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Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641314


The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and the increasing resistance developed by pathogenic bacteria to nearly all existing antibiotics should be taken as a wakeup call for the international authority as this represents a risk for global public health. The lack of antiviral drugs and effective antibiotics on the market triggers the need to search for safe therapeutics from medicinal plants to fight viral and microbial infections. In the present study, we investigated whether a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. (B. gymnorhiza) collected in Mauritius, possesses antimicrobial and antibiotic potentiating abilities and exerts anti-ZIKV activity at non-cytotoxic doses. Microorganisms Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70603, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 25933, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and Candida albicans ATCC 26555 were used to evaluate the antimicrobial properties. Ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin antibiotics were used for assessing antibiotic potentiating activity. ZIKVMC-MR766NIID (ZIKVGFP) was used for assessing anti-ZIKV activity. In silico docking (Autodock 4) and ADME (SwissADME) analyses were performed on collected data. Antimicrobial results revealed that Bruguiera twig ethyl acetate (BTE) was the most potent extract inhibiting the growth of all nine microbes tested, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.19-0.39 mg/mL. BTE showed partial synergy effects against MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when applied in combination with streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. By using a recombinant ZIKV-expressing reporter GFP protein, we identified both Bruguiera root aqueous and Bruguiera fruit aqueous extracts as potent inhibitors of ZIKV infection in human epithelial A549 cells. The mechanisms by which such extracts prevented ZIKV infection are linked to the inability of the virus to bind to the host cell surface. In silico docking showed that ZIKV E protein, which is involved in cell receptor binding, could be a target for cryptochlorogenic acid, a chemical compound identified in B. gymnorhiza. From ADME results, cryptochlorogenic acid is predicted to be not orally bioavailable because it is too polar. Scientific data collected in this present work can open a new avenue for the development of potential inhibitors from B. gymnorhiza to fight ZIKV and microbial infections in the future.

Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299238


This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. Different solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts) were prepared. The phytochemical profile, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activity were investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed using VERO, FaDu, HeLa and RKO cells. The antiviral activity was carried out against HSV-1 (Herpes simplex virus 1) propagated in VERO cell line. The aqueous extract, possessing high phenolic content (170.50 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract), showed the highest reducing capacity (613.27 and 364.10 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, respectively), radical scavenging potential (469.82 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), metal chelating ability (52.39 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent/g extract) and total antioxidant capacity (3.15 mmol Trolox equivalent/g extract). Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) alloved to tentatively identify a total of 56 compounds in the extracts, including ellagitannins, gallic acid and galloyl derivatives amongst others. The ethyl acetate extracts substantially depressed cholinesterase enzymes (4.49 and 12.26 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract against AChE and BChE, respectively) and α-amylase enzyme (1.04 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). On the other hand, the methanolic extract inhibited tyrosinase (121.42 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) and α-glucosidase (2.39 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract) activities. The highest selectivity towards all cancer cell lines (SI 4.5-10.8) was observed with aqueous extract with the FaDu cells being the most sensitive (CC50 40.22 µg/mL). It can be concluded that the presence of certain bioactive antiviral molecules may be related to the high anti HSV-1 activity of the methanolic extract. This work has generated vital scientific data on this medicinal plant, which is a prospective candidate for the creation of innovative phyto-pharmaceuticals.

Geranium/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255853


Breynia retusa (Dennst.) Alston (also known as Cup Saucer plant) is a food plant with wide applications in traditional medicine, particularly in Ayurveda. Extracts obtained with four solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, ethyl acetate and water), from three plant parts, (fruit, leaf and bark) were obtained. Extracts were tested for total phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activities using a battery of assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (phosphomolybdenum) and metal chelating. Enzyme inhibitory effects were investigated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase as target enzymes. Results showed that the methanolic bark extract exhibited significant radical scavenging activity (DPPH: 202.09 ± 0.15; ABTS: 490.12 ± 0.18 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g), reducing potential (FRAP: 325.86 ± 4.36: CUPRAC: 661.82 ± 0.40 mg TE/g) and possessed the highest TAC (3.33 ± 0.13 mmol TE/g). The methanolic extracts were subjected to LC-DAD-MSn and NMR analysis. A two-column LC method was developed to separate constituents, allowing to identify and quantify forty-four and fifteen constituents in bark and fruits, respectively. Main compound in bark was epicatechin-3-O-sulphate and isolation of compound was performed to confirm its identity. Bark extract contained catechins, procyanidins, gallic acid derivatives and the sulfur containing spiroketal named breynins. Aerial parts mostly contained flavonoid glycosides. Considering the bioassays, the methanolic bark extract resulted a potent tyrosinase (152.79 ± 0.27 mg kojic acid equivalent/g), α-amylase (0.99 ± 0.01 mmol acarbose equivalent ACAE/g) and α-glucosidase (2.16 ± 0.01 mmol ACAE/g) inhibitor. In conclusion, methanol is able to extract the efficiently the phytoconstituents of B. retusa and the bark is the most valuable source of compounds.

