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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(8): 1995-2007, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531714

RESUMO

Quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is vital for the development of the downstream industries, and is an important channel for implementing the strategy of "higher quality, higher price, and priority for the high quality" for traditional Chinese medicine. At the moment, the quality of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is mainly evaluated based on chemical component examination. Considering the weak preliminary research foundation and poor research conditions, traditional experience-based evaluation is undervalued in the quality rating of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. However, traditional experience is a summary of the quality of Chinese medicinal materials based on clinical experience, which thus can be a potential basis for the quality evaluation of the decoction pieces. It is a challenge in the evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces to objectify the traditional experience-based evaluation from multiple aspects such as chemistry, effect, and characterization via modern techniques. Therefore, this study developed the "experience-ingredients-activity-electronic sensing" evaluation system for Chinese medicinal decoction pieces on the basis of experience-based assessment, chemical ingredients that can truly reflect the traditional experience, biological effect assessment, and electronic sensory evaluation, which is expected to quantify the traditional experience of quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces via chemistry, biology, and sensory simulation. The evaluation system can serve as a reference for clinical experience-based quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , China , Eletrônica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Restrição Física
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(23): 6163-6177, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951243

RESUMO

This study aimed to qualitatively analyze the chemical components in Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and identify its material basis. The absorbed components in plasma were combined for exploring the potential action mechanism by integrated network pharmacology. ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) column and mobile phase system of 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) were used for gradient elution, followed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion scanning modes. According to the precise relative molecular mass and MS/MS fragment ions, a total of 124 chemical components were identified in XRCQ by the comparison with references and literature reports, among which 29 compounds were completely confirmed by comparison with reference substances. Then, the main absorbed components of XRCQ in plasma were also analyzed and clarified by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. BATMAN-TCM and SwissTargetPrediction were used for target prediction of absorbed components in plasma. Following the plotting of association network with Cytoscape 3.8.2, the core targets were subjected to GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and a component-target-pathway network was constructed. A total of eight main targets of XRCQ against fever in children were obtained together with eight absorbed components in plasma, including glycyrhydinic acid, hesperidin, emodin, reticuline, daidzein, magnolignan C, magnolignan A, and magnolaldehyde D. It was inferred that XRCQ might improve alimentary system abnormality, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and endocrine disorder through tumor necrosis factor, PI3 K-AKT, and other signaling pathways. The present study comprehensively expounded the chemical profiles of XRCQ and the main absorbed components in plasma and predicted the potential mechanism of XRCQ based on integrated network pharmacology, which has provided certain theoretical reference for the clinical application of XRCQ.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4774-4781, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581088

RESUMO

Indolealkylamines(IAAs) are the main hydrophilic substances in toad skin, mainly including free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine. In this study, the LPS-activated neutrophils were used to investigate the structure-activity relationship and anti-inflammatory mechanism of the above-mentioned five monomers from the toad skin in vitro. The neutrophils were divided into the control group, model group(1 µg·mL~(-1) LPS), positive drug group(100 µg·mL~(-1) indometacin), as well as the low-(50 µg·mL~(-1)), medium-(100 µg·mL~(-1)) and high-dose(200 µg·mL~(-1)) free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine groups. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß in the neutrophil supernatant of each group was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) after LPS stimulation, followed by the detection of apoptosis in each group after Annexin V/PI staining. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, beclin1, LC3-I, and LC3-Ⅱ were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that IAAs reduced the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines caused by LPS compared with the model group. Besides, the activity of each free IAAs(N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine and dehydrobufotenine), especially bufotenine, was stronger than that of the binding bufothionine. As revealed by Annexin V/PI staining, LPS delayed the early apoptosis of neutrophils compared with the control group, while bufotenine promoted the apoptosis of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner, which might be related to the elevated expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, LPS activated the autophagy pathways in neutrophils. This study confirmed the efficacy of IAAs in reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils induced by LPS for the first time. For instance, bufotenine exerts the anti-inflammatory effect possibly by inducing the apoptosis of neutrophils.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Neutrófilos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose , Bufonidae , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pele
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113917, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609729

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qingxin Lianzi Yin Decoction (QXLZY), a Chinese classical formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases over 1,000 years. However, the current studies on QXLZY were mostly focused on its clinical efficacy, lacking systematic material basis research on constituents. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to elucidate and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS was employed to clarify the chemical constituents and metabolites of QXLZY. The extraction of diagnostic ion and neutral loss fragment was aimed for searching specific type of constituents. The plasma, urine, bile and feces samples of rats after oral administration of QXLZY were systematically studied. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously detect different types of constitutes. Based on the analysis of ingredients in vivo, the bioactive constituents and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated by using network pharmacological analysis. RESULTS: Totally, 220 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS. Among them, 59 compounds were confirmed by reference standards. Meanwhile, 21 representative components were simultaneously determined within 15 min by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. 123 components (74 prototypes as well as 49 metabolites) were identified or tentatively characterized. By using network pharmacological analysis, baicalein, liquiritigenin, succinic acid, formononetin, wogonin might be the major effective constituents in QXLZY during the treatment of DN. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, saponins and organic acids were the major chemical ingredients of QXLZY. Flavonoids were the main components absorbed into blood, followed by organic acids. Phase II conjugation reaction was the major metabolic type. The pathways that QXLZY in the treatment of DN were probably related to glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ácidos/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Masculino , Metaboloma , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3035-3044, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726009

RESUMO

UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was developed for the identification of chemical constituents in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which will clarify its material basis. ACQUITY UHPLC HSS T3 chromatography column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) was used with 0.1% formic acid(B)-acetonitrile(A) as the mobile phase in gradient elution. The decoction was detected by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an ESI ion source in positive and negative mode. Based on the accurate mass measurements, retention time, mass fragmentation patterns combined with comparison of reference and literature reports, a total of 87 major compounds including 43 flavonoids, 9 alkaloids, 4 triterpenoid saponins, 1 sesquiterpene, 2 coumarins, 10 phenolic acids and 18 other compounds were tentatively screened and characterized. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was employed to comprehensively elucidate the chemical components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which basically covered 20 Chinese medicines except gypsum in Qingfei Paidu Decoction. These collective results provide a scientific basis for further research on the quality control standard of Qingfei Paidu Decoction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 260: 112943, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422359

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arenobufagin (ArBu) is an important anti-tumor ingredient of Chan'su which has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for tumor therapy in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study is to investigate the lipid homeostasis regulation effects of ArBu on zebrafish model of liver cancer and hepatoma cells, and to provide a reference for further clarifying its active mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The zebrafish xenograft model was established by injecting HepG2 cells stained with CM-Dil red fluorescent dye. Both the xenograft model and HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the anti-hepatoma activity of ArBu. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was the main method to study lipidomics, proteomics and the semiquantification of endogenous metabolites. Bioinformatics was used as an assistant tool to further explore the antitumor mechanism of ArBu. RESULTS: The lipidomics analysis revealed that ArBu caused differential lipids changes in a dose-dependent manner, including PCs, PEs, TGs, SMs, DGs, Cer and PA. PCs, PEs, SMs and TGs were markedly altered in both two models. The influence of glycerophospholipid metabolism was the major and commonly affected pathway. Notably, DGs and Cer were significantly changed only in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the proteomics research in HepG2 cells fished the target proteins related to lipid homeostasis abnormalities and tumor suppression. ArBu reduced the expression of 65 differential proteins associated with the lipid metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy, such as LCLAT1, STAT3, TSPO and RPS27. Meanwhile, 7 amino acids of 29 determined metabolites were significantly changed, including tyrosine, glutamate, glutamine, leucine, threonine, arginine and isoleucine. CONCLUSION: ArBu has a significant anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and a therapeutic effect on zebrafish xenograft model. It regulated the lipid homeostasis. Activated SM synthase and arginine deiminase, inhibited sphingomyelinase, amino acid supply and JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway, and the affected glycerophospholipid metabolism might explain these results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipidômica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteômica , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Peixe-Zebra
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 596-601, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237518

