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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9636-9645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347357

RESUMO

California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 ± 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission estimates by California Air Resource Board (CARB). Some of differences could be biogenic emissions, superemitter point sources, and other episodic emissions which may not be completely included in the CARB inventory. San Joaquin Valley (SJV) has the largest CH4 emissions (0.94 ± 0.18 Tg/yr), followed by the South Coast Air Basin, the Sacramento Valley, and the San Francisco Bay Area at 0.39 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.05 Tg/yr, respectively. The dairy and oil/gas production sources in the SJV contribute 0.44 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.23 Tg CH4/yr, respectively. This study has important policy implications for regulatory programs, as it provides a thorough multiyear evaluation of the emissions inventory using independent atmospheric measurements and investigates the utility of a complementary multiplatform approach in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions in the state and identifies opportunities for the expansion and applications of the monitoring network.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , California , São Francisco
2.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 17(2): 161-169, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized, parallel-design, clinical trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intensive plaque control programme with sonic versus manual toothbrushing on clinical outcomes and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in desquamative gingivitis (DG) patients. METHODS: A total of 32 patients affected by DG secondary to oral lichen planus (OLP) were consecutively recruited and randomly assigned to a test (n = 16) and control (n = 16) group. Both groups were enrolled in an intensive control programme comprising supragingival scaling and polishing, and brush-specific instructions for a period of 8 weeks. The treatment of interest (test) was the use of a sonic-powered toothbrush, and the standard treatment (control) was the utilization of a soft-bristle manual toothbrush for twice-daily home oral hygiene procedures. Periodontal parameters, patient-centred outcomes, MMP-1 and MMP-9 GCF levels were evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks after starting the programme. RESULTS: The plaque control programme resulted in statistically significant reduction in periodontal parameters with consequent improvement in the clinical features, painful symptoms and severity of DG lesions in both groups (all P < 0.001). When a sonic toothbrush was used, there was a more significant decrease in clinical indices, mucosal disease scores and GCF levels of MMP-1 and MMP-9. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical trial reported the effectiveness of a combined protocol based on professional oral hygiene and supervised toothbrushing in OLP patients with DG. The daily use of a sonic toothbrush would seem to perform better in the short term.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Gengivite/metabolismo , Líquen Plano Bucal/metabolismo , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/metabolismo , Gengivite/etiologia , Humanos , Líquen Plano Bucal/complicações , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(2): 1083-1092, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP), in relation to clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from 16 GAgP patients and 15 periodontally healthy controls. Periodontal parameters and GCF biomarker levels were evaluated at baseline and repeated 3 and 6 months after treatment for GAgP subjects. Moderate and deep pocket sites were analyzed separately. The amount of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-9, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using a highly specific and sensitive multiplex bead immunoassay. RESULTS: At baseline, cytokine levels in the moderate and deep pocket sites of GAgP patients were higher than those of the healthy control sites. In GAgP group, periodontal treatment led to improvement in all examined clinical parameters and resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the total amounts of IL-1ß, VEGF, and TNF-α, in comparison to baseline, already 3 months after therapy in both moderate and deep pocket sites and of PDGF-bb in deep sites (p < 0.01). At the concentration level, only IL-1ß and VEGF were affected. CONCLUSION: Non-surgical treatment of GAgP provided significant clinical benefits leading to a marked decrease in the GCF levels of some pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines, but not of IL-9 and PDGF-bb. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although the periodontal therapy successfully decreased clinical signs of inflammation, the GCF levels of some inflammatory cytokines were still elevated.


Assuntos
Periodontite Agressiva/metabolismo , Periodontite Agressiva/terapia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(12): 7286-7294, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548824

RESUMO

Divergence in recent oil and gas related methane emission estimates between aircraft studies (basin total for a midday window) and emissions inventories (annualized regional and national statistics) indicate the need for better understanding the experimental design, including temporal and spatial alignment and interpretation of results. Our aircraft-based methane emission estimates in a major U.S. shale gas basin resolved from west to east show (i) similar spatial distributions for 2 days, (ii) strong spatial correlations with reported NG production (R2 = 0.75) and active gas well pad count (R2 = 0.81), and (iii) 2× higher emissions in the western half (normalized by gas production) despite relatively homogeneous dry gas and well characteristics. Operator reported hourly activity data show that midday episodic emissions from manual liquid unloadings (a routine operation in this basin and elsewhere) could explain ∼1/3 of the total emissions detected midday by the aircraft and ∼2/3 of the west-east difference in emissions. The 22% emission difference between both days further emphasizes that episodic sources can substantially impact midday methane emissions and that aircraft may detect daily peak emissions rather than daily averages that are generally employed in emissions inventories. While the aircraft approach is valid, quantitative, and independent, our study sheds new light on the interpretation of previous basin scale aircraft studies, and provides an improved mechanistic understanding of oil and gas related methane emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metano/análise , Aeronaves , Gás Natural , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 23(1): 111-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698052

RESUMO

With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) enabling revolutionary science with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon sensitivity with low probability of false positives and (multi)-megapixels. At DESY, one ongoing development project - in collaboration with RAL/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory - is the CMOS-based soft X-ray imager PERCIVAL. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active-pixel sensor back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 cm × 10 cm, 3.5k × 3.7k monolithic sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within 27 µm pixels to measure 1 to ∼100000 (500 eV) simultaneously arriving photons. DESY is also leading the development of the AGIPD, a high-speed detector based on hybrid pixel technology intended for use at the European XFEL. This system is being developed in collaboration with PSI, University of Hamburg, and University of Bonn. The AGIPD allows single-pulse imaging at 4.5 MHz frame rate into a 352-frame buffer, with a dynamic range allowing single-photon detection and detection of more than 10000 photons at 12.4 keV in the same image. Modules of 65k pixels each are configured to make up (multi)megapixel cameras. This review describes the AGIPD and the PERCIVAL concepts and systems, including some recent results and a summary of their current status. It also gives a short overview over other FEL-relevant developments where the Photon Science Detector Group at DESY is involved.

6.
Exp Neurol ; 261: 462-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24999026

RESUMO

Iron deficiency (ID) in rodents leads to decreased ventral midbrain (VMB) iron concentrations and to changes in the dopamine (DA) system that mimic many of the dopaminergic changes seen in RLS patient where low substantia nigra iron is a known pathology of the disease. The ID-rodent model, therefore, has been used to explore the effects that low VMB iron can have on striatal DA dynamics with the hopes of better understanding the nature of iron-dopamine interaction in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Using a post-weaning, diet-induced, ID condition in rats, the No-Net-Flux microdialysis technique was used to examine the effect of ID on striatal DA dynamics and it reversibility with acute infusion of physiological concentrations of iron into the VMB. This study replicated prior findings by showing that the ID condition is associated with increased extracellular striatal DA, reduced striatal DA uptake, and blunted DA-2-receptor-agonist feedback enhancement of striatal DA uptake. Despite the increase in extracellular striatal DA, intracellular striatal DA, as determined in tissue homogenates, was decrease in the ID rat. The study's key finding was that an infusion of physiological concentrations of iron into the VMB reversed the ID-induced increase in extracellular striatal DA and the ID-induced decrease in intracellular striatal DA but had no effect on the ID-induced changes in DA uptake or on the blunted DA-uptake response to quinpirole. In summary, the ID-rodent model provides highly reproducible changes in striatal DA dynamics that remarkably parallel dopaminergic changes seen in RLS patients. Some but not all of these ID-induced changes in striatal DA dynamics were reversible with physiological increases in VMB iron. The small changes in VMB iron induced by iron infusion likely represent biologically relevant changes in the non-transferrin-bound labile iron pool and may mimic circadian-dependent changes that have been found in VBM extracellular iron.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Hidrodinâmica , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/patologia , Ferro/deficiência , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Microdiálise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
7.
J Nutr ; 142(8): 1472-8, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22739376

RESUMO

Concurrent deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids [(n-3)FAD)] in rats can alter brain monoamine pathways and impair learning and memory. We examined whether repletion with Fe and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, corrects the deficits in brain monoamine activity (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory [by Morris water maze (MWM) testing] associated with deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and (n-3)FAD [ID+(n-3)FAD] were fed an Fe+DHA/EPA, Fe+(n-3)FAD, ID+DHA/EPA, or ID+(n-3)FAD diet for 5 wk [postnatal d 56-91]. Biochemical measures and MWM performance after repletion were compared to age-matched control rats. The provision of Fe in combination with DHA/EPA synergistically increased Fe concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) (Fe x DHA/EPA interaction). Similarly, provision of DHA/EPA in combination with Fe resulted in higher brain DHA concentrations than provision of DHA alone in the frontal cortex (FC) and OB (P < 0.05). Dopamine (DA) receptor D1 was upregulated in the hippocampus of Fe+DHA/EPA rats (fold-change = 1.25; P < 0.05) and there were significant Fe x DHA/EPA interactions on serotonin (5-HT) in the OB and on the DA metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the FC and striatum. Working memory performance was impaired in ID+DHA/EPA rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). In the reference memory task, Fe+DHA/EPA improved learning behavior, but Fe or DHA/EPA alone did not. These findings suggest that feeding either Fe or DHA/EPA alone to adult rats with both ID and (n-3)FAD affects the DA and 5-HT pathways differently than combined repletion and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency.


