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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28912, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mutations of the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene correlate mainly with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), but can occasionally be pathogenic for medulloblastoma (MBL) wingless-related integration site (WNT) subtype, the course of which has only recently been described. METHODS: We retrieved all patients with documented germline APC mutations and a diagnosis of MBL to examine their outcome, late effects of treatment, and further oncological events. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2016, we treated six patients, all with a pathogenic APC variant mutation and all with MBL, classic histotype. None had metastatic disease. All patients were in complete remission a median 65 months after treatment with craniospinal irradiation at 23.4 Gy, plus a boost on the posterior fossa/tumor bed up to 54 Gy, followed by cisplatin/carboplatin, lomustine, and vincristine for a maximum of eight courses. Five of six diagnostic revised MRI were suggestive of the WNT molecular subgroup typical aspects. Methylation profile score (in two cases) and copy number variation analysis (chromosome 6 deletion in two cases) performed on four of six retrieved samples confirmed WNT molecular subgroup. Four out of six patients had a positive family history of FAP, while gastrointestinal symptoms prompted its identification in the other two cases. Four patients developed other tumors (desmoid, MELTUMP, melanoma, pancreatoblastoma, thyroid Tir3) from 5 to 7 years after MBL. DISCUSSION: Our data confirm a good prognosis for patients with MBL associated with FAP. Patients' secondary tumors may or may not be related to their syndrome or treatment, but warrant adequate attention when planning shared guidelines for these patients.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967085

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to the rarity of nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) with non-standard treatment as yet, we report retrospectively our 30 year experience with chemotherapy followed by craniospinal irradiation (CSI), plus a boost of whole ventricular irradiation (WVI)/tumor bed (TB), tailored to pre-radiation chemotherapy response. METHODS: Between 1988 and 2016, 28 patients received four cycles of PEB (cisplatin/etoposide/bleomycin), then CSI, and two further PEB cycles. Between 1988 and1994, CSI was 25.5 Gy for patients in complete remission (CR), 30 Gy if in partial remission (PR) or metastatic, with a boost to TB up to 45-54 Gy. In the period of 1995-2010, the boost included WVI and any extra-ventricular tumor sites up to 45 Gy. After 2010, CSI was reduced to 25.5 Gy for all non-metastatic patients, and a boost was given only to TB up to 40.5/45.5 Gy, depending on patients' CR/PR status. After 2003, patients with alfafetoprotein (αFP) > 1000 ng/mL received intensified treatment, also including autologous stem cell transplantation. RESULTS: Among 28 patients (23 males; median age 12 years, 6 metastatic), 25 responded to PEB, and three progressed (PD) after one to four cycles; 26 received radiotherapy obtaining 13 CR, 7 PR and 5 stable disease (SD), 1 PD; 6 (21%) died (5 for disease, 1 for pneumonia while in CR). Five-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were both 81%; 10 year OS and PFS 81% and 76%, respectively (median follow-up 11 years). CONCLUSIONS: Survival for children with NGGCT, independently from disease extent, was encouraging. Further studies should elucidate which patients could benefit from reduced volume and dose irradiation.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899294

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the TP53 gene, predisposing to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers, including brain tumors. In medulloblastoma patients, the role of TP53 has been extensively investigated, though the prevalence of de novo mutations has not been addressed. We characterized TP53 mutations in a monocentric cohort of consecutive Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-activated medulloblastoma patients. Germline testing was offered based on tumor p53 immunostaining positivity. Among 24 patients, three (12.5%) showed tumor p53 overexpression, of whom two consented to undergo germline testing and resulted as carriers of TP53 mutations. In the first case, family history was uneventful and the mutation was not found in either of the parents. The second patient, with a family history suggestive of LFS, unexpectedly resulted as a carrier of the mosaic mutation c.742=/C>T p.(Arg248=/Trp). The allele frequency was 26% in normal tissues and 42-77% in tumor specimens. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the tumor was also confirmed. Notably, the mosaic case has been in complete remission for more than one year, while the first patient, as most TP53-mutated medulloblastoma cases from other cohorts, showed a severe and rapidly progressive disease. Our study reported the first TP53 mosaic mutation in medulloblastoma patients and confirmed the importance of germline testing in p53 overexpressed SHH-medulloblastoma, regardless of family history.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809889

