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1.
Pediatrics ; 150(2)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study examined longitudinal linkages between child sleep duration and children's socioemotional, learning engagement, executive functioning, and academic outcomes across the full kindergarten (K) year. METHODS: A measurement-burst design was employed to examine 3 different measures of child sleep duration in 7-day bursts at pre-K (July-August), early K (late September), mid-K (late November), and late K (mid-to-late April), using wrist actigraphy. These measures included mean amounts of child sleep per 24-hour period across the full week, proportion of 24-hour periods per week that children slept 10 or more hours, and proportion of nighttime sleep periods per week that children slept 10 or more hours. Children's outcomes at early, mid-, and late K were provided by their K teachers blind to children's sleep histories, and by assessments administered by project staff. RESULTS: Among the 3 sleep measures examined, regularity of nighttime sleep in which children slept 10 or more hours per night, especially at pre-K, consistently predicted more favorable K outcomes in both socioemotional, learning engagement, and academic domains. Results suggested that establishing healthy nighttime sleep habits before K start was especially promotive of better K adjustment across the full K year. These findings were controlled for income-to-poverty threshold ratios, child health status, and number of missed school days. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to promote a favorable transition to first-time schooling should pay particular attention to sleep hygiene and regularity of 10-plus hours of nightly child sleep established before the start of K.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono , Actigrafia , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pobreza
2.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-17, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits of the Fast Track Friendship Group program implemented as a stand-alone school-based intervention on the social cognitions, social behavior, peer and teacher relationships of peer-rejected students. METHOD: Over four successive years, 224 peer-rejected elementary students (57% White, 17% Black, 20% Latinx, 5% multiracial; 68% male; grades 1-4; Mage = 8.1 years old) were identified using peer sociometric nominations and randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 110) or a treatment-as-usual control group (n = 114). Four school districts serving economically-disadvantaged urban and rural communities participated. Intervention involved weekly small group social skills training with classmate partners, with sessions tailored to address individual child needs. Consultation meetings held at the start and mid-point of intervention were designed to help teachers and parents support the generalization of targeted skills. RESULTS: Multi-level linear models, with children nested within schools (controlling for demographics and baseline scores) documented improvements in social-cognitive skills (direct assessments of emotion recognition and competent social problem-solving), social behavior (teacher ratings of social skills and externalizing behavior), and interpersonal relationships (peer sociometric nominations of peer acceptance and friendships, teacher-rated student-teacher closeness). Significant effects were generally small (ds = .19-.36) but consistent across child sex, grade level, and behavioral characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention proved feasible for high-fidelity implementation in school settings and produced significant improvements in the social adjustment of peer-rejected children, validating the approach as a school-based Tier 2 intervention.

3.
Child Abuse Negl ; : 105572, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with school disengagement, contributing to chronic absenteeism and underachievement. OBJECTIVE: This prospective longitudinal study explored malleable mediators that might account for the developmental progression from early childhood ACEs to preadolescent school disengagement. Negative cascades were tested that explored student-teacher relationship quality and child behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) as potential mediators. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 556 children were recruited from Head Start preschool classrooms (Mage = 4.67 years old, SD = 0.32; 51% female; 58% European American, 25% African American, 19% Latinx) at which time parents reported on ACEs. METHODS: Children were followed longitudinally; kindergarten and third grade teachers rated student-teacher relationship quality and classroom behavior problems. Students described their school engagement (i.e., academic involvement, school bonding, and teacher affiliation) in fifth grade as they prepared for the transition into middle school. RESULTS: Path models documented a mediated cascade linking early childhood ACES through poor kindergarten student-teacher relationship quality to elevated third grade internalizing problems (mediation path ß = 0.018, SE = 0.009, p < 0.05) which, in turn, led to reduced fifth-grade school engagement (mediation path ß = 0.027, SE = 0.014, p = 0.05). Early childhood ACEs also predicted elevated externalizing problems in elementary school, but without mediation by student-teacher relationship quality or link to fifth-grade school engagement. CONCLUSION: Results are discussed in light of understanding developmental processes that link early ACEs with school difficulties and informing the design of preventive interventions for children at risk.

4.
Early Educ Dev ; 33(1): 164-182, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898959

RESUMO

Children's readiness to handle the expectations of elementary school depends heavily on their self-regulation skills. Self-regulation includes both cognitive and behavioral elements; however, past studies have typically looked at cognitive and behavioral self-regulation in isolation or as a composite score rather than examining self-regulation profiles. Conceptually, a profile characterized by pervasive cognitive and behavioral self-regulation difficulties may have different developmental roots than a profile limited to behavioral regulation difficulties and children displaying these different profiles likely require different intervention supports. In the current study, latent profile analysis (LPA) with cognitive and behavioral self-regulation indicators revealed four unique self-regulation profiles for preschool children (N=566): Pervasive Dysregulation (cognitively and behaviorally dysregulated), Behavioral Dysregulation (behaviorally dysregulated only), Average Self-Regulation, and High Self-Regulation. Latent moderational analyses testing the interaction between latent profile membership and preschool teacher-student relationship indicated that while both the Pervasive and Behavioral Dysregulation group were at increased risk for less desirable kindergarten and 2nd grade outcomes, this risk was offset to a greater extant for children from the Behavioral Dysregulation profile when they experienced a close, non-conflictual teacher-student relationship in preschool.

5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 640702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248742

RESUMO

In the past two decades, a growing number of early childhood interventions that aim to improve school readiness have also targeted children's executive function (EF), building on the theory that promoting EF skills in preschool may play a key role in reducing the substantial gaps in school readiness and later achievement associated with family income. Despite the expansion of school readiness interventions across preschool, research evidence is mixed regarding what works to promote EF development and the impact of these interventions on children's EF skills, and subsequently, their academic and behavioral outcomes. This paper reviews four intervention approaches designed to support school readiness that may also improve children's EF skills by: (a) encouraging adaptive classroom behaviors, (b) improving social-emotional learning, (c) promoting play and direct training of EF skills, and (d) improving cognitive skills related to EF. We describe program effects from rigorous trials testing these approaches, including summarizing the takeaways from four large-scale intervention research studies conducted by the authors, involving over 5,000 children. We conclude by exploring open questions for the field and future directions for research and intervention program development and refinement.

6.
Early Child Res Q ; 56: 260-271, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083870

RESUMO

This study evaluated the sustained effects of the Research-based Developmentally Informed Parent program (REDI-P) at fifth grade, six years after intervention. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% White, 26% Black, 19% Latinx, 56% male, mean age of 4.45 years at study initiation) and their primary caregivers, who were randomly assigned to a control group or a 16-session home-visiting intervention that bridged the preschool and kindergarten years. In addition, the study explored moderation of sustained effects by parenting risks (e.g., less than high-school education, single-parent status, parental depression, and low parent-child warmth). Growth curves over the course of the elementary years examined outcomes in three domains: child academic performance, social-emotional adjustment, and parent-child functioning. At fifth grade, significant main effects for intervention were sustained in the domains of academic performance (e.g., reading skills, academic motivation, and learning engagement) and parent-child functioning (e.g., academic expectations and parenting stress). Significant moderation by parenting risk emerged on measures of social-emotional adjustment (e.g., social competence and student-teacher relationships); parenting risk also amplified effects on some measures of academic performance and parent-child functioning, with larger effects for children from families experiencing fewer risks. Implications are discussed for the design of preschool home visiting programs seeking to enhance the school success and social-emotional well-being of children living in poverty.

7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(4): 305-312, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Living in poverty increases exposure to adversities that undermine healthy development, impeding growth in the social-emotional and language skills that support adaptive coping and promote mental health. Evidence-based programs have the potential to improve current preschool practice and strengthen these early skills, potentially reducing risk for later psychopathology. The authors tested the hypothesis that an enrichment program in preschool would be associated with reduced levels of psychopathology symptoms at the transition from middle to secondary school. METHODS: The Head Start REDI (Research-Based, Developmentally Informed) intervention was used to enrich preschool classrooms serving children from low-income families with an evidence-based social-emotional learning (SEL) program and a coordinated interactive reading program. Centers were randomly assigned to the intervention or usual practice, and 356 4-year-olds (58% White, 25% Black, 17% Latino; 54% female) were followed into early adolescence. Hierarchical linear models were used to evaluate intervention effects on teacher-rated psychopathology symptoms using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in grade 7 (ages 12-13) and grade 9 (ages 14-15), 8-10 years after the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Statistically significant intervention-related reductions were observed in conduct problems and emotional symptoms in the intervention group. In addition, the proportion of youths with clinically significant levels of conduct problems, emotional symptoms, and peer problems was reduced in the intervention group, with rates one-third of those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicate that enriching preschool programs serving at-risk children with a relatively inexpensive evidence-based SEL program with interactive reading substantially improved the later benefits for adolescent emotional and behavioral health. This kind of SEL enrichment represents an approach that can leverage public investments in preschool programs to enhance public health.


Assuntos
Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Regulação Emocional , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Bullying , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta , Vítimas de Crime , Depressão , Emoções , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Interação Social , Aprendizado Social
8.
Early Educ Dev ; 32(8): 1153-1173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600504

RESUMO

In the U.S., one-third of preschool children attend programs run by childcare centers. Childcare centers are generally isolated and under-resourced businesses, often challenged by high rates of teacher turnover and inconsistent financial support. Correspondingly, childcare centers often struggle to provide high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This study introduced an evidence-based curriculum (REDI) to improve the educational experiences of preschool children in childcare centers and used a novel professional development (PD) model in which center directors were trained to serve as local coaches. Open-ended interviews with 45 teachers and 31 center directors evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of the REDI intervention and coaching model. Participants also described their workplace and rated their intentions regarding future program use. Participants described multiple challenges in the workplace but generally positive perceptions of the REDI intervention. Perceptions regarding the feasibility of the coaching model were mixed. Workplace descriptions were associated with intervention experiences which, in turn, predicted intentions for future program use. Findings validate the importance of addressing the unique workplace challenges faced by childcare staff when designing classroom interventions and PD supports. Attending to program acceptability, feasibility, and perceived effectiveness in these settings may be critical to support sustained use.

