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1.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947975

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess free fatty acids' (FAs) ex vivo anti-/proinflammatory capabilities and their influence on inflammatory gene expression and H2O2 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Anthropometric and clinical measurements were performed in 26 participants with metabolic syndrome. Isolated PBMCs were incubated ex vivo for 2 h with several free fatty acids-palmitic, oleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic at 50 µM, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination. H2O2 production and IL6, NFκB, TLR2, TNFα, and COX-2 gene expressions were determined. Palmitic, γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acids showed minor effects on inflammatory gene expression, whereas oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids reduced proinflammatory gene expression in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids treatment enhanced LPS-stimulated H2O2 production by PBMCs, while palmitic, oleic, γ-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids did not exert significant effects. Oleic, α-linolenic, and docosahexaenoic acids induced anti-inflammatory responses in PBMCs. Arachidonic and α-linolenic acids enhanced the oxidative status of LPS-stimulated PBMCs. In conclusion, PBMC ex vivo assays are useful to assess the anti-/proinflammatory and redox-modulatory effects of fatty acids or other food bioactive compounds.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 291-306, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overall quality of dietary carbohydrate intake rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We examined 6- and 12-mo changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and concurrent changes in several CVD risk factors in a multicenter, randomized, primary-prevention trial (PREDIMED-Plus) based on an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention program. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 5373 overweight/obese Spanish adults (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 143-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate 6- and 12-mo changes in CQI (categorized in quintiles), based on 4 criteria (total dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole grain/total grain ratio, and solid carbohydrate/total carbohydrate ratio). The outcomes were changes in intermediate markers of CVD. RESULTS: During the 12-mo follow-up, the majority of participants improved their CQI by increasing their consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and nuts and decreasing their consumption of refined cereals, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 6 mo, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride levels, triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, and TyG-WC decreased across successive quintiles of improvement in the CQI. After 12 mo, improvements were additionally observed for HDL cholesterol and for the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Favorable improvements (expressed in common units of SD and 95% CI) for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 of CQI change were observed for most risk factors, including TyG-WC (SD -0.20; 95% CI -0.26, -0.15), HbA1c (SD -0.16; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10), weight (SD -0.12; 95% CI -0.14, -0.09), systolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.02) and diastolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in CQI were strongly associated with concurrent favorable CVD risk factor changes maintained over time in overweight/obese adults with MetS. This trial was registered as ISRCTN 89898870.

3.
Nutr Res ; 73: 67-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865217

RESUMO

The proportion of fat has increased at the expense of carbohydrates in the past years, and we aimed to assess total fat and fatty acids intake and their food sources among Mediterranean older adults and compare them to national and international recommendations. This study was conducted in 211 participants to determine lipid and fatty acid intake using a Spanish food database. The mean daily intake of lipids was 68.6g/d (standard deviation [SD]: 24.6; 34.4%, SD: 7.0 of total energy consumed). Men, younger participants, and those with higher education ingested more lipids than their peers. Fatty acids were ingested as follows (expressed as percentage of total energy intake): monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (16.7%, SD: 4.1), saturated fatty acids (SFA) (9.6%, SD: 2.6), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (5.0%, SD: 1.7). Oils and seeds were the highest contributors in the intake of lipids (38.8%, SD: 16.0), MUFA (53.9%, SD: 18.7), and PUFA (33.0%, SD: 16.4). The total fat intake (34.4%, SD: 7.0) was within the range of International and Spanish recommendations among Mediterranean older adults; however, the intake of fatty acids did not abide by the international (PUFA) and Spanish recommendations (SFA, MUFA). α-Linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid intake were lower than recommendations, but cholesterol intake (243.9mg, SD: 140.4) was within the range of recommendations. Therefore, public health campaigns are needed to encourage older adults to decrease SFA intake and increase adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern for a better health.

