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2.
Endocrine ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484410

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAHs) is a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland. Although largely investigated, the pathogenesis of PAH is not completely clarified. We aimed to investigate the immune response in PAHs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus antibodies (respectively APAs and AHAs) were investigated though an indirect immunofluorescence on monkey hypophysis and hypothalamus slides, serum cytokines though an array membrane and cell-mediated immunity though the white blood cells count. RESULTS: Nineteen PAH cases entered the study. APA or AHA were identified in all cases. APA were detected in 13 patients (68.4%) and AHA in 13 patients (68.4%). Ten patients (52.6%) were simultaneously positive for both APA and AHA. The prevalence of APAs and AHAs was higher as compared to those observed in 50 health controls (respectively 14% p < 0.001 and 24% p = 0.004) and in 100 not-secreting pituitary adenoma (NFPAs) (respectively 22% p = 0.002 and 8% p < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of simultaneous positivity for APA and AHA (52.9%) was higher as compared to the those detected in patients affected by NFPAs (0%; p < 0.001) and in health controls (16% p = 0.002). No differences were identified between PAHs and controls at qualitative and quantitative analysis of serum cytokines and white blood cells count. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggest that APA and AHA may be detected in an high percentage of PAH cases and that their simultaneous identification may be useful for the differential diagnosis between PAH and NFPAs, in an appropriate clinical context.

3.
Faraday Discuss ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300505

RESUMO

Commercial hollow fiber filters for micro- and ultrafiltration are based on size exclusion and do not allow the removal of small molecules such as antibiotics. Here, we demonstrate that a graphene oxide (GO) layer can be firmly immobilized either inside or outside polyethersulfone-polyvinylpyrrolidone hollow fiber (Versatile PES®, hereafter PES) modules and that the resulting core-shell fibers inherits the microfiltration ability of the pristine PES fibers and the adsorption selectivity of GO. GO nanosheets were deposited on the fiber surface by filtration of a GO suspension through a PES cartridge (cut-off 0.1-0.2 µm), then fixed by thermal annealing at 80 °C, rendering the GO coating stably fixed and unsoluble. The filtration cut-off, retention selectivity and efficiency of the resulting inner and outer modified hollow fibers (HF-GO) were tested by performing filtration on water and bovine plasma spiked with bovine serum albumin (BSA, 66 kDa, ≈15 nm size), monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles (52 nm and 303 nm sizes), with two quinolonic antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) and rhodamine B (RhB). These tests showed that the microfiltration capability of PES was retained by HF-GO, and in addition the GO coating can capture the molecular contaminants while letting through BSA and smaller polystyrene nanoparticles. Combined XRD, molecular modelling and adsorption experiments show that the separation mechanism does not rely only on physical size exclusion, but involves intercalation of solute molecules between the GO layers.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of acromegaly resistant to first generation somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) is often difficult. Pegvisomant and Pasireotide LAR are mostly used in these subset of patients, as second line therapies. Choice of the type of second line therapies is difficult, since predictors of response are still unclear, impairing personalized therapy. We aimed to investigate predictors of response to Pegvisomant and Pasireotide LAR. METHODS: Seventy-four acromegaly patients entered this observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study if (1) resistant to high dose first generation SRLs and (2) treated with Pegvisomant and Pasireotide LAR for at least 12 consecutive months. Patients treated with radiotherapy in the previous 10 years were excluded. RESULTS: Fourty-one patients were treated with Pegvisomant and 33 with Pasireotide LAR. At the end of the study, acromegaly was controlled in 35 patients treated with Pegvisomant (85.4 %) and in 23 treated with Pasireotide LAR (69.7%). In this cohort, a poor Pegvisomant response and a shorter progression free time were observed in cases with tumor extension to the third ventricle (p=0.004, HR:1.6, 95%CI:1.2-4.6), with a Ki67-Li>4% (p=0.004, HR:3.49, 95%CI:1.4-3.9) and with pre-treatment IGF-I>3.3xULN (p=0.03, HR:1.3, 95%CI:1.1-6.0). A poor Pasireotide Lar response and a shorter progression free time were observed in cases with tumor extension to the third ventricle (p=0.025, HR:1.6 95%CI:1.4-3.4), pre-treatment IGF-I>2.3xULN (p=0.049, HR:2.4, 95%CI:1.4-8.0), SST5 membranous expression (p=0.023 HR:5.6 95%CI:1.3-6.4) and in patients carried the d3-delated GHR isoform (p=0.005, HR:11.37, 95%CI:1.3-20.0). CONCLUSION: Molecular and clinical biomarkers can be useful in predicting the responsiveness to Pegvisomant and Pasireotide LAR.

5.
Endocrine ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869113

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) has been displaying an incremental trend along the last two decades. This phenomenon is poorly understood, and little information is available on risk factor for neuroendocrine neoplasia development. Aim of this work is to elucidate the role of potentially modifiable risk factors for pancreatic and pulmonary NEN. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study on 184 patients with NEN (100 pancreas and 84 lung) and 248 controls. The structured questionnaire included 84 queries on socio-demographic, behavioral, dietary and clinical information. RESULTS: Increased risk was associated with history of cancer ("other tumor", lung OR = 7.18; 95% CI: 2.55-20.20 and pancreas OR = 5.88; 95% CI: 2.43-14.22; "family history of tumor", lung OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.53-4.64 and pancreas OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.19-3.17; "family history of lung tumor", lung OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.05-6.24 and pancreas OR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.13-5.95). Type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with an increased risk of pancreatic NEN (OR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.15-7.89). CONCLUSIONS: Besides site-specific risk factors, there is a significant link between neuroendocrine neoplasia and cancer in general, pointing to a shared cancer predisposition.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(83): 12664-12666, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944720

RESUMO

An alternative analysis of the complexes formed by Zr(iv) with acetohydroxamate shows that, in comparison with the results reported in the title article, a more complicated complexation model is found, the stability constants of the common complexes are considerably different and complexation of Zr(iv) does not show any unusual behaviour.

7.
Molecules ; 25(14)2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664239

RESUMO

Tetraaza-macrocyclic pyridinophane L-Ts, decorated with a p-toluenesulfonyl (tosyl; Ts) group, appear to be a useful tool to provide evidence on how the interplay of various supramolecular forces can help stabilise exotic anionic species such as tribromide (Br3-) anions. Indeed, crystals of (H2L-Ts)(Br3)1.5(NO3)0.5 unexpectedly grew from an acidic (HNO3) aqueous solution of L-Ts in the presence of Br- anions. The crystal structure of this compound was determined by single crystal XRD analysis. Hydrogen bonds, salt-bridges, anion-, - stacking, and van der Waals interactions contribute to stabilising the crystal lattice. The observation of two independent Br3- anions stuck over the π-electron densities of pyridine and tosyl ligand groups, one of them being sandwiched between two pyridine rings, corroborates the significance of anion-π interactions for N-containing heterocycles. We show herein the possibility of detecting anion-π contacts from fingerprint plots generated by Hirshfeld surface analysis, demonstrating the effective usage of this structural investigation technique to further dissect individual contributions of stabilising supramolecular forces.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebral fractures (VFs) are a frequent complication of acromegaly, but no studies have been so far published on effectiveness of antiosteoporotic drugs in this clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether in real-life clinical practice bone active drugs may reduce the risk of VFs in patients with active or controlled acromegaly. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal study including 9 tertiary care endocrine units. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty-eight patients with acromegaly (104 males; mean age 56.00 ±â€…13.60 years) were evaluated for prevalent and incident VFs by quantitative morphometric approach. Bone active agents were used in 52 patients (20.97%) and the median period of follow-up was 48 months (range 12-132). RESULTS: During the follow-up, 65 patients (26.21%) developed incident VFs in relationship with pre-existing VFs (odds ratio [OR] 3.75; P < .001), duration of active acromegaly (OR 1.01; P = .04), active acromegaly at the study entry (OR 2.48; P = .007), and treated hypoadrenalism (OR 2.50; P = .005). In the entire population, treatment with bone active drugs did not have a significant effect on incident VFs (P = .82). However, in a sensitive analysis restricted to patients with active acromegaly at study entry (111 cases), treatment with bone active drugs was associated with a lower risk of incident VFs (OR 0.11; P = .004), independently of prevalent VFs (OR 7.65; P < .001) and treated hypoadrenalism (OR 3.86; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Bone active drugs may prevent VFs in patients with active acromegaly.

9.
Protein Pept Lett ; 27(12): 1260-1267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543356

RESUMO

Acromegaly and Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) are associated with skeletal fragility and with an increased prevalence of Vertebral Fractures (VFs). In the most recent years, several authors tried to investigate surrogate markers that may predict the risk of bone fragility in these endocrine disorders. The aim of this review is to evaluate the role of GH receptor polymorphisms in skeletal fragility in patients affected by GHD and acromegaly. In fact, until now, two different isoforms of the GH Receptor (GHR) were described, that differ for the presence or the absence of transcription of the exon 3 of the GHR gene. Both the isoforms produce a functioning receptor, but the exon 3-deleted isoforms (d3-GHR) has a higher sensitivity to endogenous and recombinant GH as compared to the full-length isoform (fl-GHR).

10.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192025

RESUMO

Synthesis of the new scorpiand ligand L composed of a [9]aneN3 macrocyclic ring bearing a CH2CH2NHCH2-anthracene tail is reported. L forms both cation (Zn2+) and anion (phosphate, benzoate) complexes. In addition, the zinc complexes of L bind these anions. The equilibrium constants for ligand protonation and complex formation were determined in 0.1 M NaCl aqueous solution at 298.1 ± 0.1 K by means of potentiometric (pH-metric) titrations. pH Controlled coordination/detachment of the ligand tail to Zn2+ switch on and off the fluorescence emission from the anthracene fluorophore. Accordingly, L is able to sense Zn2+ in the pH range 6-10 down to nM concentrations of the metal ion. L can efficiently sense Zn2+ even in the presence of large excess of coordinating anions, such as cyanide, sulphide, phosphate and benzoate, despite their ability to bind the metal ion.

11.
Chemistry ; 26(27): 5994-6005, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150318

RESUMO

XOFs-type materials (X=M, C, S, that is, metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks and supramolecular organic frameworks, respectively) share a common unifying feature: mutual spatial orientation of constituting components is strictly directional and unchanging by design. Herein, we illustrate an alternate design for porous architectures, as rigid joints constituted by coordinative (MOFs), covalent (COFs), or hydrogen-donor/acceptor (SOFs) bonds, are replaced by supramolecular ball joints, which confer unprecedented flexibility, especially angular, to porous networks. The obtained frameworks remain highly organized but are also permutable: lacking a forced convergence towards an immutable minimum energy structure, these systems remain able to adjust depending on external conditions. Results of POF (permutable organized framework) synthesis is a family of structures rather than a single pre-determined three-dimensional arrangement, as we demonstrate with an illustrative set of 5 XRD structures.

12.
Endocrine ; 68(1): 16-31, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by a chronic exposition to growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), caused in most cases by a pituitary GH-secreting adenoma. Chronic GH excess induces systemic complications (metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, neoplastic, and musculoskeletal) and increased mortality if not appropriately treated. Recent epidemiological data report an improved life span of patients with acromegaly probably due to better acromegaly management; additionally, the number of pituitary incidentaloma in general population also increased over time due to more frequent imaging. Therefore, the number of elderly patients, newly diagnosed with acromegaly or in follow-up, is expected to grow in the coming years and clinicians will need to be aware of particularities in managing these patients. PURPOSE: This review aims to explore different aspects of acromegaly of the elderly patients, focusing on epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation, complications, and management options. METHODS: Available literature has been assessed through PubMed (data until August 2019) by specific keywords. CONCLUSIONS: Available data on acromegaly in the elderly patient are sparse, but point to important differences. Further studies are needed comparing elderly with younger patients with acromegaly to better define a tailored diagnostic and therapeutic management.

13.
Injury ; 51 Suppl 3: S13-S16, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Femur fracture is an acute event with a high incidence and mortality worldwide. Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) is a disease characterized by an alteration of fT3 in the absence of a primary thyroid pathology. The aim of the study is evaluating the association between femur fracture and ESS and post-operative fluctuations of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D and their physio-pathological implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients older than 65 years, admitted in our emergency care unit with a diagnosis of proximal femur fracture were recruited. Exclusion criteria were acute cardio-pulmonary events, neoplastic diseases, any thyroid or endocrine pathology and use of drugs with thyroidal interactions. All patients underwent surgery within 48 h from the injury. The outcome of the study is the presence of ESS, moreover, post-operative fluctuations of the PTH and vitamin D are also evaluated. RESULT: 45 patients (13 men and 32 females) were enrolled. 20 patients had a normal thyroidal function, while 23 had a diagnosis of ESS. Mean age was 81.9. BMI was lower in the ESS group than the controls (25,3 vs 22,7; p < 0.02). In the ESS group a significantly higher decrease in Vitamin D levels was observed, compared to controls (3.96 ng/ml, p<0.001). Values of PTH were significantly different between the two groups, with a level 44.29 pg/ml lower among the ESS group compared to controls (p = 0.002). In the ESS group a significant decrease of serum calcium on the first post-surgery day was observed, compared to controls (8,7 vs 8,3; p < 0,01). There were no differences in the CCI, serum electrolytes and other variables collected between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Part of the geriatric population suffering from fractures of the proximal femur are affected by ESS. This population displays anomalies of the Vitamin d-PTH axis and a lower BMI.

