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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639640

RESUMO

The role of the dento-mandibular apparatus and, in particular, occlusion and jaw position, received increased attention during last years. In the present study, we aimed to systematically review, on the light of the new potential insights, the published literature covering the occlusal splint (OS) applications, and its impact on exercise performance. A structured search was carried out including MEDLINE®/PubMed and Scopus databases with additional integration from external sources, between March and June 2021. To meet the inclusion criteria, studies published in the English language, involving humans in vivo, published from 2000 to 2021 and that investigated the role of occlusal splints on athletes' performance were selected. Starting from the 587 identified records, 17 items were finally included for the review. Four main aspects were considered and analyzed: (1) occlusal splint characteristics and occlusion experimental conditions, (2) jump performance, (3) maximal and explosive strength, and (4) exercise technique and biomechanics. The results of the systematic literature analysis depicted a wide heterogenicity in the experimental conditions and suggested the application of the OS as a way to improve athletes' or individuals' oral health, and as a potential tool to optimize marginal aspects of exercise performance.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, a modified intermittent fasting protocol was demonstrated to be able to maintain muscle mass and strength, decrease fat mass and improve some inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy resistance-trained males after 2 months. The present study sought to investigate the long-term effects on these parameters. METHODS: The experiment is a single-blind randomized study. Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled and underwent 12 months of either a time-restricted eating (TRE) diet or a normal diet (ND) protocol, along with resistance training. In the TRE protocol, subjects consumed their energy needs in 3 meals during an 8-h period of time each day (1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m). Subjects in the normal diet (ND) group also had three meals, which were consumed at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 8 p.m. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution at baseline. RESULTS: After 12 months of TRE, body mass, fat mass, IGF-1 and testosterone were significantly lower compared to ND. Moreover, inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α), insulin sensitivity (fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) and lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL and LDL) significantly improved after TRE compared to ND. Finally, subjects in TRE spontaneously decreased their daily energy intake whilst ND maintained their starting kcal/day. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that long-term TRE combined with a resistance training program is feasible, safe and effective in reducing inflammatory markers and risk factors related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444427

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak forced Italian students to reduce their daily activities, inducing a seden-tary attitude that was worsened by distanced learning. This study aimed to survey the physical activity levels that were maintained before and during the social restrictions following the pan-demic, their correlation to musculoskeletal pain, as well as analyzing the impact of these COVID-19 restrictions on pain and fatigue that affects daily life activities. A total of 2044 students completed the online questionnaire, of which the results of 1654 participants were eligible. Before the pandemic, the levels of physical activity were distributed as: 19.9% no activity, 30.1% light ac-tivity, 21.5% moderate activity, and 28.5% high activity. After one year of the pandemic, 30.6% of the participants were inactive, 48.1%, 10.9%, and 10.5% stated as maintaining, respectively, light, moderate and high levels of physical activity. Furthermore, 43.5% reported neck pain and 33.5% stated to experience low back pain. Physical activity levels lower than 150 min/week may have predisposed students to suffer from neck pain (1.95 OR at 95% CI, 1.44-2.64) and low back pain (1.79 OR at 95% CI, 1.29-2.49). A positive correlation between physical activity levels, Verbal Descriptive Scale (VDS), and pain frequency have been observed for neck and low back pain (p-value < 0.05). Finally, low physical activity levels were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and pain worsening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dor Musculoesquelética , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes , Universidades
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445512

RESUMO

(1) Background: One mechanism through which physical activity (PA) provides benefits is by triggering activity at a molecular level, where neurotrophins (NTs) are known to play an important role. However, the expression of the circulating levels of neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4/5), in response to exercise, is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim was to provide an updated overview on the neurotrophin (NT) variation levels of BDNF and NT-4/5 as a consequence of a long-term aerobic exercise intervention, and to understand and describe whether the upregulation of circulating NT levels is a result of neurotrophic factors produced and released from the brain, and/or from neurotrophic secreting peripheral organs. (2) Methods: The articles were collected from PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Embase. Data were analyzed through a narrative synthesis. (3) Results: 30 articles studied humans who performed training protocols that ranged from 4 to 48 weeks; 22 articles studied rodents with an intervention period that ranged from 4 to 64 weeks. (4) Conclusions: There is no unanimity between the upregulation of BDNF in humans; conversely, concerning both BDNF and NT-4/5 in animal models, the results are heterogeneous. Whilst BDNF upregulation appears to be in relative agreement, NT-4/5 seems to display contradictory and inconsistent conclusions.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Regulação para Cima
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210088

RESUMO

Elite judo athletes undergo vigorous training to achieve outstanding results. In pursuit of achieving competitive success, the occurrence of injuries amongst judo athletes is not rare. The study aimed to perform a knee flexors and extensors isokinetic torque analysis in elite female judo athletes. Fifty-eight elite female judo athletes of the Serbian national team (21.02 ± 3.11 years; 62.36 ± 11.91 kg, 165.04 ± 10.24 cm, training experience 12.72 ± 2.98 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The range of motion (ROM) was set at 90°. Testing was performed in a concentric-concentric mode for the testing speed of 60 °/s. Five maximal voluntary contractions of knee extensors and knee flexors muscle groups were measured for both legs. The obtained data showed a statistically significant difference in absolute torque values among different categories as heavier athletes demonstrated higher values. Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between weight categories, as heavier athletes demonstrated higher values, while no significant differences in normalized torque values for different weight categories were observed. The implementation of new elements and training modalities may improve performance and prevent lateral asymmetry, thus reducing the risk of injury.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Torque
7.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 258-267, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211318

RESUMO

Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral nerves to stretching. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching protocols on responses of peripheral nerves were retrieved for investigation. The NHLBI tool was used for quality assessment. Outcomes included nerve stiffness, nerve displacement, pain pressure thresholds and resistive torque. A total of 10 studies were considered eligible and were included in this investigation. The quality assessment of the studies revealed an overall "fair to good" methodological quality across the included studies. All studies except for one involved healthy participants. High heterogeneity of stretching protocols was retrieved. As a consequence of stretching, nerve stiffness (-15.6%) and pain pressure thresholds (-1.9kg) increased. Nerve displacements on each movement plane for all the considered nerves and nerve deformation were also frequently observed. Peripheral nerve responses to muscle stretching include decreased nerve stiffness and increased pain pressure thresholds. Nerve displacement also frequently occurs. It is still unclear if reduced nerve displacement may lead to clinical outcomes. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding peripheral nerve adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
8.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 43, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if the supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) juice may affect plasma redox balance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters following a maximal effort test, in young physically active women. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled and crossover study comprising eight women (23.25 ± 2.95 years, 54.13 ± 9.05 kg, 157.75 ± 0.66 cm and BMI of 21.69 ± 0.66 kg/m2) was carried out. A juice containing OFI diluted in water and a Placebo solution were supplied (170 ml; OFI = 50 ml of OFI juice + 120 ml of water; Placebo = 170 ml beverage without Vitamin C and indicaxanthin). Participants consumed the OFI juice or Placebo beverage every day for 3 days, before performing a maximal cycle ergometer test, and for 2 consecutive days after the test. Plasma hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity (PAT), Skin Carotenoid Score (SCS) and HRV variables (LF, HF, LF/HF and rMSSD) were recorded at different time points. RESULTS: The OFI group showed significantly lower levels of hydroperoxides compared to the Placebo group in pre-test, post-test and 48-h post-test. PAT values of the OFI group significantly increased compared to those of the Placebo group in pre-test and 48-h post-test. SCS did not differ between groups. LF was significantly lower in the OFI group 24-h after the end of the test, whereas rMSSD was significantly higher in the OFI group 48-h post-test. CONCLUSION: OFI supplementation decreased the oxidative stress induced by intense exercise and improved autonomic balance in physically active women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frequência Cardíaca , Opuntia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/sangue , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072641

RESUMO

Even though scientific literature shows numerous heath complications and performance decrements associated with rapid weight loss (RWL), its prevalence remains exceedingly high across various combat sports. The aim of this study was to thoroughly search the existing literature to explore the influence of RWL on kidney function in Olympic and non-Olympic combat sport athletes. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for the relevant studies. Only original articles published from 2005 onwards, written in English, that included healthy males and females who prompted ~5% weight loss within a week or less, were included in the study. Retrieved studies showed that creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urine specific gravity values were significantly increased after RWL in the majority of the included studies. This observation indicates that RWL caused dehydration and subsequent acute kidney damage despite various degrees of weight lost during the RWL phase, which can lead to adverse events in other body systems. Alternative methods of weight reduction that prioritize athletes' health should be considered.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Perda de Peso , Atletas , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino
10.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 34, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is widely adopted to evaluate manual dexterity, it presents normative data but the test is influenced by different factors. The influence of time spent on smartphones has not been considered before, for this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate if smartphone use influences the time to complete the GPT. A total of 38 (21 women; 17 men) young adults 20.7 (1.5) years participated in the study. The time spent on the smartphones during the last seven days was recorded through the device itself and the GPT performance was measured. A correlation analysis between the time spent on the smartphone and GPT was performed while the t-test was adopted to evaluate gender differences. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between men and women in the time to complete the GPT (p = 0.20) and in the time spent on the smartphone (p = 0.87). The GPT and the time spent using the smartphone were not correlated (r = 0.044, p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: The time spent on the smartphone by young adults does not influence the time to complete the GPT, indicating that smartphone use does not influence measures of manual dexterity.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921458