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging(MALDI-MSI) is a novel technique for in-situ distribution of various substances in tissue without labeling. This technique is increasingly applied to the study of medicinal plants owing to its high spatial resolution and its potential of in-situ analysis in small molecules. In this study, the structural information and their fragmentation patterns of the midazole alkaloids(1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium chloride and 1,3-dibenzyl-2,4,5-trimethylimi-dazolium chloride) and benzylglucosinolate in the medicinal plant Maca(Lepdium meyeni) root were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid phase combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-HR-MS). The localization of these active ingredients in the cross-sections of Maca root was performed by MALDI-MSI. These results demonstrated that the two types of imidazole alkaloids had a similar distributed pattern. They were located more in the cortex and the periderm than those in the medulla of a lateral root, while the localization of benzylglucosinolate was concentrated in the center of the root rather than in the cortex and the periderm. The precise spatial distribution of various secondary metabolites in tissue provides an important scientific basis for the accumulation of medicinal plant active ingredients in tissues. In addition, this imaging method is a promising technique for the rapid evaluation and identification of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine in plant tissues, as well as assisting the research on the processing of medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Plantas Medicinais/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4932-4939, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872603

RESUMO

This study is aimed to establish a method for the determination of baicalin,baicalin and purpurin in the plasma of rats after oral administration of Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid( PDL) by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry( LC-MS),analyze the pharmacokinetics of three components in rats,and investigate the effects of PDL on drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. C18 column was used for liquid chromatography separation,with acetonitrile-water( containing 0. 2% formic acid) as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The mass spectrometry was detected by electrospray ion source( ESI) under multi-reaction monitoring mode( MRM),as well as positive and negative ion alternating mode. Plasma sample collection was performed by using an automatic blood collection meter for small animals. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Win Nonlin software. The total protein concentration of rat liver microsomes and the total enzyme content of CYP450 were determined by BCA method and spectrophotometry respectively. The methodological study in terms of linear range,recovery rate,precision and sample stability,was used to confirm that the LC-MS analysis method established in this experiment was simple,exclusive,accurate and reliable,and can meet the requirement of determining the content of baicalin,oroxindin and corynoline in plasma after PDL administration in rats. The drug-time curve showed that baicalin and oroxindin had a bimodal phenomenon,and the pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that baicalin,oroxindin and corynoline in PDL had certain drug-like properties. After 7 consecutive days of PDL administration,the rat liver coefficient,total liver microparticle protein and CYP450 enzyme content were increased,but there was no significant difference,indicating that PDL was less likely to develop drug-drug interaction based on CYP enzyme. The results of this experiment can provide reference for the research on in vivo efficacy and drug interaction of PDL as well as on its clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fígado , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
9.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752141

RESUMO

The tea-like beverage Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Stevia) is popular in China because it reduces blood glucose and has a sweet taste. In this work, a comprehensive quality assessment of Stevia led to the discovery of five phenylethanoid glycosides, namely steviophethanoside (1), cuchiloside (2), salidroside (3), icariside D (4), and tyrosol (5). Of them, compound 1 is a novel compound. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were employed to confirm the absolute configuration. A hydrolytic step with 4 N TFA at 95 °C for 4 h was used to confirm the monosaccharides. In addition, Discovery Studio 4.0 was used to predict the ADME and toxicity activity of compound 1. The results suggested that compound 1 was biocompatible and had poor toxicity, which was verified by rat INS-1 islet ß cells through an MTT assay. Meanwhile, a significant stimulatory effect on INS-1 cells was observed, which indicated a hypoglycemic effect of compound 1. This is the first report that describes a natural, novel, and hypoglycemic phenylethanoid glycoside in Stevia.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Stevia/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1573-1587, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090321

RESUMO

UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS was used to analyze,identify and attribute the chemical constituents in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6 mm × 150 mm,3.5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic solution system at the flow rate of 0.5 m L·min-1. The sample volume was 2 µL. The column temperature was30 ℃. The high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry was used as detector,with electrospray ion source in both positive and negative models,and the MS scanning ranged between m/z 50 and 2 000. Based on the analysis of mass spectrometry and literature reports,79 compounds were confirmed,including 30 alkaloids,28 organic acids,18 flavonoids and 3 coumarins. Finally,39 compounds,such as rutin,esculetin,gallic acid,caffeic acid,cichoric acid,were identified from Taraxacum mongolicum; 11 compounds,such as baicalin,baicalein,apigenin,chrysin,oroxylin A,were identified from Scutellaria baicalensis; 13 compounds,such as arginine,proline,hypoxanthine,epigoitrin,indirubin,were identified from Isatis indigotica; and 18 compounds,such as dehydrocheilanthifoline,oxysanguinarine,corynoline,protopine,spallidamine,were identified from Corydalis bungeana. After the analysis of chemical model and attribution,the contents of some compounds were high in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,such as baicalin,wogonoside,baicalein,wogonin,apigenin,chrysin,skullcapflavonⅡ,oroxylin A,cichoric acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,esculetin,dehydrocheilanthifoline,dihydrosanguinarine,protopine,corynoline and indirubin. The established method is simple,accurate,rapid,sensitive and reproducible,and thus suitable for the qualitative identification and quantitative determination of Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,which lays a foundation for the systematic quality control and the establishment of whole-course traceability system of active ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(1): 158-166, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868827

RESUMO

In order to find the endogenous potential biomarkers of in vitro hepatic injury caused by NCTD-Na and elucidate the mechanism of hepatic injury of NCTD-Na,ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used for lipidomics detection.Multivariate statistical analysis was used to study the endogenous lipid metabolic changes of human normal liver cells LO2 injury after the treatment with sodium norcantharidate(NCTD-Na).The results showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration(IC50) of NCTD-Na was 0.034 mmol·L-1.A total of 280 differential metabolites were found between the control group and the low-dose group,with VIP > 2.0 and P<0.05.At the same time,a total of 273 differential metabolites were found between the control group and the high-dose group,with VIP > 2.0 and P<0.05.Cell metabolite profiles showed clear separation among control group,the low-dose group and the high-dose group,and 111 differential metabolites were found,with VIP > 2.0,P<0.05,RSD<30% and in a dose-dependent manner.It was found that most of the above differential metabolites were lipid metabolites after the analysis of simple preparnation methods and database search.A total of 32 potential biomarkers were identified,including 3 phosphatidylcholine(PC),5 lysophosphatidylcholine(Lyso PC),3 ceramide(Cer),1 sphingomyelin(SM),1 phosphatidylethanolamine(PE),10 lysophosphatidylethanolamine(LysoPE),4 diacylglycerol(DG),1 Phosphatidic acid(PA),1 lysophosphatidic acid(Lyso PA),1 phosphatidyl glycerol(PG),1 fatty acid hydroxy fatty acid(FAHFA) and 1 phosphatidylserine(PS).The changes of PCs,Cers,SM,PE and DGs were closely related liver protection,DNA methylation and self-repair in hepatocytes,apoptosis,methylation and detoxification of carcinogens,as well as lipid peroxides production process.Also,they had impact on the proliferation of hepatocytes,differentiation and gene transcription disorders.Cells stimulated by NCTD-Na could promote the production of PA as well as the synthesis and catabolism of FAHFA in a variety of ways.The levels of Lyso PCs,LysoPEs and Lyso PA were correlated with PCs,PE and PA;PE and PS might have valgus during apoptosis,triggering phagocytosis.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Células Cultivadas , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 3006-3011, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111062

RESUMO

To study the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients (alkaloids, iridoids and flavonoids) in Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats, and investigate its mechanism in treatment of AD. All of rats were divided into normal control group (n=6), shame operation group (n=6) and model group (n=12). Rats in shame operation group received daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal 50 mg·kg⁻¹) for a total of 45 d to induce subacute aging model. Based on the operation of shame operation group, the rats in model group were given with an injection of Aß25₋35 (4.0 g·L⁻¹)-ibotenic acid (2.0 g·L⁻¹) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Then rats in model group were divided into HLJDD one day administration group (n=6) and HLJDD one week group (n=6). The plasma concentration of alkaloids, iridoid and flavonoids was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS) at different time points. The levels of seven inflammatory factors (MIP-2, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α) in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) were measured by Bio-Plex multi-factor detection technology. Iridoids in AD model rats, with high bioavailability, were easily absorbed and eliminated. The plasma concentration of alkaloid was lower, and the AUC (area under the curve) was higher in HLJDD one week group than that in HLJDD one day group. The plasma concentration-time curves of flavonoids showed obvious bimodal phenomena. After the gastric administration of HLJDD, the inflammatory factors in CSF of AD rats demonstrated a callback trend, including IL-1ß/IL-10 (P<0.05) with significant difference. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of iridoids, alkaloids and flavonoids (41 compounds) in AD model rats were fundamentally elucidated, and HLJDD can improve the central inflammatory status of AD rats by regulating the levels of inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Encéfalo , Inflamação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156256, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280291