4.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1087-1094, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184631

RESUMO

Objetivos: analizar la prevalencia de salud metabólica en pacientes obesos de Mallorca. Métodos: los participantes se clasificaron en obesos sanos metabólicamente (OSM) y obesos no sanos metabólicamente (ONSM) en función de si presentaban o no síndrome metabólico (SMet), definido según los criterios del NCEP ATP III. Se evaluaron hábitos alimentarios, tóxicos y estilo de vida, tiempo de evolución de la obesidad, antecedentes de lactancia materna, obesidad en la infancia y familiares de obesidad y diabetes mellitus, así como glucosa, colesterol total, colesterol-HDL y triglicéridos plasmáticos en 457 pacientes obesos residentes en Mallorca. Resultados: la prevalencia de OSM fue del 49,2% y la de ONSM fue del 50,8%. El fenotipo de OSM disminuyó con la edad. Todos los pacientes presentaron hábitos inadecuados. Ambos grupos presentaron similar consumo de frutas, ensaladas y verduras, hábito tabáquico y práctica de actividad física. El 37,4% de los sujetos consumía bebidas azucaradas y el 52,9% consumía alcohol, más en ONSM (4,3%) que en OSM (0,4%). Los sujetos ONSM presentaron mayores valores de índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia abdominal, porcentaje de grasa e índice de grasa visceral (IGV) y variables metabólicas estudiadas que los OSM. Conclusiones: más de la mitad de la población obesa analizada presentó complicaciones metabólicas, aunque toda la población obesa mostró similares hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida inadecuados. El incremento de edad, el bajo nivel educativo, los años de evolución de la obesidad y la localización visceral de la grasa se asocian a un estado metabólico no saludable. Deberían aunarse criterios para definir y tipificar el estado metabólico de los sujetos obesos


Aims: to assess the prevalence of metabolic health in Mallorca obese patients. Methods: participants were classified in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically non-healthy obese (MNHO). Food, toxic and lifestyle habits, time of obesity evolution, breastfeeding, obesity in childhood and family history of obesity and diabetes mellitus, as well as glycemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceridemia were evaluated in 457 obese patients. Results: prevalence of MHO was 49.2% and that of MNHO was 50.8%. MHO phenotype decreased with age. All patients showed inadequate habits. Consumption of fruits, salads and vegetables, tobacco and physical activity were similar between both groups; 37.4% of patients consumed sugary sweet drinks, and 52.9% consumed alcohol, higher in MNHO (4.3%) than in MHO (0.4%). MNHO showed higher values of BMI, abdominal circumference, fat percentage and visceral fatty index, as well as all metabolically studied outcomes. Conclusions: more than half of assessed obese population showed metabolic complications, but all obese population showed similar inadequate food and lifestyle habits. Increase of age, low educational level, years of obesity evolution, and visceral localization of fat are associated with a metabolically non-healthy status. Criteria to define and typify the metabolic state of obese subjects should be unified


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Espanha/epidemiologia , Obesidade/classificação , Comportamento Alimentar , Atividade Motora , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 which may be reduced by practicing regular physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of older adults with MetS and without MetS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of older adults (55-80 years old) from Balearic Islands (Spain) with MetS (n = 333; 55% men) and without MetS (n = 144; 43.8% men). LTPA was assessed with the validated Spanish version of the Minnesota LTPA Questionnaire. Two criteria of physically active were used: >150 min/week of moderate physical activity or >75 min/week of vigorous physical activity or a combination of both, and total leisure-time energy expenditure of >300 MET·min/day. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometric variables, MetS components, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) were also measured. RESULTS: MetS subjects showed lower energy expenditure in LTPA, lower adherence to the MD, higher obesity and waist circumference, and were less active than non-MetS peers. LTPA increased as participants got older and there was higher LTPA intensity as educational level increased. Adherence to MD was as high as LTPA was. CONCLUSIONS: MetS is associated with physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. To increase LTPA recommendations and raise awareness in the population about the health benefits of PA and high adherence to MD is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(5): 1087-1094, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516004

RESUMO

Introduction: Aims: to assess the prevalence of metabolic health in Mallorca obese patients. Methods: participants were classified in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically non-healthy obese (MNHO). Food, toxic and lifestyle habits, time of obesity evolution, breastfeeding, obesity in childhood and family history of obesity and diabetes mellitus, as well as glycemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceridemia were evaluated in 457 obese patients. Results: prevalence of MHO was 49.2% and that of MNHO was 50.8%. MHO phenotype decreased with age. All patients showed inadequate habits. Consumption of fruits, salads and vegetables, tobacco and physical activity were similar between both groups; 37.4% of patients consumed sugary sweet drinks, and 52.9% consumed alcohol, higher in MNHO (4.3%) than in MHO (0.4%). MNHO showed higher values of BMI, abdominal circumference, fat percentage and visceral fatty index, as well as all metabolically studied outcomes. Conclusions: more than half of assessed obese population showed metabolic complications, but all obese population showed similar inadequate food and lifestyle habits. Increase of age, low educational level, years of obesity evolution, and visceral localization of fat are associated with a metabolically non-healthy status. Criteria to define and typify the metabolic state of obese subjects should be unified.

7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416130

RESUMO

Anthropometry (from the Greek anthropos: human, and metron: measure) refers to the systematic collection and correlation of measurements of human individuals, including the systematic measurement of the physical characteristics of the human body, primarily body weight, body size, and shape [...].

8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To assess fat intake in older adults with or without MetS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional survey in older adults living in the Balearic Islands (n = 477, 48% women, 55-80 years old) with no previous CVD. METHODS: Assessment of fat (total fat, MUFA, PUFA, SFA, TFA, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, marine and non-marine ω-3 FA, animal fat and vegetable fat, cholesterol) and macronutrient intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and its comparison with recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC). RESULTS: Participants with MetS showed higher BMI, lower physical activity, higher total fat and MUFA intake, and lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fiber than participants without MetS. Men and women with MetS were below the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) proposed by IOM for carbohydrates and above the AMDR for total fat and MUFAs, and women were below the AMDR proposed for α-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with participants without MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with MetS were less likely to meet IOM and SENC recommendations for fat and macronutrient intakes as compared to non-MetS subjects.

9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(9): 887-905, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of coexisting cardiovascular risk factors. The role of specific dietary fats was reemphasized by dietary recommendations. This systematic review aims to assess evidence for the effect of dietary fat intake on MetS occurrence and reversion in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MEDLINE database was used to search the existing literature. We included observational studies that analyzed dietary fat intake in adults with MetS and clinical trials that compared the effects of different dietary fat diets on MetS and/or its components. Thirty articles were selected (14 observational and 16 clinical trials), and we included information of dietary fat and fatty acids as well as MetS, body mass index, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes in adults. SFA intake was found to be positively associated with MetS components. Most of the observational reviewed studies found beneficial associations between MUFA and PUFA (including n-3 and n-6 subtypes) intake and MetS components. Clinical trials also supported the benefits of MUFA- or PUFA-enriched diets (including low-fat diets) in reducing MetS. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of dietary SFAs on MetS will be influenced by other specific nutrients. Replacement of SFA by MUFA and PUFA has been associated with a decrease in MetS. Dietary recommendations should emphasize on different qualities of fat intake, not only to reduce total fat intake, to obtain health benefits in adults.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261967

RESUMO

Background: The effect of dietary fat intake on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in turn on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear in individuals at high CVD risk. Objective: To assess the association between fat intake and MetS components in an adult Mediterranean population at high CVD risk. Design: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6560, men and women, 55-75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS) in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial. Methods: Assessment of fat intake (total fat, monounsatured fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and ω-3 FA) using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality using 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire and fat quality index (FQI). Results: Participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fat intake showed lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein and fiber, but higher intake of PUFA, MUFA, SFA, TFA, LA, ALA and ω-3 FA. Differences in MetS components were found according to fat intake. Odds (5th vs. 1st quintile): hyperglycemia: 1.3-1.6 times higher for total fat, MUFA, SFA and ω-3 FA intake; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c): 1.2 higher for LA; hypertriglyceridemia: 0.7 lower for SFA and ω-3 FA intake. Conclusions: Dietary fats played different role on MetS components of high CVD risk patients. Dietary fat intake was associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/dietoterapia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075869