14.
Endocr Pract ; 26(2): 192-196, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557074

RESUMO

Objective: Spontaneous thyroid gland hemorrhage is a rare event. The present retrospective study considered its clinical impact and management in a referral center. Methods: Clinical records of adult patients accessed in the last 10 years (2009-2018) in the Emergency Department of Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS were reviewed to study patients with spontaneous thyroid nodule hemorrhage. All demographic and radiologic or surgical parameters were included, with special attention to the characteristics of thyroid disease and clinical management. Results: Among the 631,129 adults who were registered during the period considered, 59 consecutive patients were included in the study. The mean age was 48.3 ± 14.3 years, with a prevalence of females. The main symptoms were acute neck pain, dyspnea, and dysphagia. All patients underwent ultrasound evaluation; computed tomography scan was performed on only 3 patients, finding one case of active intranodular bleeding requiring urgent surgery. Six patients required hospitalization; the others were discharged and referred for ambulatory endocrinology follow-up. Among them, 7 patients underwent surgery in the next 6 months, with malignant disease found in 3 cases (5.1%). Conclusion: Intrathyroidal spontaneous hemorrhage is a rare event, occurring in multinodular as well as in single-nodule thyroid disease. Although the clinical course is mostly benign, this condition should be carefully evaluated as, in rare circumstances, active bleeding could induce airway obstruction with the need for emergency surgery. Patients should be referred to endocrinology ambulatory follow-up because bleeding could arise as the first sign of malignant lesions in some cases. Abbreviations: CT = computed tomography; ED = emergency department; FNA = fine-needle aspiration; US = ultrasound.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Protein Pept Lett ; 27(12): 1276-1287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804164

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are rare tumors having usually an indolent behavior, but sometimes with unpredictable aggressiveness. PanNETs are more often non-functioning (NF), unable to produce functioning hormones, while 10-30% present as functioning (F) - PanNETs, such as insulinomas , gastrinomas , and other rare tumors. Diagnostic and prognostic markers, but also new therapeutic targets, are still lacking. Proteomics techniques represent therefore promising approaches for the future management of PanNETs. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the state of the art of proteomics in PanNETs. A total of 9 studies were included, focusing both on NF- and F-PanNETs. Indeed, proteomics is useful for the diagnosis, the prognosis and the detection of therapeutic targets. However, further studies are required. It is also warranted to standardize the analysis methods and the collection techniques, in order to validate proteins with a relevance in the personalized approach to PanNETs management.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteopathy is an emerging complication of acromegaly. In somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL)-resistant patients, pegvisomant (PegV) and pasireotide LAR (Pasi) are used for acromegaly treatment, but their effect on skeletal health is still not defined. METHODS: In a longitudinal retrospective international study, we evaluated incidence of radiological vertebral fractures (VFs) in 55 patients with acromegaly resistant to first-generation SRL. RESULTS: At study entry, prevalent VFs occurred in 23 patients (41.8%). Biochemical acromegaly control was reached in 66.7% of patients on PegV and in 66.7% of patients on Pasi. During the follow-up, incident VFs (iVFs) were detected in 16 patients (29.1%). Occurrence of iVFs was associated with prevalent VFs (P = .002), persistence of active acromegaly (P = .01) and higher value of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) during follow-up (P = .03). Among patients with active disease at last visit, iVFs occurred less frequently in patients on treatment with Pasi (25%) compared to PegV (77.8% P = .04), independently of the IGF-1 values (P = .90). In patients who reached biochemical control, 22.7% on PegV and 12.5% on Pasi had iVFs (P = .40). Among both treatment groups, the presence of pre-existent VFs was the main determinant for iVFs. CONCLUSION: Our data show for the first time that patients with biochemically active disease treated with Pasi had lower risk of iVFs versus those treated with PegV. It also confirms that the presence of pre-existent VFs was the main determinant for iVFs. Additional studies on larger populations and with longer follow-up are needed to confirm our data and disclose the mechanisms underlying our findings.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Hormônios/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Receptores de Somatostatina/agonistas , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Acromegalia/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacologia , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Somatostatina/farmacologia
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(4): 551-554, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829344

RESUMO

Mono- and diatomic I- and I2 building blocks, despite their simplicity, can be used to generate complex hierarchical self-assembled architectures. Herein, the construction of a modular supramolecular poly[3]catenane and its conversion into the axle of an infinite supramolecular pseudo-polyrotaxane were achieved in a seamless process from the starting materials. The unique structural features, directionality, and iodine density of the obtained crystals demonstrate the benefits of a supramolecular design for polyiodide networks intended as solid-state conductors.

18.
Endocrine ; 67(3): 651-658, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Somatotroph pituitary tumours are often resistant to first-generation somatostatin analogues and can invade the surrounding structures, limiting the chances of curative surgery. Recent studies suggested that the immune microenvironment and pro-angiogenic factors can influence neuroendocrine tumour prognosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic role of immune cell-specific markers and endocan, a proteoglycan involved in neoangiogenesis and cell adhesion, in a cohort of acromegaly patients who underwent pituitary surgery as first-line treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty four eligible subjects were identified. CD4+, CD8+ and CD68+ cells and endocan expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and results correlated with clinical and neuroradiological findings. Responsiveness to somatostatin analogues was assessed in patients with persistent disease following surgery. RESULTS: The number of CD8+ lymphocytes was significantly lower in tumours with cavernous sinus invasion (median 0.2/HPF, IQR: 2.2) compared with those without cavernous sinus invasion (median 2.4/HPF, IQR: 2.3; P = 0.04). Tumours resistant to first-generation somatostatin analogues had lower CD8+ lymphocytes (median 1/HPF, IQR: 2.4) compared with responders (median 2.4/HPF, IQR: 2.9; P = 0.005). CD4+ lymphocytes were observed sporadically. The number of CD68+ macrophages and the endothelial or tumour cell endocan expression did not differ based on tumour size, cavernous sinus invasion or treatment responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a lower number of CD8+ lymphocytes is associated with cavernous sinus invasion and resistance to treatment with first-generation somatostatin analogues in acromegaly patients. These results highlight a potential role of the tumour immune microenvironment in determining the prognosis of somatotroph pituitary tumours.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572301

RESUMO

Seminomas are the most frequent kind of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), accounting for 50% of tumor diagnosis in young men, whereas non-seminomas account for 40% and mixed forms for 10% of cases. It is currently supposed that TGCTs evolve from a pre-invasive stage of carcinoma in situ (CIS). Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) is essential for self-renewal of stem cells. It is considered as a major regulator of cell pluripotency. Prior studies have shown that seminoma expresses OCT4. Transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) has moreover associated with embryonic stem cell maintenance. Finally, we previously demonstrated the expression of PTTG1 in CIS and seminomas. In this pilot study, we compared the combined expression of PTTG1 with KLF4 and OCT4 in seminoma, in order to validate our hypotesis that PTTG1 marks a specific population of stem cells in neoplastic tissue, strictly related with tumor. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded testicular tissues by 5 patients who underwent an orchidectomy for seminoma have been collected and immunofluorescence analysis was performed using antibody rabbit monoclonal PTTG-1 and mouse monoclonal OCT4 or mouse monoclonal KLF4 antibody. In seminoma we observed that tumor cells strongly express OCT-4 in all seminomas and in the intratubular areas of seminoma. Expression of KLF-4 was observed in many tumor cells. PTTG1 marks some specific OCT4- and KLF4-positive tumor cells, mainly localized at the periphery of the neoplasm. In the intertubular infiltration areas nests of cells expressing both OCT4/KLF4 and PTTG1 have been observed. This is the first identification of a cell population in seminoma characterized for being OCT4, KLF4, and PTTG1 positive cells in seminoma, associated with cancer invasiveness. Further investigation is needed to elucidate if a functional abrogation of PTTG1 might be used in order to offer new therapeutic approaches in the clinical workout of seminoma.

20.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357384

RESUMO

A new G-(H2L)-Pd heterogeneous catalyst has been prepared via a self-assembly process consisting in the spontaneous adsorption, in water at room temperature, of a macrocyclic H2L ligand on graphene (G) (G + H2L = G-(H2L)), followed by decoration of the macrocycle with Pd2+ ions (G-(H2L) + Pd2+ = G-(H2L)-Pd) under the same mild conditions. This supramolecular approach is a sustainable (green) procedure that preserves the special characteristics of graphene and furnishes an efficient catalyst for the Cu-free Sonogashira cross coupling reaction between iodobenzene and phenylacetylene. Indeed, G-(H2L)-Pd shows an excellent conversion (90%) of reactants into diphenylacetylene under mild conditions (50 °C, water, aerobic atmosphere, 14 h). The catalyst proved to be reusable for at least four cycles, although decreasing yields down to 50% were observed.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Grafite/química , Paládio/química , Catálise , Fenômenos Químicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Soluções , Análise Espectral
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