RESUMO

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may restrain inflammation synergistically via its major constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids and iridoids). A correlation between the exposure concentration of different types of compounds and their anti-inflammatory effects in the body was shown. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the anti-inflammatory activity of HLJDD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocinas/sangue , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(20): 3767-3772, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929654

RESUMO

Fifteen compounds were isolated from the toad skin by a combination of various chromatographic methods including macroporous resin, silica gel, ODS and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as 4,5-dimethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-6-ol(1), serotonin(2), N-methyl serotonin(3), O-methyl bufotenine(4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-ß-carboline(5), O-methylserotonin(6), glycinebetaine(7), caffeine(8), bufotenine(9), shepherdine(10), tryptophan(11), (5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid(12), 5-hydroxy tryptophol(13), 2-methyl-6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-ß-carboline(14), bufothionine(15). Among them, compound 1 was a new compound,compound 5 was a new natural product. Compounds 4-8 and 10-14 were separated from toad skin for the first time.


Assuntos
Bufonidae , Pele/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(14): 2669-2674, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905604

RESUMO

In this study, 10 samples of parasites, cursive, and the whole from six different species of Cordyceps were determined and compared by HPLC and LC-MS methods. Uridine, adenosine, and cordycepin were selected as the main evaluation index. The anti-fibrotic activity of different species Cordyceps extracts was observed using in vitro TGF-ß1-induced ECM accumulation in human embryonic fibroblasts CCC-ESF-1. The results demonstrated that the number of atoms and hyphae ingredients of different species showed little difference, however, the content distribution of each component has obvious significance. The in vitro anti-fibrotic activities of different species were as follow: Cordyceps flower > Cicada Cordyceps (Cicada flower)> Silkworm Cordyceps> Tussah Cordyceps>natural Cordyceps. Our preliminary data could serve as reference for the discovery of artificial alternatives of natural Cordyceps.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Uridina/farmacologia
16.
Xenobiotica ; 46(1): 65-81, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26084375

RESUMO

1. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and neural system diseases in clinic. In the present study, the comprehensive metabolic profile of HLJDD was demonstrated reliably and rapidly followed by the metabolic pathway analysis of six typical pure compounds (four alkaloids, one flavonoid and one iridoid) in HLJDD using LC-IT-MS combined with high resolution LC-FT-ICR-MS. 2. Totally, 85 compounds, including 32 prototype components and 53 biotransformed metabolites were detected and characterized in the urine and feces after oral administration of HLJDD and six pure compounds to rats, respectively. Among them, 17 prototypes were identified definitely with standard references. 3. Hydroxylation, demethylation and glucuronidation reactions of alkaloids, as well as glucuronidation and sulfonation reactions of iridoids and flavonoids, were observed as the major metabolic pathways of HLJDD. Flavonoids, iridoids and their metabolites were mainly excreted from urine. However, amount of alkaloids were detected in feces. 4. In general, the distinctive metabolic process of three kinds of representative components in HLJDD was clarified. The in vivo metabolic network of HLJDD was demonstrated. Meanwhile, the investigation of representative pure compounds in metabolic study provided a valuable strategy to elucidate the full-scale metabolic fate of HLJDD. This might be helpful to understand the in vivo mechanism of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Urina/química , Alcaloides/urina , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/urina , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(14): 2727-31, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666017

RESUMO

In this study, chemistry, biology and pharmacology were combinated to screen pseudoallergenic substances of Shuang-huanglian injection (SHLI) so that to establish a scientific and systematic approach to screen pseudoallergenic substances of traditional Chinese medicine injections. The mouse pseudoallergic reaction models were used to screen the pseudoallergic reaction of SHLI's intermediate extract and the intermediate extract's component or ingredient. Among the three intermediates of Shuanghuanglian injection (extract of Scutellaria baicalensis, extract of Lonicera japonica, extract of Forsythia suspensa) , pseudoallergic action of Forsythia suspensa was the strongest, Forsythia suspesnsa's pseudoallergic reaction mainly associated with the composition with largerchemical polarity. Further it was found that forsythiaside A and arctiin which existed in the the composition with largerchemical polarity caused obvious pseudoallergic reactions. SHLI with removal forsythoside A with the technology of HPLC-MS displayed reduced pseudoallergic reaction and a significant improved safety. This study provided a scientific basis for SHLI process improvements and also offered idea and research foundation for screening pseudoallergenic substances injections in other TCM injections.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Injeções , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
18.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 29(18): 1641-50, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26467116