RESUMO

The article describes how adolescents with cancer utilized an artistic approach to discuss about their social isolation caused by disease and treatment. With the help of professionals, 17 young patients closed in their isolation room described their ideal room (a bit real, a bit of a fantasy place) producing texts and images, subsequently put together into a book. In these days when people are forced to social isolation by the lockdown related to corovavirus disease 2019 pandemic, young patients teach us meaningful life lessons: how social confinement can become an opportunity to focus on yourself, and what is really important in life.

6.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 9(6): 683-686, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716666

RESUMO

The terminal stage of disease in teenagers is extremely complex to manage. In this study, we share some stories of terminally ill adolescent patients who made use of illusion as a way to overcome their anguish in their final stages of illness. These experiences show how young patients can cope better with terminal illness by resorting to a nonrational and fictional dimension that can serve them as a psychological compromise, helping them tolerate their real everyday life by suspending their critical senses for a while. Illusions can serve as a resource for young patients and a potentially useful tool for medical professionals.

7.
J Neurooncol ; 148(3): 619-628, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, but accounts for only 1% of brain cancers in adults. For standard-risk pediatric medulloblastoma, current therapy includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI) at reduced doses (23.4 Gy) associated with chemotherapy. Whereas most same-stage adult patients are still given CSI at 36 Gy, with or without chemotherapy, we report here on our use of reduced-dose CSI associated with chemotherapy for older patients. METHODS: We gathered non-metastatic patients over 18 years old (median age 28 years, range 18-48) with minimal or no residual disease after surgery, no negative histological subtypes, treated between 1996-2018 at the Centre Léon Bérard (Lyon) and the INT (Milano). A series of 54 children with similar tumors treated in Milano was used for comparison. RESULTS: Forty-four adults were considered (median follow-up 101 months): 36 had 23.4 Gy of CSI, and 8 had 30.6 Gy, plus a boost to the posterior fossa/tumor bed; 43 had chemotherapy as all 54 children, who had a median 83-month follow-up. The PFS and OS were 82.2 ± 6.1% and 89 ± 5.2% at 5 years, and 78.5 ± 6.9% and 75.2 ± 7.8% at ten, not significantly different from those of the children. CSI doses higher than 23.4 Gy did not influence PFS. Female adult patients tended to have a better outcome than males. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in our combined series are comparable with, or even better than those obtained after high CSI doses, underscoring the need to reconsider this treatment in adults.

9.
Tumori ; 106(6): NP14-NP17, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462993

RESUMO

Peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) may be a paraneoplastic manifestation, associated with beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG)-secreting tumors. We describe 2 young children with ß-hCG-secreting tumors presenting with signs of pubertal activation. In the first patient, a 16-month-old boy with hepatoblastoma, only initial signs of PPP at presentation were identifiable, with concomitant high levels of ß-hCG. Although the tumor had good response to therapy, ß-hCG levels were fluctuant until the tumor was resected surgically. The second patient, an 18-month-old boy with intracranial germ cell tumor, presented with clear signs of pubertal activation and genitalia enlargement with no initial alteration of sex hormones. In both cases, the oncologic response to therapy was good. In the first case, full remission of the pubertal signs was observed; in the second, pubertal signs were still visible 20 months after the end of treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatoblastoma/complicações , Hepatoblastoma/diagnóstico , Puberdade Precoce/diagnóstico , Puberdade Precoce/etiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Hepatoblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Avaliação de Sintomas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(7): e28318, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240567

RESUMO

The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic in Italy, in particular in the Milan focal point, required drastic measures and led to panic in the population. While in our center we did not change our approach to the treatment of our young patients with cancer, we developed a qualitative survey to assess their perception of the risk and level of stress. The survey showed that a relatively large proportion of young patients felt personally at risk of severe complications. We believe that we need to adequately inform our patients, focusing on hygienic measures and personal protection and prompt reporting of any suspicious symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(9): 1353-1360, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140854

RESUMO

The incidence of cancer in children with intellectual disability has been poorly documented. We report our experience of treating children and adolescents with cancer and intellectual disability (40 patients), from 2004 to 2018. A treatment-sparing approach was adopted for 6 patients with severe intellectual impairment to minimize toxicity: a child with postpartum asphyxia and medulloblastoma did not receive radiotherapy; 1 patient with mitochondrial encephalopathy and a testicular germ cell tumor did not receive bleomycin and lung metastasectomy; 2 patients (1 with Down + West syndrome + Wilms tumor (WT) and 1 with Denys-Drash syndrome + WT) did not receive vincristine; 1 child with corpus callosum agenesis and anaplastic ependymoma did not receive chemotherapy; 1 child with structural chromosomal aberrations and a primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor received personalized chemotherapy. Heminephrectomy was performed in 4 patients with WT to preserve their kidney function. We found no statistically significant correlation between relapse or mortality rates and the use of a treatment-sparing approach. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 84.5% and 66.1% as opposed to 82.5% and 46.9%, respectively, for patients in our usual-treatment and treatment-sparing groups.Conclusion: We only opted for a treatment-sparing approach for patients with severe disabilities, and their OS was in line with that of children without intellectual disability. What is Known: • There are few reports on children/adolescents with cancer and intellectual disability (ID). • It is not clear how to manage them and whether a treatment sparing should be considered, especially in the case of severe disability. What is New: • Most patients received the standard cancer treatment and only in the case of severe disability, a therapeutic saving approach was applied. • No statistically significant correlations between relapse/mortality rates and the use of a treatment-sparing approach were found.

12.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 36(11): 2701-2705, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222799

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no consensus in the literature about the impact of hydrocephalus on clinical course and overall survival of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) patients as well as about its specific treatment. Authors reviewed a series of DIPG patients to investigate factors related to the onset of hydrocephalus, its treatment, and its impact on clinical course and prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed enrolling pediatric patients affected by DIPG from 2008 to 2018. Clinical and radiological charts were reviewed to find patients' demographic, pathologic and radiologic features in hydrocephalic and non-hydrocephalic patients. In the hydrocephalus cohort, treatment strategy and its effectiveness and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-four pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. Patients who developed hydrocephalus showed significantly lesser maximum axial tumor areas than patients without hydrocephalus (respectively 6.5 cm2 vs 16.45 cm2, p < 0.005). Hydrocephalus developed in 33 patients (35%) with an onset interval of 5.24 ± 1.21 months (range 3.2-7.3). The majority of hydrocephalic patients (28 cases, 90%) were treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the remaining 3 patients being treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Mean overall survival was 16.6 months ± 20 months without significative difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: The onset of hydrocephalus occurs in the first moths of the disease story and found a negative correlation with tumor maximal axial diameter. Early treatment of hydrocephalus presents a very low complications rate with satisfying clinical outcome, as it allows the patients to continue the neurooncological therapies being a part of the treatment armamentarium instead of a palliative solution.

13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28022, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case reports have portrayed spinal cord atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (spATRT) as an aggressive form of ATRT. We conducted a retrospective European survey to collect data on clinical characteristics, molecular biology, treatment, and outcome of children with intramedullary spATRT. METHODS: Scrutinizing a French national series and the European Rhabdoid Registry database, we identified 13 patients (median age 32 months; metastatic disease at diagnosis, n = 6). Systemic postoperative chemotherapy was administered to all patients; three received intrathecal therapy and six were irradiated (craniospinal, n = 3; local, n = 3). RESULTS: Median observation time was 8 (range, 1-93) months. Progression-free and overall survival rates at 1 and (2 years) were 35.2% ± 13.9% (26.4% ± 12.9%) and 38.5% ± 13.5% (23.1% ± 11.7%). Four patients (ATRT-SHH, n = 2; ATRT-MYC, n = 1; DNA methylation subgroup not available, n = 1) achieved complete remission (CR); two of them are alive in CR 69 and 72 months from diagnosis. One patient relapsed after CR and is alive with progressive disease (PD) and one died of the disease. Three patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 1) died after 7 to 22 months due to PD after having achieved a partial remission (n = 1) or stabilization (n = 2). Five patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 3) developed early PD and died. One patient (ATRT-MYC) died of intracerebral hemorrhage prior to response evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is achievable in selected patients with spATRT using aggressive multimodality treatment. Larger case series and detailed molecular analyses are needed to understand differences between spATRT and their inracranial counterparts and the group of extradural malignant rhabdoid tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/mortalidade , Teratoma/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/genética , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Teratoma/genética , Teratoma/patologia , Teratoma/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(7): 1006-1017, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to what may be defined as standard of care (including markers for stratification) for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs). The European Rhabdoid Registry (EU-RHAB) recruits uniformly treated patients and offers standardized genetic and DNA methylation analyses. METHODS: Clinical, genetic, and treatment data of 143 patients from 13 European countries were analyzed (2009-2017). Therapy consisted of surgery, anthracycline-based induction, and either radiotherapy or high dose chemotherapy following a consensus among European experts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and sequencing were employed for assessment of somatic and germline mutations in SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily B (SMARCB1). Molecular subgroups (ATRT-SHH, ATRT-TYR, and ATRT-MYC) were determined using DNA methylation arrays, resulting in profiles of 84 tumors. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of 67 girls and 76 boys was 29.5 months. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 34.7 ±â€…4.5% and 30.5 ±â€…4.2%, respectively. Tumors displayed allelic partial/whole gene deletions (66%; 122/186 alleles) or single nucleotide variants (34%; 64/186 alleles) of SMARCB1. Germline mutations were detected in 26% of ATRTs (30/117). The patient cohort consisted of 47% ATRT-SHH (39/84), 33% ATRT-TYR (28/84), and 20% ATRT-MYC (17/84). Age <1 year, non-TYR signature (ATRT-SHH or -MYC), metastatic or synchronous tumors, germline mutation, incomplete remission, and omission of radiotherapy were negative prognostic factors in univariate analyses (P < 0.05). An adjusted multivariate model identified age <1 year and a non-TYR signature as independent negative predictors of OS: high risk (<1 y + non-TYR; 5-y OS = 0%), intermediate risk (<1 y + ATRT-TYR or ≥1 y + non-TYR; 5-y OS = 32.5 ±â€…8.7%), and standard risk (≥1 y + ATRT-TYR, 5-y OS = 71.5 ±â€…12.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Age and molecular subgroup status are independent risk factors for survival in children with ATRT. Our model warrants validation within future clinical trials.

15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 36(4): 697-704, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848724

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is based largely on a combination of clinical and radiological findings due to the difficulty of obtaining a biopsy. An accurate evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans is consequently essential. Recent analyses on the genomic landscape of DIPG revealed recurrent mutations in the H3F3A and HIST1H3B histone genes. We reviewed cases with available tumor tissue from institutional DIPG series to ascertain the consistency between their histo-molecular findings and clinical-radiological features. METHODS: We conducted a radiological and pathological central review of 22 cases enrolled in institutional DIPG trials. We performed immunohistochemical analyses to detect H3F3A/HIST1H3B K27M mutations, histone trimethylation, and EZH2 expression. Mutational analysis was performed for ACVR1, H3F3A, and HIST1H3B genes. RESULTS: Patients' median age at diagnosis was 8 years, and their median overall survival was 11 months. Nineteen/22 cases (86%) showed evidence of K27M mutation on immunohistochemistry and/or mutation analysis. Histone trimethylation expression was low or lacking in these mutated cases. Sequence analysis revealed 13 cases with H3F3A and 1 case with HIST1H3B K27M mutation. There was no significant difference in EZH2 expression between the K27M mutant and wild-type DIPGs. Upon external, blinded MRI re-evaluation one lesion not consistent with DIPG showed no evidence of K27M mutation and retained histone trimethylation expression. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study demonstrates a high frequency of histone K27M mutations in DIPG when MRI features are carefully assessed, thus confirming the consistency of imaging with biological markers in our institutional series of DIPG.

16.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 38(4): 683-694, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797181

RESUMO

Wilms tumor (or nephroblastoma), rhabdomyosarcoma, and medulloblastoma, common embryonal tumors in children, can occasionally occur in adults, for whom survival is significantly inferior than pediatric patients. Available data on adults with Wilms tumor consist of case or case series reports. Among other factors, the unfamiliarity of adult oncologists and pathologists with nephroblastoma and consequent delays in initiating the appropriate risk-adapted chemotherapy may negatively influence outcomes. The survival decrement in adults with rhabdomyosarcoma has been attributed to the lack of centralized care, the inconsistent use of standard protocol-driven multimodal therapy, and lower chemotherapy tolerance in adult patients. In children with medulloblastoma, evidence from randomized clinical trials has led to risk-tailored therapies tuned on histology, extent of initial disease, and biological features. Such refinements are still missing for adults due to the lack of similar trials and studies that might provide the same or a different understanding regarding patients' individual prognosis, treatment morbidity, and quality of life. Recent experiences have suggested that applying or adjusting pediatric protocols to adult patients with these tumors is feasible and can improve survival. Here, we provide an evaluation of the current evidence for the management of Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, and medulloblastoma arising in adults. This review aims to promote the referral of adolescents and adults with pediatric tumors to pediatric centers for inclusion into pediatric protocols, or into protocols and studies specifically designed for that age group with the cooperation between pediatric and adult oncologists.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Meduloblastoma/diagnóstico , Rabdomiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias Cerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor de Wilms/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Tumori ; 105(6): NP75-NP78, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600120

RESUMO

This study reports a case series of patients with upper limb neuromotor deficits following pediatric central nervous system tumor and treated with rehabilitative therapy according to action observation therapy (AOT). AOT is based on the "mirror neurons" system and had positive results in various non-oncologic neurologic pathologies. This study is the first experience in the oncology field, and included 6 patients, 4 of whom were fully evaluated at 6-month follow-up. In all patients, therapy showed improvement in all assessment tests. These promising results lead to further studies to confirm their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Reabilitação Neurológica , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/reabilitação , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 177-184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare clinically, neuro-radiologically, and molecularly defined malignancy of the brainstem with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months. Our aim is to evaluate the current tendency for its treatment in Europe in order to develop (inter)national consensus guidelines. METHODS: Healthcare professionals specialized in DIPG were asked to fill in an online survey with questions regarding usual treatment strategies at diagnosis and at disease progression in their countries and/or their centers, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four healthcare professionals responded to the survey, of which 87.8% were pediatric oncologists. Only 13.5% of the respondents biopsy all of their patients, 41.9% biopsy their patients infrequently. More than half of the respondents (54.1%) treated their patients with radiotherapy only at diagnosis, whereas 44.6% preferred radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. When the disease progresses, treatment strategies became even more diverse, and the tendency for no treatment increased from 1.4% at diagnosis to 77.0% after second progression. 36.5% of the healthcare professionals treat children younger than 3 years differently than older children at diagnosis. This percentage decreased, when the disease progresses. Most of the participants (51.4%) included less than 25% of their patients in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrates a large heterogeneity of treatment regimens, especially at disease progression. We emphasize the need for international consensus guidelines for the treatment of DIPG, possible by more collaborative clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/diagnóstico , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/terapia , Biópsia , Terapia Combinada , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Prognóstico
19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(8): 1685-1694, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030232

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate MRI-derived diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging in comparison with 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET with respect to diagnostic evaluation of pediatric diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) H3K27M-mutant and wild-type. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 22 pediatric patients with DMG histologically proved and molecularly classified as H3K27M-mutant (12 subjects) and wild-type (10 subjects) who underwent DWI, 1H-MRS, and ASL performed within 2 weeks of 18F-DOPA PET. DWI-derived relative minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC min), 1H-MRS data [choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), and presence of lactate] and relative ASL-derived cerebral blood flow max (rCBF max) were compared with 18F-DOPA uptake Tumor/Normal tissue (T/N) and Tumor/Striatum (T/S) ratios, and correlated with histological and molecular features of DMG. Statistics included Pearson's chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman's rank correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: The highest degrees of correlation among different techniques were found between T/S, rADC min and Cho/NAA ratio (p < 0.01), and between rCBF max and rADC min (p < 0.01). Significant differences between histologically classified low- and high-grade DMG, independently of H3K27M-mutation, were found among all imaging techniques (p ≤ 0.02). Significant differences in terms of rCBF max, rADC min, Cho/NAA and 18F-DOPA uptake were also found between molecularly classified mutant and wild-type DMG (p ≤ 0.02), even though wild-type DMG included low-grade astrocytomas, not present among mutant DMG. When comparing only histologically defined high-grade mutant and wild-type DMG, only the 18F-DOPA PET data T/S demonstrated statistically significant differences independently of histology (p < 0.003). ROC analysis demonstrated that T/S ratio was the best parameter for differentiating mutant from wild-type DMG (AUC 0.94, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced MRI and 18F-DOPA PET characteristics of DMG depend on histological features; however, 18F-DOPA PET-T/S was the only parameter able to discriminate H3K27M-mutant from wild-type DMG independently of histology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/normas , Imagem de Perfusão/normas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Glioma/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Mutação , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
20.
J Neurooncol ; 140(2): 457-465, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aims of patients' radiological surveillance are to: ascertain relapse; apply second-line therapy; accrue patients in phase 1/2 protocols if second-line therapy is not standardized/curative; and assess/treat iatrogenic effects. To lessen the emotional and socioeconomic burdens for patients and families, we ideally need to establish whether scheduled radiological surveillance gives patients a better outcome than waiting for symptoms and signs to appear. METHODS: We analyzed a prospective series of 160 newly-diagnosed and treated pediatric/adolescent patients with intracranial ependymoma, comparing patients with recurrent disease identified on scheduled MRI (the RECPT group; 34 cases) with those showing signs/symptoms of recurrent disease (the SYMPPT group; 16 cases). The median follow-up was 67 months. RESULTS: No significant differences emerged between the two groups in terms of gender, age, tumor grade/site, shunting, residual disease, or type of relapse (local, distant, or concomitant). The time to relapse (median 19 months; range 5-104) and the MRI follow-up intervals did not differ between the SYMPPT and RECPT groups. The presence of signs/symptoms was an unfavorable factor for overall survival (OS) after recurrence (5-year OS: 8% vs. 37%, p = 0.001). On multivariable analysis, an adjusted model confirmed a significantly worse OS in the SYMPPT than in the RECPT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic relapses carried a significantly worse survival for ependymoma patients than recurrences detected by MRI alone. It would therefore be desirable to identify recurrences before symptoms develop. Radiological follow-up should be retained in ependymoma patient surveillance because there is a chance of salvage treatment for relapses found on MRI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Ependimoma/diagnóstico , Ependimoma/terapia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Ependimoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
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