Frutas/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Traqueófitas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia , Cromatografia Líquida , Mineração de Dados , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764410


Currently, there is a growing interest in screening and quantifying antioxidants from biological samples in the quest for natural and effective antioxidants to combat free radical-related pathological complications. Antioxidant assays play a crucial role in high-throughput and cost-effective assessment of antioxidant capacities of natural products such as medicinal plants and food samples. However, several investigators have expressed concerns about the reliability of existing in vitro assays. Such concerns arise mainly from the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, in vitro assays have the problem of reproducibility. To date, antioxidant capacities are measured using a panel of assays whereby each assay has its own advantages and limitations. This unparalleled review hotly disputes on in vitro antioxidant assays and elaborates on the chemistry behind each assay with the aim to point out respective principles/concepts. The following critical questions are also addressed: (1) What make antioxidant assays coloured? (2) What is the reason for working at a particular wavelength? (3) What are the advantages and limitations of each assay? and (4) Why is a particular colour observed in antioxidant-oxidant chemical reactions? Furthermore, this review details the chemical mechanism of reactions that occur in each assay together with a colour ribbon to illustrate changes in colour. The review ends with a critical conclusion on existing assays and suggests constructive improvements on how to develop an adequate and universal antioxidant assay.

Mar Drugs ; 18(4)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276531


Seaweeds have been exploited as both food products and therapeutics to manage human ailments for centuries. This study investigated the metabolite profile of five seaweeds (Halimeda spp., Spyridia hypnoides (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Papenfuss, Valoniopsis pachynema (G. Martens) Børgesen, Gracilaria fergusonii J. Agardh and Amphiroa anceps (Lamarck) Decaisne using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, these seaweeds were assessed for antioxidant and inhibitory effects against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. Valoniopsis pachynema and A. anceps yielded the highest flavonoid (4.30 ± 0.29 mg RE/g) and phenolic content (7.83 ± 0.08 mg RE/g), respectively. Additionally, A. anceps exhibited significant antioxidant properties with all assays and significantly depressed BChE (IC50 = 6.68 ± 0.83 mg/mL) and α-amylase activities (IC50 = 5.34 ± 0.14 mg/mL). Interestingly, the five seaweeds revealed potent inhibitory effects against tyrosinase activity. In conclusion, A. anceps might be considered as a key source of phytoantioxidants and a potential candidate to develop nutritional supplements. Besides, the five tested seaweeds warrant further study and may be exploited as promising natural sources for managing hyperpigmentation.

Antioxidantes/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Análise Multivariada
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 174: 19-33, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153134


Africa is famous for its floral biodiversity, exploited by local people for therapeutic purposes. However, such plants need to be scrutinised scientifically for the presence of bioactive compounds and possible biological properties. This study attempts for the first time to highlight the pharmacological and phytochemical profile of extracts prepared from leaves and stem barks of three African plants (Macaranga hurifolia Beille, Sterculia tragacantha Lindl. and Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P. G. Waterman. The extracts were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects. Free radical scavenging, metal chelator, reducing power and phosphomolybdenum assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant effects. To identify enzyme inhibitory effects, cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE)), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase were selected as target enzymes. High performance liquid chromatography-Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) technique was also used for chemical profiling. ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays showed that the stem barks of all three African plants were better scavenger than leaf extracts. Sterculia tragacantha was found to be a better metal chelator (64.10 ±â€¯4.66 mg EDTAE/g) among the studied plants. All extracts exhibited good clinical enzyme inhibitory activities. The stem bark of S. tragacantha exhibited the best acetylcholinesterase activity compared to the other plants. HPLC-ESI-MS characterization showed that the most abundant compounds in stem bark were flavonoids in M. hurifolia (4.2 ±â€¯0.2 mg/g DE), proanthocyanidins in S. tragacantha (42 ±â€¯1 mg/g DE) and similar concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Z. gilletii (2.8-3.1 mg/g DE). Based on the biological activity, the most abundant and relevant bioactive compounds in the extracts were studied using molecular modelling approach against tyrosinase. The studied African plants showed good antioxidant and enzymatic propensities and thus can be considered as potential bioresources for future development of nutraceuticals and/or for pharmaceutical applications.

Antioxidantes/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , África , Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores