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2.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(7): 684-92, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473539

RESUMO

Hereditary defects in several genes have been shown to disturb the normal immune response to EBV and to give rise to severe EBV-induced lymphoproliferation in the recent years. Nevertheless, in many patients, the molecular basis of fatal EBV infection still remains unclear. The Fanconi anemia-associated protein 24 (FAAP24) plays a dual role in DNA repair. By association with FANCM as component of the FA core complex, it recruits the FA core complex to damaged DNA. Additionally, FAAP24 has been shown to evoke ATR-mediated checkpoint responses independently of the FA core complex. By whole exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in the FAAP24 gene (cC635T, pT212M) in two siblings of a consanguineous Turkish family who died from an EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease after infection with a variant EBV strain, expressing a previously unknown EBNA2 allele.In order to analyze the functionality of the variant FAAP24 allele, we used herpes virus saimiri-transformed patient T cells to test endogenous cellular FAAP24 functions that are known to be important in DNA damage control. We saw an impaired FANCD2 monoubiquitination as well as delayed checkpoint responses, especially affecting CHK1 phosphorylation in patient samples in comparison to healthy controls. The phenotype of this FAAP24 mutation might have been further accelerated by an EBV strain that harbors an EBNA2 allele with enhanced activities compared to the prototype laboratory strain B95.8. This is the first report of an FAAP24 loss of function mutation found in human patients with EBV-associated lymphoproliferation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Mutação , Irmãos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Ciclo Celular , Códon , Consanguinidade , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Troca de Cromátide Irmã , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(3): 703-712.e10, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and immunologic features of CD27 deficiency remain obscure because only a few patients have been identified to date. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify novel mutations in TNFRSF7/CD27 and to provide an overview of clinical, immunologic, and laboratory phenotypes in patients with CD27 deficiency. METHODS: Review of the medical records and molecular, genetic, and flow cytometric analyses of the patients and family members were performed. Treatment outcomes of previously described patients were followed up. RESULTS: In addition to the previously reported homozygous mutations c.G24A/p.W8X (n = 2) and c.G158A/p.C53Y (n = 8), 4 novel mutations were identified: homozygous missense c.G287A/p.C96Y (n = 4), homozygous missense c.C232T/p.R78W (n = 1), heterozygous nonsense c.C30A/p.C10X (n = 1), and compound heterozygous c.C319T/p.R107C-c.G24A/p.W8X (n = 1). EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hodgkin lymphoma, uveitis, and recurrent infections were the predominant clinical features. Expression of cell-surface and soluble CD27 was significantly reduced in patients and heterozygous family members. Immunoglobulin substitution therapy was administered in 5 of the newly diagnosed cases. CONCLUSION: CD27 deficiency is potentially fatal and should be excluded in all cases of severe EBV infections to minimize diagnostic delay. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping offers a reliable initial test for CD27 deficiency. Determining the precise role of CD27 in immunity against EBV might provide a framework for new therapeutic concepts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Mutação , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Uveíte/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Exoma , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Heterozigoto , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Doença de Hodgkin/imunologia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Masculino , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/imunologia , Uveíte/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Histopathology ; 67(5): 607-16, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728094

RESUMO

AIMS: Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) deficiency is an inherited T-cell deficiency characterized by the development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferations. We aimed to describe the histopathological features of lymphoproliferative processes arising in ITK deficiency, and to compare them with lymphoproliferations in otherwise immunocompromised patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We revised the histopathological diagnoses of 12 biopsies of lymphoproliferations from seven ITK-deficient children according to the World Health Organization criteria, and determined the EBV latency types and lytic activity by staining for EBV-encoded small RNA, latent membrane protein 1, EBV nuclear antigen 2, and ZEBRA. We found polymorphic and borderline polymorphic to monomorphic B-cell lymphoproliferations with variable contents in large cells (five cases), a Hodgkin-like B-cell proliferation (one case), and classic mixed-cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma (six cases). All cases (12/12) were EBV-positive. The Hodgkin lymphoma-like and Hodgkin lymphoma, and all but one polymorphic B-cell lymphoproliferation, showed EBV latency type 2, as observed in classic EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: The 100% EBV association, the high percentage of EBV-positive classic Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin-like B-cell proliferations and the predominance of EBV latency type 2 even in polymorphic lesions are the main features of lymphoproliferations in patients with ITK deficiency, and suggest a unique pathomechanism of lymphomagenesis in this T-cell immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/deficiência , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Incidência , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Latência Viral/fisiologia
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(2): 189-98, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627830

RESUMO

Mutations in DOCK8 result in autosomal recessive Hyper-IgE syndrome with combined immunodeficiency (CID). However, the natural course of disease, long-term prognosis, and optimal therapeutic management have not yet been clearly defined. In an international retrospective survey of patients with DOCK8 mutations, focused on clinical presentation and therapeutic measures, a total of 136 patients with a median follow-up of 11.3 years (1.3-47.7) spanning 1693 patient years, were enrolled. Eczema, recurrent respiratory tract infections, allergies, abscesses, viral infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Overall survival probability in this cohort [censored for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)] was 87 % at 10, 47 % at 20, and 33 % at 30 years of age, respectively. Event free survival was 44, 18 and 4 % at the same time points if events were defined as death, life-threatening infections, malignancy or cerebral complications such as CNS vasculitis or stroke. Malignancy was diagnosed in 23/136 (17 %) patients (11 hematological and 9 epithelial cancers, 5 other malignancies) at a median age of 12 years. Eight of these patients died from cancer. Severe, life-threatening infections were observed in 79/136 (58 %); severe non-infectious cerebral events occurred in 14/136 (10 %). Therapeutic measures included antiviral and antibacterial prophylaxis, immunoglobulin replacement and HSCT. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype of DOCK8 deficiency in the largest cohort reported so far and demonstrates the severity of the disease with relatively poor prognosis. Early HSCT should be strongly considered as a potential curative measure.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Incidência , Lactente , /epidemiologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Síndrome de Job/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(8): 892-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339095

RESUMO

In patients with underlying immunodeficiency, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may lead to severe immune dysregulation manifesting as fatal mononucleosis, lymphoma, lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and dysgammaglobulinemia. Several newly discovered primary immunodeficiencies (STK4, CD27, MAGT1, CORO1A) have been described in recent years; our group and collaborators were able to reveal the pathogenicity of mutations in the Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell Kinase (ITK) in a cohort of nine patients with most patients presenting with massive EBV B-cell lymphoproliferation. This review summarizes the clinical and immunological findings in these patients. Moreover, we describe the functional consequences of the mutations and draw comparisons with the extensively investigated function of ITK in vitro and in the murine model.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/enzimologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Linfócitos T/enzimologia , Idade de Início , Animais , Linfócitos B/enzimologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Linfócitos T/patologia
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 134(1): 116-26, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24582312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency with an equal sex distribution and a high variability in clinical presentation. The main features include respiratory tract infections and their associated complications, enteropathy, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferative disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the clinical presentation, association between clinical features, and differences and effects of immunoglobulin treatment in Europe. METHODS: Data on 2212 patients with CVID from 28 medical centers contributing to the European Society for Immunodeficiencies Database were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Early disease onset (<10 years) was very frequent in our cohort (33.7%), especially in male subjects (39.8%). Male subjects with early-onset CVID were more prone to pneumonia and less prone to other complications suggesting a distinct disease entity. The diagnostic delay of CVID ranges between 4 and 5 years in many countries and is particularly high in subjects with early-onset CVID. Enteropathy, autoimmunity, granulomas, and splenomegaly formed a set of interrelated features, whereas bronchiectasis was not associated with any other clinical feature. Patient survival in this cohort was associated with age at onset and age at diagnosis only. There were different treatment strategies in Europe, with considerable differences in immunoglobulin dosing, ranging from 130 up to 750 mg/kg/mo. Patients with very low trough levels of less than 4 g/L had poor clinical outcomes, whereas higher trough levels were associated with a reduced frequency of serious bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: Patients with CVID are being managed differently throughout Europe, affecting various outcome measures. Clinically, CVID is a truly variable antibody deficiency syndrome.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Autoimunidade , Bronquiectasia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/mortalidade , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Haematologica ; 98(3): 473-8, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22801960

RESUMO

CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
11.
Br J Haematol ; 155(4): 468-76, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21923652

RESUMO

Children with chromosomal instability syndromes have an increased risk of developing lymphoma and leukaemia. The treatment of these malignancies is hampered by therapy-associated toxicity and infectious complications. This retrospective analysis evaluated the therapy outcome of 38 children with Ataxia teleangiectasia or Nijmegen-breakage syndrome with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, n = 9), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n = 28) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, n = 1). All patients with NHL or ALL were treated in accordance to Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)- or Co-operative study group for childhood ALL (CoALL)-oriented chemotherapy schedules. 22 patients received significantly reduced-intensity chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 3·7 years the 10-year overall survival was 58%. Dosage-reduction of chemotherapeutic drugs seemed to have no disadvantages and reduced toxic side effects. On the other hand, reduced-intensity chemotherapy did not prevent second malignancies, which occurred in ten patients with a 10-year incidence of 25%. After individual treatment approaches three of these patients with second malignancies were in complete clinical remission for more than 5 years. We conclude that BFM- or CoALL-oriented chemotherapy is effective and can be administered in children with AT or NBS. Moreover, we show that even second lymphoid malignancies can successfully be treated in these patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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