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Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831


Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.

Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
Int J Phytoremediation ; 21(3): 240-245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656962


Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic plants is significantly affected by hydrological regime and therefore the accumulation and translocation of cadmium in five organs-panicle, leaf, stem, root, and bud-of an emergent plant (Miscanthus sacchariflorus) were compared between the submerged environment and non-submerged environment. In the submerged condition, the cadmium concentration was higher in the panicle and leaf than in the stem, root, and bud. Cadmium concentration in the root exhibited a positive regression with cadmium concentration in the sediment. However, cadmium concentration in the panicle, leaf, stem, and bud exhibited no significant regression with cadmium concentration in the sediment. In the non-submerged environment, the cadmium concentration was higher in the below-ground organs than in the aboveground organs. The mean bioaccumulation coefficient in the 24 investigated plots in the submerged environment was higher than that in the 20 and 40 mg kg-1 cadmium treatments in the non-submerged environment. The mean translocation factor in the submerged environment was nine times higher than that in non-submerged environment. These results indicate that submergence enhanced cadmium bioaccumulation in the aboveground organs and that this plant can be used to remove heavy metals from polluted rivers and lakes.

Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Poaceae
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744779


Bioaccumulation of five heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in six plant organs (panicle, leaf, stem, root, rhizome, and bud) of the emergent and perennial plant species, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, were investigated to estimate the plant's potential for accumulating heavy metals in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We found the highest Cd concentrations in the panicles and leaves; while the highest Cu and Mn were observed in the roots, the highest Pb in the panicles, and the highest Zn in the panicles and buds. In contrast, the lowest Cd concentrations were detected in the stem, roots, and buds; the lowest Cu concentrations in the leaves and stems; the lowest Mn concentrations in the panicles, rhizomes, and buds; the lowest Pb concentrations in the stems; and the lowest Zn concentrations in the leaves, stems, and rhizomes. Mean Cu concentration in the plant showed a positive regression coefficient with plot elevation, soil organic matter content, and soil Cu concentration, whereas it showed a negative regression coefficient with soil moisture and electrolyte leakage. Mean Mn concentration showed positive and negative regression coefficients with soil organic matter and soil moisture, respectively. Mean Pb concentration exhibited positive regression coefficient with plot elevation and soil total P concentration, and Zn concentration showed a positive regression coefficient with soil available P and total P concentrations. However, there was no significant regression coefficient between mean Cd concentration in the plant and the investigated environmental parameters. Stems and roots were the main organs involved in heavy metal accumulation from the environment. The mean quantities of heavy metals accumulated in the plant tissues were 2.2 mg Cd, 86.7 mg Cu, 290.3 mg Mn, 15.9 mg Pb, and 307 mg Zn per square meter. In the Dongting Lake wetlands, 0.7 × 103 kg Cd, 22.9 × 103 kg Cu, 77.5 × 103 kg Mn, 3.1 × 103 kg Pb, and 95.9 × 103 kg Zn per year were accumulated by aboveground organs and removed from the lake through harvesting for paper manufacture.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(8): 8002-8011, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305802


The growth performance of Salix triandroides cuttings at three water cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, and 40 mg L-1) and three water levels (- 40 cm, water level 40 cm below the soil surface; 0 cm, water level even with the soil surface; and 40 cm, water level 40 cm above soil surface) was investigated to evaluate its potential in phytoextraction strategies. Compared to cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels, cuttings in the 40 cm water level showed significantly lower biomass, height, and adventitious root length and significantly fewer leaves and adventitious roots. However, these growth and morphological parameters were not different among the three water Cd concentrations. Water level decreased stomatal conduction and transpiration rate but showed no significant effects on chlorophyll concentration or photosynthetic rate. Chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were higher at 40 mg L-1 Cd treatment than at 0 or 20 mg L-1 Cd treatment; yet, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were not different. Cd concentration in the leaves and stems increased as the water level increased, but the highest Cd concentration in the roots occurred in the 0 cm water level. As water Cd concentration increased, Cd concentration in the leaves, stems, and roots increased in all three water levels, except in stems in the - 40 cm water level. Under Cd stress, cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels were characterized by a higher bioaccumulation coefficient, but a lower translocation factor, than those in the 40 cm water level. However, the bioaccumulation coefficient increased with increasing water Cd concentration in all three water levels, as did the translocation factor in the 40 cm water level. The tolerance index for the cuttings was the same among all water levels and water Cd concentrations. The results clearly indicated that the low water level increased plant growth and Cd accumulation in underground parts, while the high water level decreased plant growth but increased Cd accumulation in aboveground parts.

Cádmio/toxicidade , Salix/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Água/química , Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salix/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo