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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227263

RESUMO

Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation is a dangerous complication to acute myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that regional longitudinal strain impairment is associated with LVT formation. We included 373 prospectively enrolled patients with ST-segment elevation MI. All patients had an echocardiogram performed a median of 2 days post-MI. Using logistic regression, we investigated the relation between LVT and left ventricular (LV) speckle tracking, conventional echocardiographic measures and well-known echocardiographic features of LVT formation including LV smoke, aneurysm and valvular regurgitation. Overall, the mean age was 62 years of age, 75% were men, 5% had prior MI, and 48% had anterior infarcts. Mean LVEF was 46% and global longitudinal strain (GLS) was - 12%. Of 373 patients, 31 (8%) developed LVT on echocardiograms. Patients with LVT more frequently had anterior infarcts, prior MI, lower LVEF, lower e', lower GLS and regional strain, and these were all associated with LVT formation in univariable analyses. In multivariable analysis (including anterior infarcts, prior MI, LVEF, e'), GLS and regional strain remained independently associated with LVT formation (GLS: OR = 1.17 (1.00-1.36), midventricular strain: OR = 1.19 (1.03-1.38), apical strain: OR = 1.12 (1.00-1.25), per 1% absolute decrease, p < 0.05 for all]. In a combined diagnostic model, including anterior infarct, impaired LVEF (< 42%) and apical strain (>  - 8%), the sensitivity and negative predictive value was 100%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 38 and 13%, respectively. In MI patients, non-anterior infarct, preserved LVEF and apical strain can rule out LVT formation. Reduced apical strain indicates a markedly increased LVT risk.

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241549

RESUMO

Many echocardiographic measures have been proposed as potential predictors of outcome following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We hypothesized that combining multiple echocardiographic measures in a risk model provides more prognostic information than individual echocardiographic measures. We prospectively included 373 STEMI patients which constituted our derivation cohort. We also identified 298 STEMI patients from a clinical registry that constituted our validation cohort. Echocardiogram was performed at a median of 2 days after infarction. The echocardiogram consisted of conventional and advanced measures. The end point was a composite of heart failure and/or cardiovascular death. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, we observed 80 events in our derivation cohort. A stepwise backward Cox regression including all echocardiographic parameters identified global longitudinal strain, wall motion score index (WMSI), E/e', and E/global strain rate e (E/GLSRe) as significant predictors of outcome. A Classification and Regression Tree analysis outlined a risk model with WMSI, GLSRe, and E/e' as key echocardiographic parameters. Patients with WMSI ≥ 2.22 were at high risk, patients with WMSI < 2.22, GLSRe < 0.82s-1 and E/e'≥7.6 at intermediate risk, and patients with WMSI < 2.22 and GLSRe ≥ 0.82s-1 or GLSRe < 0.82s-1 and E/e' < 7.6 at low risk of heart failure and/or cardiovascular death. When compared with the low-risk group, an incremental risk was observed (intermediate group: HR = 2.52 [1.24;5.11], p = 0.011; high-risk group: HR = 4.37 [1.40;13.66], p = 0.011). The risk model was validated in the validation cohort (C-statistic: 0.71). In conclusion, we devised an echocardiographic risk model for STEMI patients suggesting advanced and conventional measures of systolic function and filling pressures to be important for the prognosis.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239604

RESUMO

AIMS: The risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) when using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is unclear. Previous studies were limited by lack of data regarding important confounders and too short follow-up periods. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of T2D onset associated with accumulated ICS dose during the previous year in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide observational cohort study based on data from patients with COPD between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2017 extracted from Danish health databases. Patients were followed for seven years, until death or a T2D event. A propensity-matched Cox model and an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (stratified on body mass index (BMI)) were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for new-onset T2D. RESULTS: A total of 50,148 patients with COPD were included, 3,566 (7.1%) of whom had a T2D event. 35,368 patients (70.5%) used ICS during the previous year before study entry. The propensity-matched Cox model (N=33,466) showed an increased risk of T2D which progressed with increasing accumulated ICS dose (low-ICS: HR 1.076, confidence interval [CI] 1.075-1.077, p<0.0001; medium-ICS: HR 1.106, CI 1.105-1.108, p<0.0001; high-ICS: HR 1.150, CI 1.148-1.151, p<0.0001), compared to no ICS use. Results were confirmed in the adjusted Cox analysis on the entire study population, but only for patients with BMI<30 kg/m2 . CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COPD, ICS use was associated with a moderate dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of T2D. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248332

RESUMO

The usefulness of peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) in identifying patients at high risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been investigated in several small AF populations. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether PALS predicts recurrence of AF after RFA treatment. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched. Studies investigating the value of PALS in predicting successful RFA in AF patients were selected. Patients underwent echocardiography prior to RFA. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) Tool. Twelve studies and a total of 1025 patients suffering from paroxysmal or persistent AF were included. Odds ratios (OR) were assessed in a random and fixed effects model for univariable and multivariable pooled analyses respectively. PALS was found to be a significant predictor of AF recurrence after RFA across study populations (Univariable: OR: 1.17, CI95% [1.03-1.34], p = 0.018, per 1% decrease) (Multivariable: OR: 1.16, CI95% [1.09-1.24], p < 0.001, per 1% decrease). Patients with recurrence had significantly lower PALS prior to RFA than patients who maintained sinus rhythm (15.7 ± 5.7% vs. 23.0 ± 7.0%, p = 0.016). A pooled analysis of weighted mean differences (WMD) also showed a significant difference in PALS between the two groups (WMD: - 6.57, CI95% [- 8.49: - 4.65], p < 0.001). Lower values of PALS are associated with an increased risk of AF recurrence after RFA. PALS provides prognostic value in clinical practice.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Color Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral leaflet is a novel method to obtain the cardiac time intervals including the isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and ejection time (ET). The myocardial performance index (MPI) is defined as [(IVCT+IVRT)/ET]. Our aim was to investigate if the cardiac time intervals can be used to predict heart failure (HF) in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1915 participants (mean age 58 ± 16 years, 42% male) from the general population (The Copenhagen City Heart Study) underwent a health examination including TDI-echocardiography. The primary endpoint was incident HF. Participants with a history of HF were excluded (n = 23). During a median follow-up time of 16 years, 172 (9%) participants were diagnosed with incident HF. The risk of HF increased with 24% per 10 ms increase in IVCT (per 10 ms increase: HR 1.24; 95%CI (1.14-1.36), p < 0.001). The association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, previous ischemic heart disease, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, eGFR, proBNP, LVEF <50%, s', LAVI, and E/e' (per 10 ms increase: HR 1.13; 95% CI (1.00-1.27), p = 0.045). A significant association was found between MPI and HF both in unadjusted and adjusted models (per 0.1 increase: HR 6.93; 95% CI (1.63-29.31), p = 0.009). No associations between the IVRT or ET and HF remained significant after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: In the general population the IVCT provides novel and independent prognostic information on the long-term risk of incident HF.

6.
J Echocardiogr ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ratio of transmitral early filling velocity to early diastolic strain rate (E/e'sr) has recently emerged as a novel and accurate non-invasive measure of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to give an overview of the possible clinical implications of E/e'sr. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies involving E/e'sr. Of 598 identified studies, 16 met our inclusion criteria. Studies involving E/e'sr either investigated its prognostic value (n = 9) or its correlation with invasively measured LV filling pressure (n = 7). RESULTS: The pooled meta-analysis showed a significant correlation between E/e'sr and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) measured invasively across the studies assessing this relationship (Cohen's d = 3.90 95% CI [2.38-6.39], p < 0.001) and between E/e'sr and left ventricle end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measured invasively across the studies assessing this relationship (Cohen's d = 5.30 95% CI [2.83-9.96], p < 0.001). The pooled analysis of the prognostic studies showed that E/e'sr was a significant predictor of adverse outcomes after multivariable adjustment across the different study populations in a random effects model (overall estimated HR: 1.58 95% CI [1.28-1.96], p < 0.001, per 1 m increase). CONCLUSION: E/e'sr correlates well with invasive measures of LV filling pressure. In addition, E/e'sr provides significant prognostic information across various patient populations. Further studies are needed to test if E/e'sr has an advantage to E/e'.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077268

RESUMO

AIMS: Increased body mass index (BMI) is common in heart failure (HF) patients and is associated with lower levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We evaluated the influence of BMI on lung ultrasonography (LUS) findings indicative of pulmonary congestion (i.e. B-lines) in patients with chronic and acute HF (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed ambulatory chronic HF (n = 118) and hospitalized AHF (n = 177) patients (mean age 70 years, 64% men, mean BMI 29 kg/m2 , mean ejection fraction 42%) undergoing echocardiography and LUS in eight chest zones. B-lines and chest wall thickness (skin to pleura) on ultrasound were quantified offline and blinded to clinical findings. NT-proBNP was available in AHF patients (n = 167). In chronic HF, B-line number decreased by 18% per 5 unit increase in BMI [95% confidence interval (CI) -35% to +5%, P = 0.11]. In AHF, the number of B-lines decreased by 12% per 5 unit increase in BMI (95% CI -19% to -5%, P = 0.001), whereas NT-proBNP concentration decreased by 28% per 5 unit increase in BMI (95% CI -40% to -16%, P < 0.001). For AHF, B-line number declined to a lesser degree than NT-proBNP concentration with increasing BMI (P = 0.020), and >6 B-lines were observed in half of AHF patients with severe obesity. There was an inverse relationship between B-line number and chest wall thickness, and this association varied by chest region. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an inverse relationship between B-lines and BMI, B-lines declined to a lesser degree than NT-proBNP with increasing BMI. These data suggest that LUS may be useful in patients with HF despite obesity.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013835, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973603

RESUMO

Background Early systolic lengthening (ESL) may occur in ischemic myocardial segments with reduced contractile force. We sought to evaluate the prognostic potential of ESL in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 373 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients underwent a speckle tracking echocardiographic examination a median of 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3 days) after the percutaneous coronary intervention. We assessed a novel viability index, the ESL index, defined as follows: [-100×(peak positive systolic strain/peak negative strain in cardiac cycle)]. We also calculated ESL duration, defined as time from onset of QRS complex on the ECG to time of peak positive systolic strain. Both parameters were averaged from 18 myocardial segments. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years (interquartile range, 2.5-6.0 years), 145 (39%) experienced major adverse cardiovascular events, a composite of incident heart failure, new myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality. The ESL index and ESL duration were significantly increased in culprit lesion areas (6.7±6.2% versus 5.0±4.1% and 43±33 ms versus 33±24 ms, respectively; P<0.001 for both). In Cox proportional hazard models, the ESL index (hazard ratio, 1.27 per 1% increase; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43; P<0.001) and ESL duration (hazard ratio, 1.49 per 1-ms increase; 95% CI, 1.15-1.92; P=0.002) yielded prognostic information on major adverse cardiovascular events. Both associations remained significant after adjusting for clinical, echocardiographic, and invasive confounders. Conclusions Assessment of ESL after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction yields independent and significant prognostic information on the future risk of cardiovascular events.

10.
Europace ; 22(1): 74-83, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595294

RESUMO

AIMS: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (CAF) improves symptoms, but whether CAF improves outcome is less clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CAF is associated with improved outcome in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with previous direct current (DC) cardioversion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a nationwide cohort study including all patients who underwent their 1st direct current cardioversion for AF in the period 2003-15 (N = 25 439). End points were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, stroke/thromboembolism, and incident heart failure (HF). Catheter ablation for AF was treated as a time-varying covariate and the association with outcome was assessed using Cox regression. We also constructed a propensity-matched cohort and assessed the association between CAF and outcome. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (inter-quartile range 3.0-8.7 years). A total of 3509 patients (13.8%) underwent CAF during the study period. Following adjustment for age, gender, comorbidities, medications, educational level, household income, and CHA2DS2VASc score, CAF was associated with reduced risks of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and incident HF [all-cause death: hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, P < 0.001; cardiovascular death: HR 0.68, P = 0.003; incident HF: HR 0.76, P = 0.011]. Catheter ablation for AF was not associated with a reduced risk of stroke/thromboembolism. These results were replicated in a propensity-matched cohort. CONCLUSION: In AF patients with a prior DC cardioversion, CAF was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death. This may be due to a reduced risk of HF.

11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(1): 79-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595399

RESUMO

Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) may be the cause of a substantial part of cryptogenic strokes (CS). Echocardiography could assist risk stratification for PAF to select patients in need of prolonged rhythm monitoring. We aimed to assess the value of left atrial (LA) strain and a revised diastolic dysfunction (DDF) model with LA strain for predicting PAF. This was a prospective study of 56 CS patients who had a cardiac monitor implanted for 3 year monitoring for PAF, and an echocardiogram performed prior to monitoring. Conventional echocardiography, global longitudinal strain (GLS) and LA strain were performed. LA speckle tracking provided the LA reservoir strain (LAs). Patients were stratified into high versus low LAs by ROC curves (28.2%), and this cut-off was used to refine DDF grading. During follow-up of median 20 months, 13 (23%) patients were diagnosed with PAF. No conventional echocardiographic parameters differed between patients who developed PAF and those without PAF. However, LAs was significantly impaired in PAF patients (LAs: 30 vs. 27% for non-PAF and PAF, p = 0.046). Low LAs significantly predicted PAF independent of LA volume and GLS [OR 5.88 (1.30; 26.55), p = 0.021]. Revised DDF grading significantly predicted PAF, even when adjusted for the CHADS2 risk-score (OR 1.88 [1.01;3.50], per increase in DDF grade, p for trend = 0.047), which was not the case for conventional DDF grading. In conclusion, LAs associates with PAF independent of GLS and LA size, and may be used to improve the performance of DDF grading for identifying PAF in CS patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Ecocardiografia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
12.
J Card Fail ; 26(1): 35-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative effectiveness of left atrial (LA) functional parameters (left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF), left atrial expansion index (LAi) and minimal left atrial volume index (MinLAVI)) with that of LA volume index (LAVI) in predicting heart failure (HF) and death following ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: HF is common following STEMI. Enlarged LA volume as determined by echocardiography predicts adverse outcome following STEMI. However, whether echocardiographic parameters of LA function, such as LAEF, LAi and MinLAVI, are superior to LAVI for predicting prognosis following STEMI is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 369 patients with STEMI but without atrial fibrillation or HF who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention were prospectively enrolled in the period between September 2006 and December 2008. Patients underwent echocardiography shortly after STEMI. The maximal and minimal LA volumes were measured using the biplane area-length method. LAVI, MinLAVI (minimal LA volume indexed to body surface area), LAEF ((maximal LA volume-minimal LA volume)/maximal LA volume), and LAi ((maximal LA volume-minimal LA volume)/minimal LA volume) were calculated. The endpoint was a composite consisting of HF or death from any cause. During a median follow-up of 66 months (interquartile range: 50-73 months), 112 patients reached the endpoint (68 HFs, 44 deaths). Following adjustment for clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic variables, only LAEF remained an independent predictor of the composite outcome, whereas LAVI did not (LAEF: HR 1.25, P = 0.043, per 1 SD decrease) (LAVI: HR 1.01, P = 0.91, per 1 SD increase). CONCLUSION: In patients with STEMI who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, LAEF, as measured by echocardiography shortly after infarction, was superior to LAVI in predicting incident HF and death.

13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(2): 309-316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705226

RESUMO

Postsystolic shortening (PSS) by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a marker of myocardial ischemia and may improve diagnostic strategy. We sought to evaluate if PSS is associated with the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and stenosis by computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP). We retrospectively studied 437 SAP patients (age 58 ± 11 years, 41% male) who underwent STE, evaluation of CACS and assessment of significant stenosis (≥ 50%) by CTA. The postsystolic index (PSI) was defined as follows: 100x([peak negative strain cardiac cycle - peak negative strain systole])/peak negative strain cardiac cycle. A wall had PSS if any segment within the wall had a PSI ≥ 20%. We defined categories for walls with PSS: 0, 1, 2 and ≥ 3, and CACS: 0, 1-100, 101-400 and > 400. Each additional wall with PSS was associated with a 43% relative increase in CACS (95%CI +9% to +87%, P = 0.010), while each 1% absolute increase in the PSI was associated with a 9% relative increase in CACS (95%CI +1% to +18%, P = 0.031). Walls with PSS (OR 1.81 per 1 wall increase, 95%CI 1.27-2.59, P = 0.001) and the PSI (OR 1.12 per 1% increase, 95%CI 1.04-1.21, P = 0.004) were associated with the occurrence of CACS > 400. Additionally, walls with PSS (OR 1.53 per 1 wall increase, 95%CI 1.21-1.93, P < 0.001) was a predictor of significant stenosis by CTA. PSS is associated with CACS and significant stenosis by CTA in patients with SAP and may aid in the selection of patients referred for cardiac computed tomography.

14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(1): 49-57, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050712

RESUMO

AIMS: Colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral leaflet is an easy and precise method to obtain cardiac time intervals including the isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), and ejection time (ET). The myocardial performance index (MPI) was defined as [(IVCT + IVRT)/ET]. Our aim was to investigate if cardiac time intervals can be used to predict atrial fibrillation (AF) in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1915 participants from the general population underwent a health examination including TDI echocardiography. The primary endpoint was AF, and the secondary endpoint was complicated AF as assessed by the occurrence of either stroke or heart failure (HF) after the diagnosis of AF. Participants with known AF were excluded (n = 54). During a median follow-up of 11 years, 166 participants (9%) were diagnosed with AF and of these 44 participants (27%) developed HF or stroke. Assessing the association between IVCT and incident AF, the risk increased with 27% per 10 ms increase in IVCT [per 10 ms increase: hazard ratio (HR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.17-1.38); P < 0.001]. The association remained significant after multivariable adjustment [per 10 ms increase: HR 1.22, 95% CI (1.09-1.35); P < 0.001]. No associations between the IVRT, ET, MPI, and AF remained significant after multivariable adjustment. The IVCT also predicted complicated AF and the association remained significant even after multivariable adjustment [per 10 ms increase: HR 1.39, 95% CI (1.06-1.81); P = 0.015]. CONCLUSION: In the general population, the IVCT provides novel and independent prognostic information on the long-term risk of AF. Additionally, the IVCT can identify persons in risk of complicated AF.

15.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 693-701, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884852

RESUMO

Left ventricular hypertrophy is a strong predictor of prognosis in hypertension. Physical activity is associated with higher left ventricular mass but also reduced risk of cardiovascular outcomes. The aims were to explore whether (1) presence of hypertension modifies the association between physical activity and left ventricular mass; (2) the beneficial association between physical activity and prognostic outcome is modified by left ventricular hypertrophy. Randomly selected number of 3078 persons from the general population underwent echocardiogram. Left ventricular mass was indexed to body surface area. Level of physical activity was self-reported: inactivity, light activity, and moderate/high activity. Blood pressure was measured in rest: normal BP (<140/90 mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or in pharmacological treatment for hypertension). Presence of hypertension modified the association between physical activity and left ventricular mass index significantly (test for interaction: P=0.01): in normal BP, higher levels of physical activity were associated with significantly higher left ventricular mass index (P<0.001), but this was not present in hypertension (P=0.90). Level of physical activity was associated with reduction in mortality and cardiovascular outcome independent of the presence of LVH (Persons with LVH: light activity HR, 0.77 [0.52-1.15], moderate/high activity HR, 0.61 [0.38-0.97]; test for interaction between LVH and level of physical activity P=0.71). In conclusion, persons with normal BP had higher left ventricular mass index at increased levels of physical activity, whereas this association was not present among persons with hypertension. Level of physical activity was associated with better prognosis independent of whether left ventricular hypertrophy was present or not.

16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814331

RESUMO

AIMS: We hypothesized that grading of diastolic dysfunction (DDF) according to two DDF grading algorithms and strain imaging yields prognostic information on all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled ambulatory HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%; N = 1 065) patients who underwent echocardiography and speckle tracking assessment of global longitudinal strain (GLS). Patients were stratified according to DDF grades (Grades I-III) according to two contemporary DDF grading algorithms. Prognostic performance was assessed by C-statistics. Of the originally 1 065 enrolled patients, a total of 645 (61%) patients (age: 67 ± 11 years, male: 72%, ejection fraction: 27 ± 9%) were classified according to both DDF grading algorithms. Concordance between the algorithms was moderate (kappa = 0.48) and the reclassification rate was 33%. During a median follow-up of 3.3 years (1.9, 4.7 years), 101 (16%) died from all causes. When comparing DDF Grade I vs. Grade III, both algorithms provided prognostic information [Nagueh: (hazard ratio) HR 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI),1.32-3.31, P = 0.002; Johansen: HR 2.47, 95% CI, 1.57-3.87, P < 0.001]. However, when comparing DDF Grade II vs. Grade III, only the Johansen algorithm yielded prognostic information (Nagueh: HR 1.04, 95% CI, 0.60-1.77, P = 0.90; Johansen: HR 2.26, 95% CI, 1.35-3.77, P = 0.002). We found no difference in prognostic performance between the two algorithms (C-statistics: 0.604 vs. 0.623, P = 0.24). Assessed by C-statistics, the most powerful predictors of the endpoint from the two algorithms were E/e'-ratio (C-statistics: 0.644), tricuspid regurgitation velocity (C-statistics: 0.625) and E/A-ratio (C-statistics: 0.602). When adding GLS to a combination of these predictors, the prognostic performance increased significantly (C-statistics: 0.705 vs. C-statistics: 0.634, P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of DDF in patients with HFrEF yields prognostic information on all-cause mortality. Furthermore, adding GLS to contemporary algorithms of DDF adds novel prognostic information.

17.
Diabetologia ; 62(12): 2354-2364, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664481

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cardiovascular disease is the most common comorbidity in type 1 diabetes. However, current guidelines do not include routine assessment of myocardial function. We investigated whether echocardiography provides incremental prognostic information in individuals with type 1 diabetes without known heart disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes without known heart disease was recruited from the outpatient clinic. Follow-up was performed through Danish national registers. The association of echocardiography with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the incremental prognostic value when added to the clinical Steno T1D Risk Engine were examined. RESULTS: A total of 1093 individuals were included: median (interquartile range) age 50.2 (39.2-60.3) years and HbA1c 65 (56-74) mmol/mol; 53% men; and mean (SD) BMI 25.5 (3.9) kg/m2 and diabetes duration 25.8 (14.6) years. During 7.5 years of follow-up, 145 (13.3%) experienced MACE. Echocardiography significantly and independently predicted MACE: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45% (n = 18) vs ≥45% (n = 1075), HR (95% CI) 3.93 (1.91, 8.08), p < 0.001; impaired global longitudinal strain (GLS), 1.65 (1.17, 2.34) (n = 263), p = 0.005; diastolic mitral early velocity (E)/early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity (e') <8 (n = 723) vs E/e' 8-12 (n = 285), 1.59 (1.04, 2.42), p = 0.031; and E/e' <8 vs E/e' ≥12 (n = 85), 2.30 (1.33, 3.97), p = 0.003. In individuals with preserved LVEF (n = 1075), estimates for impaired GLS were 1.49 (1.04, 2.15), p = 0.032; E/e' <8 vs E/e' 8-12, 1.61 (1.04, 2.49), p = 0.033; and E/e' <8 vs E/e' ≥12, 2.49 (1.41, 4.37), p = 0.001. Adding echocardiographic variables to the Steno T1D Risk Engine significantly improved risk prediction: Harrell's C statistic, 0.791 (0.757, 0.824) vs 0.780 (0.746, 0.815), p = 0.027; and net reclassification index, 52%, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In individuals with type 1 diabetes without known heart disease, echocardiography significantly improves risk prediction over and above guideline-recommended clinical risk factors alone and could have a role in clinical care.

18.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1307-1315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607173

RESUMO

It has been a challenge to verify the dose of exercise that will produce the maximum health benefits in hypertension. This study aimed to explore the association between level of daily physical activity, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcome at different blood pressure levels. A random sample of 18 974 white men and women aged 20 to 98 years were examined in a prospective cardiovascular population study. Self-reported activity level in leisure-time was drawn from the Physical Activity Questionnaire (level I: inactivity; II: light activity; and III: moderate/high-level activity). Blood pressure was defined as normal blood pressure: <120/<80 mm Hg; Prehypertension: 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; Stage I hypertension: 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; Stage II hypertension ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. The mean follow-up time was 23.4±11.7 years. At all levels of blood pressure, higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower all-cause mortality in a dose-response pattern. The pattern remained unchanged after adjustment for following confounders: sex, age, smoking status, education, diabetes mellitus, previous cardiovascular disease, body mass index, and calendar time. Compared with inactivity, following hazard ratios were found for stage I hypertension: light activity, hazard ratio 0.78 (0.72-0.84; P<0.001), moderate/high-level activity, hazard ratio 0.69 (0.63-0.75; P<0.001). At all levels of blood pressure, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly reduced independent of the level of physical activity. In conclusion, the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality was present in an inverse dose-response pattern at all levels of blood pressure. Physical activity was associated with reduction in cardiovascular events independent of the level of physical activity.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When the left ventricle pressure rises during early systole, myocardial fibres with reduced contractility tend to stretch instead of shortening. This interval is known as duration of early systolic lengthening (DESL). We sought to investigate if DESL provides prognostic information on cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective study we included 1210 participants from a low-risk general population who underwent speckle tracking echocardiography (men 41%, mean age 56 years, SD 16). Primary endpoints were incident heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiovascular death (CVD). We defined DESL as time from onset of Q-wave on the electrocardiogram to peak positive systolic strain. In addition, we assessed the ratio between DESL and duration of cardiac systole, DESLsystole.During median follow-up of 16 years, 90 (7%) developed HF, 50 (4%) MI, and 70 (6%) experienced CVD. Both DESL [hazard ratio (HR) 1.58 95%CI 1.16-2.15, P = 0.004 per 10 ms increase] and DESLsystole (HR 1.74 95%CI 1.24-2.47, P = 0.001 per 1% increase) were predictors of HF. Similarly, DESL (HR 1.40 95%CI 1.09-1.78, P = 0.007 per 10 ms increase) and DESLsystole (HR 1.58 95%CI 1.01-2.49, P = 0.047 per 1% increase) were predictors of MI. No associations were found with CVD. After adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic parameters, the associations remained significant. DESLsystole was superior to systolic echocardiographic parameters for predicting HF (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: DESL and the novel index of DESLsystole provide independent and novel prognostic information on the risk of HF and MI in the general population. Evaluation of DESL should be explored in future echocardiographic studies.

20.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 226, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new generation thinner-strut silicon carbide (SiC) coated cobalt chromium (CoCr) bare-metal stents (BMS) are designed to accelerate rapid endothelialisation and reduce thrombogenicity when implanted in coronary arteries. However, smaller studies suggest higher rates of symptomatic restenosis in patients receiving the newer generation BMS. We investigated the efficacy of a newer generation ultrathin strut silicon-carbide coated cobalt-chromium (CoCr) BMS (SCC-BMS) as compared to an older thin-strut uncoated CoCr BMS (UC-BMS) in patients presenting with coronary artery disease requiring stenting of large vessels (≥3.0 mm). METHODS: All patients randomized to SCC- (n = 761) or UC-BMS (n = 765) in the two BASKET-PROVE trials were included. Design, patients, interventions and follow-up were similar between trials except differing regimens of dual antiplatelet therapy. The primary endpoint was clinically driven target-vessel revascularization within 24 months. Safety endpoints of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST) were also assessed. We used inverse probability weighted proportional hazards Cox regressions adjusting for known confounders. RESULTS: Demographics, clinical presentation, and risk factors were comparable between the groups, but patients receiving SCC-BMS underwent less complex procedures. The risk for clinically driven TVR was increased om the SCC-BMS group compared to the UC-BMS group (cumulative incidence, 10.6% vs. 8.4%; adjusted relative hazard [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.05-2.10]). No differences in safety endpoints were detected, cardiac death (1.6% vs. 2.8%; HR, 0.62 [CI, 0.30-1.27]), non-fatal MI (3.2% vs. 2.5%; HR, 1.56 [CI, 0.83-2.91]), and definite/probable ST (0.8% vs. 1.1%; HR, 1.17 [CI, 0.39-3.50]). Differences in strut thickness between the two stents did not explain the association between stent type and clinically driven TVR. CONCLUSIONS: In patients requiring stenting of large coronary arteries, use of the newer generation SCC-BMS was associated with a higher risk of clinically driven repeat revascularization compared to the UC-BMS with no signs of an offsetting safety benefit.

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