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tussilagone is a major component in Tussilago farfara that has been widely used as an anti-tussive herbal medicine for the treatment of bronchitis, cough and asthmatic disorders in the clinic. However, its metabolism has been poorly investigated. In order to clarify its in vitro metabolism, a comparative analysis of its metabolic profile in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs) was carried out. Further, the cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYPs) involved in the metabolism were investigated. METHODS: In this work, the biotransformation of tussilagone in RLMs and HLMs was compared using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/HRMS) and the CYPs involved in the metabolism were further investigated by recombinant human CYP enzymes. RESULTS: Totally, nine metabolites of tussilagone were identified in RLMs and HLMs based on the proposed MS/MS fragmentation pathways of tussilagone and the accurate MS/MS spectra. Among them, one metabolite (M9) was detected in both RLMs and HLMs while the other eight metabolites were only detected in HLMs. Three hydroxylation metabolites (M6, M7 and M8) were detected in the assay with individual recombinant P450s incubation. M6 was detected in all CYPs except CYP2A6 while M7 and M8 were only observed in CYP3A4. CONCLUSIONS: The HR-ESI-MS/MS fragmentation behavior of tussilagone and its metabolic profile in RLMs and HLMs were investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated that the biotransformation of tussilagone involved hydrolysis of ester bonds at C-14 and hydroxylation in the side chains at C-12, C-5' or C-6'. Among the CYPs, CYP3A4 played an important role in the hydroxylation reaction of tussilagone in vitro. Furthermore, the results indicated a species-related difference in the metabolism of tussilagone between RLMs and HLMs. This work provided basic information for the metabolism of tussilagone in RLMs and HLMs, which would help to better understand the pharmacological activities of tussilagone.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacocinética
19.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 29(21): 2045-56, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443405

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Limonoids, characterized by a triterpenoid skeleton with a furan ring, are unique secondary metabolites widely distributed in the families of Rutaceae, particularly in Citrus species and Meliaceae. Studies on health benefits have demonstrated that limonoids have a range of biological activities. Dietary intake of citrus limonoids may provide a protective effect against the onset of various cancers and other xenobiotic related diseases. However, few studies about the metabolic profiles of limonoids have been carried out. METHODS: The objectives of this study were to investigate the metabolic profiles of four limonoids (limonin, obacunone, nominin and gedunin) in human liver microsomes (HLMs) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/HRMS) and to identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the formation of their metabolites by recombinant human CYP enzymes. RESULTS: Based on the accurate HR-MS/MS spectra and the proposed MS/MS fragmentation pathways, four metabolites of limonin (M1-1, M1-2, M1-3 and M1-4), eight metabolites ofobacunone (M2-1, M2-2, M2-3, M2-4, M2-5, M2-6, M2-7 and M2-8), six metabolites of nominin (M3-1, M3-2, M3-3, M3-4, M3-5 and M3-6) and three metabolites of gedunin (M4-1, M4-2 and M4-3) in HLMs were tentatively identified and the involved CYPs were investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that reduction at C-7 and C-16, hydroxylation and reaction of glycine with reduction limonoids were the major metabolic pathways of limonoids in HLMs. Among them, glycination with reduction was the unique metabolic process of limonoids observed for the first time. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 played an important role in the isomerization and glycination of limonoids in HLMs, whereas other CYP isoforms were considerably less active. The results might help to understand the metabolic process of limonoids in vitro such as the unidentified metabolites of limonin glucoside observed in the medium of microbes and the biotransformation of limonin in juices. Moreover, it would be beneficial for us to further study the pharmacokinetic behavior of limonoids in vivo systematically.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(16): 3148-51, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25509304

RESUMO

Recently, compound Ejiao slurry (FFEJJ) had been applied to treat cancer patients in clinic, with obvious curative effect. In this study, data and literatures were collected from the TCM chemical component database to establish the chemical component database of FFEJJ. Afterwards, MetaDrug software was used to predict the targets of FFEJJ and obtain the compound-target network. Next, the compound-target network was compared and analyzed to obtain the "compound-target-tumor target" heterogeneous network. Besides, further analysis was made on gene functions and metabolic pathway. The results indicated that FFEJJ could directly resist tumors by regulating cancer cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis, and show an adjuvant therapeutic effect by enriching the blood and increasing the immunity.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo
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