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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide gene-environment interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the use of any MHT, estrogen-only, and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy with CRC risk, among 28,486 postmenopausal women (11,519 cases and 16,967 controls) from 38 studies, using logistic regression, two-step method, and 2- or 3-degree-of-freedom (d.f.) joint test. A set-based score test was applied for rare genetic variants. RESULTS: The use of any MHT, estrogen-only and estrogen-progestogen were associated with a reduced CRC risk [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.71 (0.64-0.78), 0.65 (0.53-0.79), and 0.73 (0.59-0.90), respectively]. The two-step method identified a statistically significant interaction between a GRIN2B variant rs117868593 and MHT use, whereby MHT-associated CRC risk was significantly reduced in women with the GG genotype [0.68 (0.64-0.72)] but not within strata of GC or CC genotypes. A statistically significant interaction between a DCBLD1 intronic variant at 6q22.1 (rs10782186) and MHT use was identified by the 2-d.f. joint test. The MHT-associated CRC risk was reduced with increasing number of rs10782186-C alleles, showing ORs of 0.78 (0.70-0.87) for TT, 0.68 (0.63-0.73) for TC, and 0.66 (0.60-0.74) for CC genotypes. In addition, five genes in rare variant analysis showed suggestive interactions with MHT (two-sided P < 1.2x10-4). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants that modify the association between MHT and CRC risk were identified, offering new insights into pathways of CRC carcinogenesis and potential mechanisms involved.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1077-1089, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently known associations between common genetic variants and colorectal cancer explain less than half of its heritability of 25%. As alcohol consumption has a J-shape association with colorectal cancer risk, nondrinking and heavy drinking are both risk factors for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Individual-level data was pooled from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium to compare nondrinkers (≤1 g/day) and heavy drinkers (>28 g/day) with light-to-moderate drinkers (1-28 g/day) in GxE analyses. To improve power, we implemented joint 2df and 3df tests and a novel two-step method that modifies the weighted hypothesis testing framework. We prioritized putative causal variants by predicting allelic effects using support vector machine models. RESULTS: For nondrinking as compared with light-to-moderate drinking, the hybrid two-step approach identified 13 significant SNPs with pairwise r2 > 0.9 in the 10q24.2/COX15 region. When stratified by alcohol intake, the A allele of lead SNP rs2300985 has a dose-response increase in risk of colorectal cancer as compared with the G allele in light-to-moderate drinkers [OR for GA genotype = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.17; OR for AA genotype = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31], but not in nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Among the correlated candidate SNPs in the 10q24.2/COX15 region, rs1318920 was predicted to disrupt an HNF4 transcription factor binding motif. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the association with colorectal cancer in 10q24.2/COX15 observed in genome-wide association study is strongest in nondrinkers. We also identified rs1318920 as the putative causal regulatory variant for the region. IMPACT: The study identifies multifaceted evidence of a possible functional effect for rs1318920.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(4): 669-679, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263625

RESUMO

One mechanism by which genetic factors influence complex traits and diseases is altering gene expression. Direct measurement of gene expression in relevant tissues is rarely tenable; however, genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) can be estimated using prediction models derived from large multi-omic datasets. These approaches have led to the discovery of many gene-trait associations, but whether models derived from predominantly European ancestry (EA) reference panels can map novel associations in ancestrally diverse populations remains unclear. We applied PrediXcan to impute GReX in 51,520 ancestrally diverse Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) participants (35% African American, 45% Hispanic/Latino, 10% Asian, and 7% Hawaiian) across 25 key cardiometabolic traits and relevant tissues to identify 102 novel associations. We then compared associations in PAGE to those in a random subset of 50,000 White British participants from UK Biobank (UKBB50k) for height and body mass index (BMI). We identified 517 associations across 47 tissues in PAGE but not UKBB50k, demonstrating the importance of diverse samples in identifying trait-associated GReX. We observed that variants used in PrediXcan models were either more or less differentiated across continental-level populations than matched-control variants depending on the specific population reflecting sampling bias. Additionally, variants from identified genes specific to either PAGE or UKBB50k analyses were more ancestrally differentiated than those in genes detected in both analyses, underlining the value of population-specific discoveries. This suggests that while EA-derived transcriptome imputation models can identify new associations in non-EA populations, models derived from closely matched reference panels may yield further insights. Our findings call for more diversity in reference datasets of tissue-specific gene expression.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 46(1): 3-16, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779012

RESUMO

Hematological measures are important intermediate clinical phenotypes for many acute and chronic diseases and are highly heritable. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci containing trait-associated variants, the causal genes underlying these associations are often uncertain. To better understand the underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to systematically investigate the association between genetically predicted gene expression and hematological measures in 54,542 Europeans from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging cohort. We found 239 significant gene-trait associations with hematological measures; we replicated 71 associations at p < 0.05 in a TWAS meta-analysis consisting of up to 35,900 Europeans from the Women's Health Initiative, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and BioMe Biobank. Additionally, we attempted to refine this list of candidate genes by performing conditional analyses, adjusting for individual variants previously associated with hematological measures, and performed further fine-mapping of TWAS loci. To facilitate interpretation of our findings, we designed an R Shiny application to interactively visualize our TWAS results by integrating them with additional genetic data sources (GWAS, TWAS from multiple reference panels, conditional analyses, known GWAS variants, etc.). Our results and application highlight frequently overlooked TWAS challenges and illustrate the complexity of TWAS fine-mapping.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transcriptoma , Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
5.
Blood Adv ; 6(2): 473-485, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495306

RESUMO

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) Reed Sternberg cells express tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that are potential targets for cellular therapies. We recently demonstrated that TAA-specific T cells (TAA-Ts) targeting WT1, PRAME, and Survivin were safe and associated with prolonged time to progression in solid tumors. Hence, we evaluated whether TAA-Ts when given alone or with nivolumab were safe and could elicit antitumor effects in vivo in patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) HL. Ten patients were infused with TAA-Ts (8 autologous and 2 allogeneic) for active HL (n = 8) or as adjuvant therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (n = 2). Six patients received nivolumab priming before TAA-Ts and continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. All 10 products recognized 1 or more TAAs and were polyfunctional. Patients were monitored for safety for 6 weeks after the TAA-Ts and for response until disease progression. The infusions were safe with no clear dose-limiting toxicities. Patients receiving TAA-Ts as adjuvant therapy remain in continued remission at 3+ years. Of the 8 patients with active disease, 1 patient had a complete response and 7 had stable disease at 3 months, 3 of whom remain with stable disease at 1 year. Antigen spreading and long-term persistence of TAA-Ts in vivo were observed in responding patients. Nivolumab priming impacted TAA-T recognition and persistence. In conclusion, treatment of patients with r/r HL with TAA-Ts alone or in combination with nivolumab was safe and produced promising results. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT022039303 and #NCT03843294.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin , Nivolumabe , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Progressão da Doença , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/patologia
6.
Diabetologia ; 65(3): 477-489, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951656

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is a growing global public health challenge. Investigating quantitative traits, including fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HbA1c, that serve as early markers of type 2 diabetes progression may lead to a deeper understanding of the genetic aetiology of type 2 diabetes development. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 500 loci associated with type 2 diabetes, glycaemic traits and insulin-related traits. However, most of these findings were based only on populations of European ancestry. To address this research gap, we examined the genetic basis of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HbA1c in participants of the diverse Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS of fasting glucose (n = 52,267), fasting insulin (n = 48,395) and HbA1c (n = 23,357) in participants without diabetes from the diverse PAGE Study (23% self-reported African American, 46% Hispanic/Latino, 40% European, 4% Asian, 3% Native Hawaiian, 0.8% Native American), performing transethnic and population-specific GWAS meta-analyses, followed by fine-mapping to identify and characterise novel loci and independent secondary signals in known loci. RESULTS: Four novel associations were identified (p < 5 × 10-9), including three loci associated with fasting insulin, and a novel, low-frequency African American-specific locus associated with fasting glucose. Additionally, seven secondary signals were identified, including novel independent secondary signals for fasting glucose at the known GCK locus and for fasting insulin at the known PPP1R3B locus in transethnic meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of glycaemic traits and highlight the continued importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations. DATA AVAILABILITY: Full summary statistics from each of the population-specific and transethnic results are available at NHGRI-EBI GWAS catalog ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/gwas/downloads/summary-statistics ).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of genetic variants have been associated with hematological traits, though target genes remain unknown at most loci. Moreover, limited analyses have been conducted in African ancestry and Hispanic/Latino populations; hematological trait associated variants more common in these populations have likely been missed. METHODS: To derive gene expression prediction models, we used ancestry-stratified datasets from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, including n = 229 African American and n = 381 Hispanic/Latino participants, monocytes) and the Depression Genes and Networks study (DGN, n = 922 European ancestry participants, whole blood). We then performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count in African (n = 27,955) and Hispanic/Latino (n = 28,324) ancestry participants. RESULTS: Our results revealed 24 suggestive signals (p < 1 × 10-4) that were conditionally distinct from known GWAS identified variants and successfully replicated these signals in European ancestry subjects from UK Biobank. We found modestly improved correlation of predicted and measured gene expression in an independent African American cohort (the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study (n = 802), lymphoblastoid cell lines) using the larger DGN reference panel; however, some genes were well predicted using MESA but not DGN. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate the importance of performing TWAS and other genetic analyses across diverse populations and of balancing sample size and ancestry background matching when selecting a TWAS reference panel.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , /genética
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 432, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating white blood cell and platelet traits are clinically linked to various disease outcomes and differ across individuals and ancestry groups. Genetic factors play an important role in determining these traits and many loci have been identified. However, most of these findings were identified in populations of European ancestry (EA), with African Americans (AA), Hispanics/Latinos (HL), and other races/ethnicities being severely underrepresented. RESULTS: We performed ancestry-combined and ancestry-specific genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for white blood cell and platelet traits in the ancestrally diverse Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, including 16,201 AA, 21,347 HL, and 27,236 EA participants. We identified six novel findings at suggestive significance (P < 5E-8), which need confirmation, and independent signals at six previously established regions at genome-wide significance (P < 2E-9). We confirmed multiple previously reported genome-wide significant variants in the single variant association analysis and multiple genes using PrediXcan. Evaluation of loci reported from a Euro-centric GWAS indicated attenuation of effect estimates in AA and HL compared to EA populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted the potential to identify ancestry-specific and ancestry-agnostic variants in participants with diverse backgrounds and advocate for continued efforts in improving inclusion of racially/ethnically diverse populations in genetic association studies for complex traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Leucócitos , Fenótipo
10.
Gut ; 70(7): 1325-1334, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.


Assuntos
Colo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceco , Colo Ascendente , Colo Descendente , Colo Sigmoide , Colo Transverso , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(1): 38-47, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg/m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk among 14 059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14 416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included 2-step (ie, Cocktail method) and single-step (ie, case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11 to 1.18; P = 9.75 × 10-17) than for men (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.32; P = 2.13 × 10-24). The 2-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; Pobserved = .0009; Pthreshold = .005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint P = 2.43 × 10-10). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.32; P = 2.60 × 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19; P = 1.04 × 10-8) or TT (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14; P = .02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Smad7/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008947, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833970