RESUMO

Athletes' lifestyles have been dramatically affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system and to a lesser degree the cardiovascular system, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of COVID-19-caused detraining on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of recently recovered volleyball athletes. Sixteen experienced volleyball athletes (age 24 ± 4.5 years) who were recently diagnosed and recovered from a COVID-19 infection volunteered to participate in this study and were tested for CRF and spirometry. Given that participants had only mild symptoms of infection, the primary focus of this study was on the effects of detraining on CRF. On average, the time to exhaustion was 9.4 ± 1.4 min. VE, VCO2, RER and oxygen pulse increased, heart rate exceeded 90% of predicted values, and peak VO2 values were typical for this level of athlete (44.1 ± 3.4 mL/kg). Pulmonary function reflected in FVC, FEV1/FVC and MVV values were well above 80% of predicted values for each of the participants while electrocardiography revealed no ischemia, arrythmias or conduction and repolarization abnormalities were found in the tested subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that participants experienced typical consequences of detraining. Due to a lack of CRF data prior to COVID-19 infection, we were unable to estimate the magnitude detraining had on CRF. Complete CRF assessment after COVID-19 infection in athletes can be useful for screening of residual myocardial and/or respiratory system damage for safe return-to-play decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Voleibol , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917584

RESUMO

Accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas is related to many physiological and hormonal variables. Spot reduction (SR) is a training protocol aimed to stimulate lipolysis locally, even though this training protocol has not been extensively studied in recent years. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effect of a circuit-training SR on subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adults. METHODS: Fourteen volunteers were randomly assigned to spot reduction (SR) or to a traditional resistance training (RT) protocol. Body composition via bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and subcutaneous adipose tissue via skinfold and ultrasound were measured before and after eight weeks of training. RESULTS: SR significantly reduced body mass (p < 0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: circuit-training SR may be an efficient strategy to reduce in a localized manner abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue depot.


Assuntos
Exercícios em Circuitos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Lipólise
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Like other combat sports, sambo has competition rules that divide athletes into categories based on gender, age and weight. Athletes in combat sports often resort to rapid weight loss (RWL) methods to be more competitive in lower weight categories and gain an advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker competitors. The aim of this study was to examine the methodology implemented by two different sambo age categories, junior and senior athletes, in order to attain RWL. METHODS: The sample consisted of 103 male sambo elite athletes (seniors/juniors: age 28.5 ± 4.3/18.9 ± 0.8; height (m): 1.7 ± 0.1/1.8 ± 0.1; weight (kg): 76.3 ± 17.8/74.4 ± 16.3; BMI (kg/m2): 25.0 ± 3.8/23.7 ± 3.9) who completed a survey on RWL. RESULTS: Athletes reported losing a mean of 5 kg starting approximately 12 days before a competition. The most common methodology reported by senior and junior sambo athletes was gradually increasing dieting, followed by sauna and plastic suit training. Less common methods adopted were laxatives, diuretics, the use of diet pills and vomiting. There were significant group differences for sauna and diet pill ingestion. Coaches and parents are influential people in the lives of athletes concerning the weight loss strategy to be adopted. CONCLUSIONS: This study's results unequivocally confirm the prevalent practice of RWL in both senior and junior sambo athletes. Although athletes prevalently chose "less harmful" methods, there is a need to inform parents and coaches of the risks and benefits of RWL.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Artes Marciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Banho a Vapor/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo , Vômito
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807549

RESUMO

The aim of the current study is to examine gender, age. and cross-country differences in fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness during the lockdown, by comparing people from those countries with a high rate of infections and deaths (e.g., Spain and Italy) and from countries with a mild spread of infection (e.g., Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). A total of 3876 participants (63% female) completed an online survey on "Everyday life practices in COVID-19 time" in April 2020, including measures of fear of COVID-19 and loneliness. Males and females of all age groups in countries suffering from the powerful impact of the COVID-19 pandemic reported greater fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness. In less endangered countries, females and the elderly reported more symptoms than males and the young; in Spanish and Italian samples, the pattern of differences is considerably more complex. Future research should thoroughly examine different age and gender groups. The analysis of emotional well-being in groups at risk of mental health issues may help to lessen the long term social and economic costs due to the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Croácia , Surtos de Doenças , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sérvia , Eslováquia , Eslovênia , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.

16.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(1)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804432

RESUMO

The second edition of the Special Issue entitled "Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities" has been successfully completed, as expected [...].

17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673435

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Although smoking and the physical activity level (PAL) are important determinants of health status in adolescence, there is a lack of information on the relationship between smoking and PAL in early adolescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gender-specific relationship between smoking and PAL in 14-to-16-year-old adolescents. Materials and Methods: The sample included 650 adolescents (337 girls, 14.7 ± 0.5 years at first testing wave) from Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the first testing wave, participants were tested using structured questionnaires. Second testing was commenced after approximately 20 months (16.4 ± 0.6 years). The variables were age, gender, socioeconomic status, living environment, cigarette smoking (predictors), and PAL (criterion). Predictors were measured at the first wave, and criterion at the first-wave and second-wave. Results: For girls, smoking was negatively correlated to PAL at the first-wave (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.55-0.95) and at the second-wave (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). No significant association between smoking and PAL was found for boys. Results suggest that adolescent boys and girls do not follow the equal trajectories when it comes to relationships between smoking and PAL. Conclusions: In developing promotional public health actions related to a decrease of smoking and increase of PAL, a gender-specific approach is highly recommended. Further studies analyzing the cause-effect relationship between consumption of other types of psychoactive substances and PAL in this age group are warranted.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fumar , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fumar Tabaco
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672837

RESUMO

To abate the spread of the COVID-19 virus, different restriction measures were imperative, limiting the possibility to be engaged in physical activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity (PA) levels expressed as energy expenditure (MET-min/week) and sedentary behaviour in Kosovo. The possible association between PA levels and other factors was analyzed. 1633 participants (age range: 13 to 63 years; mean: 24.70 ± 9.33 years; body height: 172 ± 10.57 cm; body mass: 69.10 ± 13.80 kg; BMI: 23.09 ± 3.63 kg/m2) participated in the study, categorized by age, gender, BMI, and living area. An online survey, including an adapted version of the IPAQ-SF, was administered once during lockdown to assess PA levels and sedentary behaviour both before and during COVID-19 lockdown. The Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis rank of sum tests were used for statistical analysis. COVID-19 restrictions had a negative impact on the types of and overall PA levels MET-min/week (p < 0.001). Sedentary behaviour significantly increased during COVID-19 restrictions (p < 0.001). Higher decreases in MET-min/week during lockdown were observed among males, young and young adults, overweight, and urban-living participants. Finally, COVID-19 restrictions decreased the PA levels and MET-min/week, and increased sedentary behaviour also in a relatively young cohort. Such differences were dependent on several factors.

19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108553, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of alcohol, drugs, inhalants, and smoking tobacco may lead to mood disorders such as depression. However, knowledge on the independent contributions of the use of these substances to the risk of depression is lacking. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 24,564 men included in the Swedish national military conscription register who were conscripted in 1969-1970 and followed until 2017. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to estimate the risk of depression according to alcohol, drug, inhalant, and cigarette consumption, and adjusted for body mass index, verbal comprehension test scores, handgrip strength, and the other main exposures investigated. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 44 years, 4500 men were diagnosed with or treated for depression at a mean age of 54 years. A dose-dependent association was found in men who smoked cigarettes, with the highest risk for smoking >20 cigarettes per day, at time of conscription (aHR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.61-2.16, p < 0.001). Independent associations with an increased risk of depression were found for the use of drugs at least once (aHR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.10-1.32, p < 0.001) and >50 times (aHR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.23-1.77, p < 0.001) and the use of inhalants (aHR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.29). Excessive alcohol intake was not associated with the risk of depression. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that people who reported to have used cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs at 18 years of age have a moderately increased risk of depression later in life.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicotrópicos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530512

RESUMO

Background: Ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach that restricts daily carbohydrates, replacing most of the reduced energy with fat, while maintaining an adequate quantity of protein. Despite the widespread use of KD in weight loss in athletes, there are still many concerns about its use in sports requiring muscle mass accrual. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the influence of a KD in competitive natural body builders. Methods: Nineteen volunteers (27.4 ± 10.5 years) were randomly assigned to ketogenic diet (KD) or to a western diet (WD). Body composition, muscle strength and basal metabolic rate were measured before and after two months of intervention. Standard blood biochemistry, testosterone, IGF-1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL1ß, TNFα) were also measured. Results: Body fat significantly decreased in KD (p = 0.030); whilst lean mass increased significantly only in WD (p < 0.001). Maximal strength increased similarly in both groups. KD showed a significant decrease of blood triglycerides (p < 0.001), glucose (p = 0.001), insulin (p < 0.001) and inflammatory cytokines compared to WD whilst BDNF increased in both groups with significant greater changes in KD (p < 0.001). Conclusions: KD may be used during body building preparation for health and leaning purposes but with the caution that hypertrophic muscle response could be blunted.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Cetogênica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Glicemia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Carboidratos , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta Ocidental , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Masculino , Músculos , Treinamento de Força , Testosterona/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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