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1.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 11: 249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245741

RESUMO

Background: Schizochytrium sp. is a promising strain for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil and biodiesel, and has been widely used in the food additive and bioenergy industries. Oxygen is a particularly important environmental factor for cell growth and DHA synthesis. In general, higher oxygen supply favors lipid accumulation, but could lead to a reduction of the DHA percentage in total fatty acids in Schizochytrium sp. To tackle this problem, it is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating the response of Schizochytrium sp. to oxygen. In this study, we aimed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer to different oxygen supply conditions by examining the transcriptome changes. Results: Two different fermentation processes, namely normal oxygen supply condition (shift agitation speeds from 400 rpm to 300 rpm) and high oxygen supply condition (constant agitation speeds: 400 rpm), were designed to study how the fermentation characteristics of Schizochytrium sp. HX-308 were affected by different oxygen supply conditions. The results indicated that high oxygen supply condition resulted in 49% and 37.5% improvement in the maximum cell dry weight (CDW) and total lipid concentration, respectively. However, the DHA percentage in total fatty acids decreased to 35%, which was 31.4% lower than that produced by normal oxygen supply condition. Moreover, transcriptome analysis was performed to explore the effect of the oxygen supply condition on genetic expression and metabolism. The results showed that glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism-associated genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were substantially upregulated in response to high oxygen supply, resulting in more NADPH was available for Schizochytrium. Specially, high oxygen supply condition also led to genes (Δ6 desaturase, Δ12 desaturase, FAS, ORFA, ORFB, and ORFC) involved in fatty acid biosynthesis upregulation. In addition, a transcriptional upregulation of catalase (CAT) became apparent under high oxygen supply condition, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were found to be down-regulated. Conclusions: This study is the first to investigate the differences of gene expression at different levels of oxygen availability in the DHA producer Schizochytrium. The results of transcriptome analyses indicated that high oxygen supply condition resulting in more NADPH and acetyl-CoA production for cell growth and lipid synthesis in Schizochytrium. Δ12 desaturase and ORFC showed higher expression levels at high oxygen supply condition, which might be the key regulators for enhancing fatty acid biosynthesis in the future. These results enrich the current knowledge regarding genetic expression and provide important information to enhance DHA production in Schizochytrium sp.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 267: 438-444, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032058

RESUMO

Lipid accumulation of Schizochytrium sp. can be induced by stress condition, but this stress-induction usually reduce cell growth and cause oxidative damage, which can eventually lower the lipid yield. Here, adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) combined high salinity was performed to enhance the antioxidant system and lipid accumulation. The final strain ALE150, which was obtained after 150 days, showed a maximal cell dry weight (CDW) of 134.5 g/L and lipid yield of 80.14 g/L, representing a 32.7 and 53.31% increase over the starting strain, respectively. Moreover, ALE150 exhibited an overall higher total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels than the starting strain. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the improved performance of ALE150 were analyzed by transcriptomic analysis. Genes related to the antioxidant enzymes and central carbon metabolism were up-regulation. Moreover, the metabolic fluxes towards the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways were also changed.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/biossíntese , Microalgas , Salinidade , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 11: 65, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563968

RESUMO

Background: Schizochytrium sp. is a marine microalga with great potential as a promising sustainable source of lipids rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This organism's lipid accumulation machinery can be induced by various stress conditions, but this stress induction usually comes at the expense of lower biomass in industrial fermentations. Moreover, oxidative damage induced by various environmental stresses can result in the peroxidation of lipids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, which causes unstable DHA production, but is often ignored in fermentation processes. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new production strains that not only have a high DHA production capacity, but also possess strong antioxidant defenses. Results: Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is an effective method for the development of beneficial phenotypes in industrial microorganisms. Here, a novel cooperative two-factor ALE strategy based on concomitant low temperature and high salinity was applied to improve the production capacity of Schizochytrium sp. Low-temperature conditions were used to improve the DHA content, and high salinity was applied to stimulate lipid accumulation and enhance the antioxidative defense systems of Schizochytrium sp. After 30 adaptation cycles, a maximal cell dry weight of 126.4 g/L and DHA yield of 38.12 g/L were obtained in the endpoint strain ALE-TF30, which was 27.42 and 57.52% higher than parental strain, respectively. Moreover, the fact that ALE-TF30 had the lowest concentrations of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde among all strains indicated that lipid peroxidation was greatly suppressed by the evolutionary process. Accordingly, the ALE-TF30 strain exhibited an overall increase of gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and polyketide synthases compared to the parental strain. Conclusion: This study provides important clues on how to overcome the negative effects of lipid peroxidation on DHA production in Schizochytrium sp. Taken together, the cooperative two-factor ALE process can not only increase the accumulation of lipids rich in DHA, but also prevent the loss of produced lipid caused by lipid peroxidation. The strategy proposed here may provide a new and alternative direction for the industrial cultivation of oil-producing microalgae.

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