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the scientific evidence on the relationship between body image and body weight control in overweight ≥55-year-old adults. Methods: The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE database via PubMed, using terms related to body image, weight control and body composition. Inclusion criteria were scientific papers, written in English or Spanish, made on older adults. Exclusion criteria were eating and psychological disorders, low sample size, cancer, severe diseases, physiological disorders other than metabolic syndrome, and bariatric surgery. Results: Fifty-seven studies were included. Only thirteen were conducted exclusively among ≥55-year-old adults or performed analysis adjusted by age. Overweight perception was related to spontaneous weight management, which usually concerned dieting and exercising. More men than women showed over-perception of body image. Ethnics showed different satisfaction level with body weight. As age increases, conformism with body shape, as well as expectations concerning body weight decrease. Misperception and dissatisfaction with body weight are risk factors for participating in an unhealthy lifestyle and make it harder to follow a healthier lifestyle. Body image disturbance also made it more likely to underreport calorie intake. Conclusions: Aging is associated with a decrease in weight concerns and lower overweight perception, especially in women. However, when designing a program to improve body image in overweight ≥55-year-old adults, three items ought to be considered: physical activity, dietary and behavioral treatments.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have compared micronutrient intake and fulfilment of average requirements (EAR) in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic adults at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed these variables in a large sample of participants in the PREDIMED-PLUS randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention with diet and physical activity. DESIGN: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in n = 5792 men and women, aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and some metabolic syndrome features. METHODS: Participants were categorised as non-diabetic (n = 2390), pre-diabetic (n = 1322) or diabetic (n = 2080) by standard criteria. Food and nutrient intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrients examined were vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine. The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was evaluated using the EAR or adequate intake (AI) cut-offs. Diet quality was also determined using a 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants, those with pre-diabetes had lower intakes of total carbohydrates (CHO) and higher intakes of total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and were more likely to be below EAR for folic, while diabetic participants had lower intakes of total CHO and higher intakes of protein, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFA and cholesterol and were less likely to be below EAR for vitamins B2, and B6, Ca, Zn and iodine. Diabetic participants disclosed higher adherence to the MedDiet than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mediterranean individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes had better nutrient adequacy and adherence to the MedDiet than those with pre-diabetes or no diabetes.

13.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55⁻75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0⁻25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Nozes , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(2): 197-202, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183684

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir los resultados sobre el estado nutricional de niños/as de 8 a 14 años con sobrepeso u obesidad y poco activos/as, antes y después de una intervención nutricional con promoción de la actividad física (Programa ACTIVA'T). Método: Estudio antes-después en población infantil (8-14 años) de Vilafranca del Penedès (Barcelona) con sobrepeso u obesidad y poco activos, aleatorizados en grupo control (n = 51, 47,1% niñas, intervención nutricional y actividad física ≤3h/sem) y en grupo ACTIVA'T (n = 45, 37,8% niñas, intervención nutricional y actividad física ≥5h/sem). Se determinaron el índice de masa corporal, el índice cintura/altura y la calidad de la dieta mediante el test KIDMED al inicio y al final del estudio. Durante la intervención, cada participante estuvo acompañado/a por un familiar (padre o madre) que realizó las mismas actividades que los/las niños/as. Resultados: Las recomendaciones dietéticas han cambiado positivamente los hábitos del grupo ACTIVA'T y del grupo control. La reversión en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad ha sido del 93,8% y el 58,6%, respectivamente, en el grupo ACTIVA'T, frente al 25,0% y el 35,8% en el grupo control. La obesidad abdominal se redujo del 42,2% al 17,8% en el grupo ACTIVA'T y del 47,1% al 27,5% en el grupo control. Conclusiones: El programa de educación nutricional y promoción de la actividad física ACTIVA'T mejora la calidad de la dieta y revierte la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población infantil poco activa


Objective: To assess a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention program on the nutritional status of overweight or obese and not very active 8-14 years old children by means of a controlled pre-post design (ACTIVA'T program). Method: Pre-post study in 8-14 years old overweight or obese and low active children from Vilafranca del Penedès (Barcelona, Spain) randomized in control group (n = 51, 47.1% girls, nutritional intervention and ≤3h/wk physical activity) and ACTIVA'T group (n = 45, 37.8% girls, nutritional and physical activity ≥5h/wk intervention). Body mass index, waist/height index, and diet quality by means of KIDMED test at the beginning and at the end of the program were assessed. During the intervention, each participant was accompanied by a relative (father or mother) who performed the same activities as the children. Results: Dietary recommendations have positively changed the habits of both ACTIVA'T and control group. The reversion in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 93.8% and 58.6%, respectively, in the ACTIVA'T group, compared to 25.0% and 35.8% in the control group. Abdominal obesity was decreased from 42.2% to 17.8% in the ACTIVA'T group and from 47.1% to 27.5% in the control group. Conclusions: The program ACTIVA'T (nutritional education and physical activity promotion) improves the quality of diet and reverses the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the underactive child population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/estatística & dados numéricos , Antropometria/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário
15.
Gac Sanit ; 33(2): 197-202, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention program on the nutritional status of overweight or obese and not very active 8-14 years old children by means of a controlled pre-post design (ACTIVA'T program). METHOD: Pre-post study in 8-14 years old overweight or obese and low active children from Vilafranca del Penedès (Barcelona, Spain) randomized in control group (n = 51, 47.1% girls, nutritional intervention and ≤3h/wk physical activity) and ACTIVA'T group (n = 45, 37.8% girls, nutritional and physical activity ≥5h/wk intervention). Body mass index, waist/height index, and diet quality by means of KIDMED test at the beginning and at the end of the program were assessed. During the intervention, each participant was accompanied by a relative (father or mother) who performed the same activities as the children. RESULTS: Dietary recommendations have positively changed the habits of both ACTIVA'T and control group. The reversion in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 93.8% and 58.6%, respectively, in the ACTIVA'T group, compared to 25.0% and 35.8% in the control group. Abdominal obesity was decreased from 42.2% to 17.8% in the ACTIVA'T group and from 47.1% to 27.5% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The program ACTIVA'T (nutritional education and physical activity promotion) improves the quality of diet and reverses the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the underactive child population.


Assuntos
Exercício , Terapia Nutricional , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388779

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed physical condition and its association with body composition, nutrient intake, sociodemographic characteristics, and lifestyle habits in older Spanish adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 380 individuals (54% women; men aged 55⁻80 years and women aged 60⁻80 years) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. A general questionnaire was used, and body weight, height, fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and waist circumference were assessed. Physical condition measurements included handgrip strength (HGS) and agility/dynamic balance by eight-foot time up-and-go (8-f TUG) test. The lowest maximum HGS score (kg) was found in older participants, inactive men, and men with abdominal obesity. The highest maximum 8-f TUG score (s) was found in older and inactive, low education, low income, and abdominal obesity and overfat participants; 24.5% of participants had low maximum HGS and 36.8% had a high 8-f TUG score. Sex- and/or age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for low maximum HGS in women, older participants, overweight and overfat participants were 4.6, 2.9, 0.6 and 0.6 respectively. Sex and/or age adjusted OR for high maximum 8-f TUG in women, overweight, overfat, and abdominally obese participants were 2.4, 1.6, 1.7, and 3.4, respectively; in participants with higher education, those who earned €900 or more per month, and slightly active and active participants had OR values of 0.4, 0.4, and 0.3, respectively. Sarcopenia incidence was 0.3%; however, 4.5% of men and 19.1% of women registered low physical condition (high and low scores in 8-f TUG and HGS tests, respectively). Overall, 36.8%, 24.5%, and 0.3% of participants had high maximum 8-f TUG score, low maximum HGS, and sarcopenia, respectively. Prevalence of these low values varies according to sociodemographic and body composition variables.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Estilo de Vida , Aptidão Física , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206307, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356331

RESUMO

Biomarkers have been postulated as essential variables to measure the effects of exercise on the human body. To investigate the relationship between physical fitness (PF) and blood biomarkers that are associated with disease risk in Spanish older adults, four hundred and twenty-nine adults (57% females) aged older than 55 years from a cross-sectional study were included. A battery of PF test was performed, and participants were divided into 3 groups: low, medium and high fitness. Blood samples were collected, and subjects were also grouped based on a particular biomarker being within its reference range. Furthermore, drug intake and dietary intake were considered for each participant. Higher concentrations out of the reference range were observed for vitamin 25(OH)D (67.9%) and total cholesterol (TC) (58.6%). Participants from the low PF group presented lower significant concentrations out of the reference range for vitamin B12 and triglycerides; however, participants in the low PF group showed higher significant concentrations out of the reference range for total homocysteine, creatinine, TC, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) than those in the high PF group (all p<0.05). Considering drugs related to blood lipid modifications, subjects who regularly consumed lipid reducers presented higher significant concentrations out of the reference range for TC and LDL-c than participants who did not take these drugs (p<0.01). Participants from the high PF group presented better blood marker profiles, namely, lower blood markers related to disease risk out of the reference range. These blood markers could be used as a routine method for considering PF groups in older adults.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347790

RESUMO

Regular physical activity prescription is a key point for healthy aging and chronic disease management and prevention. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant defense system and the mitochondrial status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the level of oxidative damage in plasma in active, intermediate and inactive elderly. In total, 127 healthy men and women >55 years old participated in the study and were classified according on their level of declared physical activity. A more active lifestyle was accompanied by lower weight, fat mass and body mass index when compared to a more sedentary life-style. Active participants exhibited lower circulating PBMCs than inactive peers. Participants who reported higher levels of exercise had increased antioxidant protein levels when compared to more sedentary partakers. Carbonylated protein levels exhibited similar behavior, accompanied by a significant raise in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV in PBMCs. No significant changes were found in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the expression of structural (MitND5) and mitochondrial dynamic-related (PGC1α and Mitofusins1/2.) proteins. Active lifestyle and daily activities exert beneficial effects on body composition and it enhances the antioxidant defenses and oxidative metabolism capabilities in PBMCs from healthy elderly.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142929

RESUMO

The paper seeks to describe beverage consumption and examine the association between beverage consumption and total water intake and total energy intake of the adult population in the Balearic Islands. Beverage consumption, total water intake, and total energy intake were obtained by using two 24-h diet recalls from a cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (n = 1386). The contribution of beverages to total water intake and total energy intake were also assessed. Beverages accounted for 65⁻71% of total water intake and 29⁻35% of it provided by drinking water. Food moisture contributed 31⁻37% of total water intake. The mean daily total water intake from all sources was around 2.2 L for men and 1.9 L for women and slightly lower than the proposed adequate intake (AI) recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The mean total energy intake was 2222 kcal/day and beverages contributed 10.3% of total energy intake for men and 9.5% for women. Energy intake from beverages varied with age. In both sexes, milk was the main beverage contributed to total energy intake. The energy contribution of caloric soft drinks was 1.8% for men and 1.2% for women and energy intake from these beverages was significantly higher among younger adults. Water was the main beverage in the diet, followed by milk and hot beverages. Beverages were mainly consumed in the main meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) in both sexes. The main findings of this study indicate that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (caloric soft drinks and commercial fruit juice) is higher among young adults, consumption of alcoholic beverages is higher among males aged 26 and older, and TWI (total water intake) is lower than the EFSA recommendations. These findings may be used to develop effective, healthy eating and drinking policies and campaigns.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Antropometria , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Avaliação Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(3): 612-619, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: fluid intake before, during and after exercise is the most important way to replace water lost during exercise and avoid dehydration. AIM: to assess fluid intake habits before, during and after exercise in amateur basketball players on both training and competition days. METHODS: one hundred and eighty-three amateur basketball players (87 women and 96 men, 19-29 years old) were interviewed. Data was obtained from a drinking habits questionnaire. RESULTS: overall, 20.8%, 5.5% and 2.7% of subjects did not drink before, during and after exercise on training days, respectively; 17.5% of subjects did not drink before exercise on competition days. Water was the preferred beverage before, during and after exercise on both training and competition days, with fruit juice being the second most consumed beverage before exercise. All subjects also drank fizzy drinks and other beverages during exercise on competition days. According to the recommendations, good hydration habits were found in 54.6%, 74.2% and 76.5% of subjects before, during and after training days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: most amateur basketball players drink before, during and after exercise on both training and competition days, but not all of them complied with the hydration recommendations.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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