Assuntos
Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Fosfolipídeos , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
8.
J Nutr ; 142(8): 1463-71, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22739379

RESUMO

Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21-56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70-76% and Fe by 20-32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P < 0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone.


Assuntos
Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Fosfolipídeos , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
9.
Plant Sci ; 183: 57-64, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22195578

RESUMO

In this work, we studied the mechanism of light influence on AsA pool size in Avena sativa L. under the effects of low intensity light at different wavelengths. Exposure to low intensity light of oat leaf segments incubated in water or in l-galactono-1,4-lactone (GL), resulted in an increase in AsA content compared with the dark control. This increase was due to modulation of l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH; EC 1.3.2.3) light-dependent activity and was dependent on the size of the endogenous GL pool. Both blue and red light were effective in increasing AsA, and this increase depended on both exposure time and light intensity. Protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis and calcium were involved in controlling the level of light-dependent AsA. We suggest that multiple checkpoints correlated to the presence of light underlie the ascorbate pool size. The presence of a light-activated switch for the maintenance of an adequate AsA level seems to be necessary for the various tasks of scavenging reactive oxygen species, in response to the dark-light cycle which plants experience under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Avena/metabolismo , Luz , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Avena/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo
10.
J Card Fail ; 16(5): 390-5, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20447574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In older heart failure (HF) patients, survival depends on the severity of their cardiac condition and on their functional status. Lower extremity performance, assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), predicts survival in older persons, both in epidemiologic and clinical settings. We evaluated whether SPPB predicts long-term survival in older subjects hospitalized for HF, independent of traditional measures of HF severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects aged 65+ years were enrolled on discharge after hospitalization for decompensated HF. Participants underwent echocardiography, comprehensive geriatric assessment, and SPPB. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to predict survival over a 30-month follow-up. Of 157 participants (mean age 80 years, range 65-101; 50% men), 61 died. After adjustment for potential confounders, including demographics, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association classification, and comorbidity, we found a graded independent association between SBBP score and mortality risk: compared with an SPPB score of 9-12, scores of 0, 1-4, and 5-8 were associated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of death of 6.06 (2.19-16.76), 4.78 (1.63-14.02), and 1.95 (0.67-5.70), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SPPB is an independent predictor of long-term survival of older subjects hospitalized for decompensated HF.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
11.
Chronobiol Int ; 26(3): 447-63, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19360489

RESUMO

Monoamine metabolism in the central nervous system is altered by dietary iron deficiency, with a stronger effect seen during the active than rest span of the circadian cycle. In this report, we examined changes in intracellular and extracellular monoamine levels, synthetic enzymes, transporter and receptor densities, and responses to amphetamine-induced dopamine (DA) efflux in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient mice. Extracellular striatal DA levels were 15-20% higher in all groups during the active dark phase compared to the inactive light phase, with correspondingly lower dopamine transporter (DAT) and higher tyrosine hydroxylase levels. Iron deficiency decreased DAT density by 20% and 28% in the light and dark phases, respectively, and elevated the DOPAC/DA ratio only in the dark, indicating that iron deficiency does interact with the normal diurnal cues for cyclicity. Enhanced DA efflux after amphetamine stimulation indicates no limitation on monoamine synthesis and release and is consistent with altered synaptic efficacy and perhaps recycling of DA in iron deficiency. These experimental findings provide new evidence that brain iron insufficiency does have a differential effect on the DA system at different biological times of the day and night and may be causally related to the phasic motor symptoms observed in Restless Legs Syndrome.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Dopamina/sangue , Anfetaminas/farmacologia , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Animais , Relógios Biológicos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ferro/sangue , Ligantes , Luz , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/sangue , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
12.
Dev Psychobiol ; 51(3): 301-9, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19194962

RESUMO

Both during and after a period of iron deficiency (ID), iron-dependent neural processes are affected, which raises the potential concern that the anemia commonly experienced by many growing infants could have a protracted effect on the developing brain. To further investigate the effects of ID on the immature brain, 49 infant rhesus monkeys were evaluated across the first year of life. The mothers, and subsequently the infants after weaning, were maintained on a standardized diet containing 180 mg/kg of iron and were not provided other iron-rich foods as treats or supplements. As the infants grew, they were all screened with hematological tests, which documented that 16 (33.3%) became markedly ID between 4 and 8 months of age. During this anemic period and subsequently at 1 year of age, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected to compare monoamine activity in the ID and iron-sufficient infants. Monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolite levels were normal at 4 and 8 months of age, but by 1 year the formerly anemic monkeys had significantly lower dopamine and significantly higher norepinephrine levels. These findings indicate that ID can affect the developmental trajectory of these two important neurotransmitter systems, which are associated with emotionality and behavioral performance, and further that the impact in the young monkey was most evident during the period of recovery.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dopamina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Norepinefrina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fatores Etários , Animais , Emoções/fisiologia , Epinefrina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Índices de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hemoglobinometria , Ácido Homovanílico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Serotonina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fatores Sexuais
13.
J Neurochem ; 106(1): 205-15, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18363828

RESUMO

Iron deficiency (ID) disrupts brain dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) metabolism including functioning of monoamine transporters and receptors. We employed caudate microdialysis and no net flux (NNF) in post-weaning rats to determine if ID decreased the extraction fraction (E(d)). Five micromolar quinpirole, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, resulted in 80% decrease in extracellular DA and 45% higher E(d) in control animals. The D(2) agonist had no effect on E(d) in ID animals despite a reduction in basal DA. DAT mRNA levels were reduced by 58% with ID, while DAT protein in ventral midbrain and caudate and membrane associated DAT were also reduced by ID. Carbidopa/l-DOPA was administered to determine if elevated extracellular DA in ID was due to increased release. The DA response to l-DOPA in ID rats was 50% smaller and delayed, whereas the NE response was threefold higher. The caudate concentration of NE was also elevated in ID. Elevated dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity in ID provides a tentative explanation for the increased NE response to l-DOPA. These experiments provide new evidence that ID results in altered synthesis and functioning of DAT and perhaps suggests some compensatory changes in NE metabolism.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias Metabólicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Levodopa/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Caudado/metabolismo , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Líquido Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Microdiálise , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Norepinefrina/biossíntese , Quimpirol/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D2/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/metabolismo , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/fisiopatologia , Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Substância Negra/fisiopatologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Intern Emerg Med ; 3(2): 109-15, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18273568

RESUMO

The Florence Acute Myocardial Infarction registry was a population-based, prospective study aimed at identifying the determinants of coronary reperfusion therapy [CRT, by primary coronary intervention (PCI) in more than 95% of cases] utilization and of prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The registry involved one teaching hospital with, and five district hospitals without PCI facilities. Overall, as many as 45.6% of 930 cases of STEMI did not receive any form of CRT. In multivariable analysis, the direct admission to the teaching hospital was the strongest positive predictor, whereas the time delay, older age, and chronic comorbid conditions were negative predictors of CRT utilization. Compared to conservative therapy, CRT was associated with a remarkably reduced 12-month mortality, after adjusting for age, chronic comorbidities and Killip class, which also were significantly associated with long-term prognosis. The higher crude mortality observed in women was accounted for by older age and other age-related factors. The improvement in prognosis with CRT was larger in older patients and/or in those with a greater burden of chronic comorbidity, who less frequently received CRT. These results suggest the need for interdisciplinary reassessing the adherence to therapeutic guidelines and the criteria adopted in the real clinical world to select patients for CRT during STEMI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Reperfusão Miocárdica , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Nutr ; 137(5): 1176-82, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17449578

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia in early childhood causes developmental delays and, very likely, irreversible alterations in neurological functioning. One primary goal for the present study was to determine whether the effects of late gestational iron deficiency on brain monoamine metabolism, iron content, and behavioral phenotypes could be repaired with iron intervention in early lactation. Young pregnant rats were provided iron-deficient or control diets from mid-gestation (G15). At postnatal d 4 (P4), pups from iron-deficient dams were out-fostered either to other ID dams or control dams while pups of control dams were similarly fostered to other control dams. Dietary treatments continued to adulthood (P65) when brain iron and regional monoamines were evaluated. P4 iron repletion normalized body iron status, brain iron concentrations, monoamine concentrations, and monoamine transporter and receptor densities in most brain regions. Dopamine transporter densities in caudate and substantia nigra were lower in ID rats but were normalized with iron repletion. Serotonin transporter levels in most brain regions and open-field exploration were also normalized with iron repletion. The success of this approach of early postnatal iron intervention following iron deficiency in utero contrasts to a relative lack of success when the intervention is performed at weaning. These data suggest that a window of opportunity exists for reversing the detrimental effects of iron deficiency in utero in rats and provides strong support of intervention approaches in humans with iron deficiency during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Deficiências Nutricionais/embriologia , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Transferrina/metabolismo
16.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 84(2): 378-84, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16828857

RESUMO

Diurnal effects on motor control are evident in the human disease of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS), which is purported to be linked to brain iron deficiency as well as alterations in dopaminergic systems. Thus, we explored the relationship between daily rhythms, the onset of motor dysregulation and brain iron deficiency in an animal model of iron deficiency. Male and female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats consuming control (CN) or iron-deficient (ID) diets were examined weekly for acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) for a 5-week period. Iron deficiency reduced the magnitude, but not timing, of the ASR at specific time points. ASR was elevated 60% at the onset of the dark cycle relative to the median of the light cycle in male CN and ID rats. The respective elevation was 400% and 150% in female CN and ID rats during the first 2 weeks of testing. The diurnal cycle of ASR response was attenuated by 3 weeks of testing in both dietary treatment groups. PPI was not affected by iron deficiency, sex, diurnal cycle or the interaction between these factors. These results thus demonstrate that iron deficiency moderately alters ASR signaling although the inhibitory pathways of ASR do not appear to be affected.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/deficiência , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo Acústico
17.
J Neurosci Methods ; 154(1-2): 245-55, 2006 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16472867

RESUMO

Radiochemical methods have failed to reveal decreases in synaptosomal serotonin uptake in mice lacking one functional copy of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene. By contrast, uptake rates determined by chronoamperometry in synaptosomes from SERT+/- mice show gene-related reductions. We revisited [(3)H]5-HT uptake in SERT knockout mice to determine the effects of inclusion of O(2) in the incubation buffer on the kinetic parameters obtained by this method. In oxygenated synaptosomes prepared from frontal cortex and striatum, modest 25 and 35% reductions in radiolabeled 5-HT uptake were detected in SERT+/- versus SERT+/+ mice. However, even in the presence of O(2), no differences in [(3)H]5-HT uptake were detected between SERT+/- and SERT+/+ mice in brain stem in contrast to 60% reductions determined by chronoamperometry. Moreover, while inclusion of O(2) modestly increased the rates of [(3)H]5-HT uptake, rates determined by chronoamperometry in the presence of O(2) were 40-fold greater than those determined radiochemically. We present evidence that the filtration process used in the radiochemical method leads to substantial loss of transported 5-HT resulting in lower apparent uptake rates. These findings explain the relative insensitivity of radiochemical methods for determining biologically important alterations in uptake such as those occurring between SERT+/- and SERT+/+ mice and in response to O(2).


Assuntos
Radioquímica/métodos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Sinaptossomos/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Autorradiografia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Filtração , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Serotonina/análise , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Sinaptossomos/química
18.
Am J Geriatr Cardiol ; 15(1): 35-41, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16415645

RESUMO

A total of 930 cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were prospectively recorded in the Florence health district. Factors influencing survival or those associated with use of revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention, 91%) were identified through multivariate analyses (Cox and logistic regression, respectively). The independent protective effect of coronary reperfusion therapy (CRT) was evident at 36 months (39% reduction in the risk of death). After adjusting for all multivariate predictors, CRT use was 63% less likely at age 85 years and older than at under 65 years (p<0.001). Since beyond advancing age, comorbidity appeared to be associated with a reduced chance of CRT, three chronic comorbidity score categories were calculated using information on past medical history. Increased 1-year mortality in patients with higher comorbidity score categories derives, at least in part, from underutilization of CRT. Results confirm that although they might potentially benefit from CRT during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, older and frail patients are excluded from CRT, even when eligible.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comorbidade , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Reperfusão Miocárdica , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros
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