: This investigation was a part of a large cross-sectional study conducted in 11 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (Beijing, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Shanghai, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang) across China between 2011 and 2013. Lactating women (n = 6481) within 0⁻330 days postpartum were recruited in the original study. A sub-sample of 824 women was randomly selected, and milk Lf concentrations were determined by UPLC/MS. RESULTS: The Lf concentration in milk from women delivering at term was 3.16 g/L, 1.73 g/L and 0.90 g/L for colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk, respectively. Lf concentrations differed significantly between stages of lactation (colostrum vs. transitional milk, colostrum vs. mature milk, transitional milk vs. mature milk, all p < 0.001). Maternal BMI, age, mode of delivery, parturition, protein intake, and serum albumin concentration were not correlated with milk Lf concentration. However, milk Lf concentrations varied among different geographical regions (Guangdong (1.91 g/L) vs. Heilongjiang (1.44 g/L), p = 0.037; Guangdong (1.91 g/L) vs. Gansu (1.43 g/L), p = 0.041) and ethnicities (Dai (1.80 g/L) vs. Tibetan (0.99 g/L), p = 0.007; Han (1.62 g/L) vs. Tibetan (0.99 g/L), p = 0.002) in China. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of Lf in human milk changes dynamically throughout lactation. Few maternal characteristics affect the milk Lf concentration, but it varies across different geographical regions and ethnicities in China.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Lactação/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Características de Residência , População Rural , População Urbana , Aleitamento Materno , China , Colostro , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/etnologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento a Termo
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(25): e11114, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Pacman flap is a novel modality for repairing round soft-tissue defects after tumor resection. This modality provides a robust blood supply without microsurgical tissue rearrangement. This article reviews the authors' experience with Pacman flap for reconstruction of round soft-tissue defects. The safety and effectiveness of the Pacman flap are investigated. METHODS: Here, we describe a method for oncologic reconstruction of round soft-tissue defects with a Pacman flap after tumor resection. Fourteen consecutive patients (6 males and 8 females, median age of 60 years, range, 18-87 years) who received Pacman flaps for oncologic reconstruction during the period from April 2015 to April 2017 were included in the present study. RESULTS: In total, 15 Pacman flaps (including 1 bilateral Pacman flap) were created to provide coverage after resection of a tumor from the face (n = 11), chest (n = 1), or extremities (n = 2). One patient had twice previously undergone tumor resection. Median defect size was 25.5 × 25 mm (range, 9 × 9-100 × 90 mm). Median flap size was 35 × 27 mm (range, 12 × 10-120 × 110 mm). Median duration of follow-up was 10 months (range, 6-22 months). No local or distal tumor was observed during the follow-up period. All flaps survived without partial or complete necrosis, infection, or other complications. All patients were satisfied with their aesthetic outcomes. A hematoma formed in 1 patient and was successfully treated with debridement. CONCLUSIONS: The Pacman flap enables the surgeon to achieve tension-free round defect closure after tumor resection, with good functional and aesthetic outcomes. This modality is a reliable and effective reconstructive surgical technique for oncologic reconstruction of round soft-tissue defects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extremidades/cirurgia , Face/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5808, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643359

RESUMO

The precise role of tumor associated macrophages remains unclear in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) while TGF-ß has an unclear role in metastases formation. In order to understand the role of IL23, an interleukin associated with macrophage polarization, we investigated IL23 in the context of TGF-ß expression in PDAC. We hypothesized that IL23 expression is associated with metastatic development and survival in PDAC. We investigated IL23 and TGF-ß protein expression on resected PDAC patient tumor sections who were divided into short-term (<12 months) survivors and long-term (>30 months) survivors. Panc-1 cells treated with IL23, TGF-ß, macrophages, or combinations thereof, were orthotopically implanted into NSG mice. Patients in the long-term survivor group had higher IL23 protein expression (P = 0.01). IL23 expression was linearly correlated with TGF-ß expression in patients in the short-term survivor group (P = 0.038). Macrophages induce a higher rate of PDAC metastasis in the mouse model (P = 0.02), which is abrogated by IL23 and TGF-ß treatment (P < 0.001). Macrophages serve a critical role in PDAC tumor growth and metastasis. TGF-ß contributes to a less tumorigenic TME through regulation of macrophages. Macrophages increases PDAC primary tumor growth and metastases formation while combined IL23 and TGF-ß pre-treatment diminishes these processes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Subunidade p19 da Interleucina-23/análise , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/análise , Idoso , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Nutrients ; 10(2)2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470415

RESUMO

Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey) of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants. World Health Organization (WHO) infant and young child feeding indicators were firstly used to assess exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice nationwide. In total, 14,458 children aged under two years (0 to <730 days) were studied from 55 counties in 30 provinces in China. The crude exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was 20.7% (908/4381) and the weighted exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.6%. The crude prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were 52.5% (5286/10,071), 69.8% (7027/10,071), and 27.4% (2764/10,071) among children aged 6-23 months, respectively. The weighted rate was 53.7%, 69.1%, and 25.1%, respectively. Residential area, household income and maternal education were positively associated with the three complementary feeding indicators. The exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was low and complementary feeding practice was not optimal in China. Residential area, household income and maternal education might be used to target infants and young children to improve complementary feeding practice.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial , Aleitamento Materno , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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