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with various phenotypes, but together they explain only a fraction of heritability, suggesting many variants have yet to be discovered. Recently it has been recognized that incorporating functional information of genetic variants can improve power for identifying novel loci. For example, S-PrediXcan and TWAS tested the association of predicted gene expression with phenotypes based on GWAS summary statistics by leveraging the information on genetic regulation of gene expression and found many novel loci. However, as genetic variants may have effects on more than one gene and through different mechanisms, these methods likely only capture part of the total effects of these variants. In this paper, we propose a summary statistics-based mixed effects score test (sMiST) that tests for the total effect of both the effect of the mediator by imputing genetically predicted gene expression, like S-PrediXcan and TWAS, and the direct effects of individual variants. It allows for multiple functional annotations and multiple genetically predicted mediators. It can also perform conditional association analysis while adjusting for other genetic variants (e.g., known loci for the phenotype). Extensive simulation and real data analyses demonstrate that sMiST yields p-values that agree well with those obtained from individual level data but with substantively improved computational speed. Importantly, a broad application of sMiST to GWAS is possible, as only summary statistics of genetic variant associations are required. We apply sMiST to a large-scale GWAS of colorectal cancer using summary statistics from ∼120, 000 study participants and gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We identify several novel and secondary independent genetic loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , /genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 228, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative red blood cell (RBC) traits are highly polygenic clinically relevant traits, with approximately 500 reported GWAS loci. The majority of RBC trait GWAS have been performed in European- or East Asian-ancestry populations, despite evidence that rare or ancestry-specific variation contributes substantially to RBC trait heritability. Recently developed combined-phenotype methods which leverage genetic trait correlation to improve statistical power have not yet been applied to these traits. Here we leveraged correlation of seven quantitative RBC traits in performing a combined-phenotype analysis in a multi-ethnic study population. RESULTS: We used the adaptive sum of powered scores (aSPU) test to assess combined-phenotype associations between ~ 21 million SNPs and seven RBC traits in a multi-ethnic population (maximum n = 67,885 participants; 24% African American, 30% Hispanic/Latino, and 43% European American; 76% female). Thirty-nine loci in our multi-ethnic population contained at least one significant association signal (p < 5E-9), with lead SNPs at nine loci significantly associated with three or more RBC traits. A majority of the lead SNPs were common (MAF > 5%) across all ancestral populations. Nineteen additional independent association signals were identified at seven known loci (HFE, KIT, HBS1L/MYB, CITED2/FILNC1, ABO, HBA1/2, and PLIN4/5). For example, the HBA1/2 locus contained 14 conditionally independent association signals, 11 of which were previously unreported and are specific to African and Amerindian ancestries. One variant in this region was common in all ancestries, but exhibited a narrower LD block in African Americans than European Americans or Hispanics/Latinos. GTEx eQTL analysis of all independent lead SNPs yielded 31 significant associations in relevant tissues, over half of which were not at the gene immediately proximal to the lead SNP. CONCLUSION: This work identified seven loci containing multiple independent association signals for RBC traits using a combined-phenotype approach, which may improve discovery in genetically correlated traits. Highly complex genetic architecture at the HBA1/2 locus was only revealed by the inclusion of African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos, underscoring the continued importance of expanding large GWAS to include ancestrally diverse populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , /genética , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estados Unidos/etnologia
15.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1274-1286.e12, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 259-269, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that conventional adenomas (CAs) and serrated polyps (SPs) represent two distinct groups of precursor lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC). The influence of common genetic variants on risk of CAs and SPs remain largely unknown. METHODS: Among 27 426 participants within three prospective cohort studies, we created a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) based on 40 CRC-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in previous genome-wide association studies; and we examined the association of GRS (per one standard deviation increment) with risk of CAs, SPs and synchronous CAs and SPs, by multivariable logistic regression. We also analysed individual variants in the secondary analysis. RESULTS: During 18-20 years of follow-up, we documented 2952 CAs, 1585 SPs and 794 synchronous CAs and SPs. Higher GRS was associated with increased risk of CAs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.21] and SPs (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14), with a stronger association for CAs than SPs (Pheterogeneity=0.01). An even stronger association was found for patients with synchronous CAs and SPs (OR = 1.32), advanced CAs (OR = 1.22) and multiple CAs (OR = 1.25). Different sets of variants were associated with CAs and SPs, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.02 between the ORs associating the 40 SNPs with the two lesions. After correcting for multiple testing, three variants were associated with CAs (rs3802842, rs6983267 and rs7136702) and two with SPs (rs16892766 and rs4779584). CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants play a potential role in the conventional and serrated pathways of CRC. Different sets of variants are identified for the two pathways, further supporting the aetiological heterogeneity of CRC.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Pólipos/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pólipos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008500, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869403

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies to date have been conducted in individuals of European descent, and genetic studies of populations of Hispanic/Latino and African ancestry are limited. In addition, these populations have more complex linkage disequilibrium structure. In order to better define the genetic architecture of these understudied populations, we leveraged >100,000 phased sequences available from deep-coverage whole genome sequencing through the multi-ethnic NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to impute genotypes into admixed African and Hispanic/Latino samples with genome-wide genotyping array data. We demonstrated that using TOPMed sequencing data as the imputation reference panel improves genotype imputation quality in these populations, which subsequently enhanced gene-mapping power for complex traits. For rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.5%, we observed a 2.3- to 6.1-fold increase in the number of well-imputed variants, with 11-34% improvement in average imputation quality, compared to the state-of-the-art 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels. Impressively, even for extremely rare variants with minor allele count <10 (including singletons) in the imputation target samples, average information content rescued was >86%. Subsequent association analyses of TOPMed reference panel-imputed genotype data with hematological traits (hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and white blood cell count (WBC)) in ~21,600 African-ancestry and ~21,700 Hispanic/Latino individuals identified associations with two rare variants in the HBB gene (rs33930165 with higher WBC [p = 8.8x10-15] in African populations, rs11549407 with lower HGB [p = 1.5x10-12] and HCT [p = 8.8x10-10] in Hispanics/Latinos). By comparison, neither variant would have been genome-wide significant if either 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 or Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels had been used for imputation. Our findings highlight the utility of the TOPMed imputation reference panel for identification of novel rare variant associations not previously detected in similarly sized genome-wide studies of under-represented African and Hispanic/Latino populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Globinas beta/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
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