9.
Child Youth Care Forum ; 50(5): 779-803, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childcare programs serving preschool children are generally of poorer quality than publicly-funded preschools both in terms of their classroom processes and structural features. Research on childcare programs has typically collapsed them into a single group, yet these programs vary greatly in neighborhood disadvantage and organization as they are managed by for-profit chains, non-profit community organizations, faith-based organizations, or individual owners. Little is known about variations in childcare program quality and what factors are associated with quality. OBJECTIVE: The current study utilized latent profile analysis (LPA) with classroom process, structural features, and neighborhood disadvantage indicators to identify patterns of quality and neighborhood disadvantage within a diverse sample of childcare programs serving preschool children. METHODS: Classroom processes (instructional support, emotional support, classroom management, positive discipline) and structural features (teacher age, experience, education, and satisfaction) data was collected from preschool teachers (N = 127) from 76 childcare programs. Neighborhood disadvantage (median income; rates of unemployment, single parents, and education) was measured using census tract data. RESULTS: LPA indicated two profiles of childcare programs with high-quality classroom processes and two with poorer processes. Both of the high-quality profiles were in low-to-moderate income neighborhoods and the two low-quality profiles were in more affluent neighborhoods. Subsequent analyses suggested quality covaried with management type with the lowest quality centers often run by for-profit chains. CONCLUSIONS: Connections between classroom processes, structural features, and neighborhood disadvantage are complex making it extremely challenging for parents to identify high-quality care for their children.

10.
Soc Dev ; 29(3): 783-800, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041538

RESUMO

The idea that language skills support school readiness, predicting later self-regulation and academic success, is widely accepted. Although vocabulary is often emphasized in the developmental literature, the ability to use language appropriately in the classroom, or social communication skills, may also be critical. This paper examined longitudinal contributions of children's vocabulary and social communication skills, from preschool to kindergarten, to kindergarten academic achievement (reading and math) and self-regulation (executive functions and learning behaviors). Participants were 164 children (14% Latinx, 30% Black, 56% White; 57% girls) enrolled in Head Start programs. Results revealed that initial levels and growth in vocabulary and communication skills predicted better academic achievement. Social communication skills uniquely predicted self-regulation, after accounting for vocabulary. We discuss potential mechanisms for these links and recommend that strategies to build social communication skills be incorporated in preschool interventions promoting school readiness.

11.
Sch Psychol ; 35(5): 285-298, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955273

RESUMO

Two hundred ninety-four children from low-income families (58% White, 17% Latinx, 25% Black; 54% girls; Mage = 4.49 years old at study entry) were recruited from Head Start classrooms to participate in a randomized-controlled trial of the project Research-based, Developmentally Informed (REDI) preschool intervention and then followed longitudinally for 10 years through 9th grade. At study entry, parents reported on their children's exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Youth reported on their feelings of social-emotional distress and school bonding after making the transition into middle school (7th grade) and high school (9th grade). Multilevel latent profile analyses revealed three profiles of adolescent distress and school bonding. Increased rates of ACEs in early childhood predicted membership in adolescent profiles characterized by heightened social-emotional distress and reduced levels of school bonding. The REDI intervention that focused on promoting early social-emotional and language skills in preschool moderated the impact of early ACEs on adolescent adjustment and promoted youth resilience, significantly buffering children from the negative impact of early ACEs on their levels of social-emotional distress and school bonding. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Ajustamento Emocional , Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 48(12): 1569-1580, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930912

RESUMO

Growing up in poverty increases youth risk for developing aggressive behavior problems, which, in turn, are associated with a host of problematic outcomes, including school drop-out, substance use, mental health problems, and delinquency. In part, this may be due to exposure to adverse school contexts that create socialization influences supporting aggression. In the current study, 356 children from low-income families (58% White, 17% Latinx, 25% Black; 54% girls) were followed from preschool through seventh grade. Longitudinal data included measures of the school-level contexts experienced by study participants during their elementary and middle school years, including school levels of poverty (percentage of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch) and academic achievement (percentage of students scoring below the basic proficiency level on state achievement tests). Regression analyses suggested little impact of these school-level contexts on teacher or parent ratings of aggression in fifth grade, controlling for child baseline aggression and demographics. In contrast, school-level contexts had significant effects on child aggression in seventh grade with unique contributions by school-level achievement, controlling for child fifth grade aggression and elementary school contexts along with baseline covariates. These effects were robust across teacher and parent ratings. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the school-based socialization of aggressive behavior and implications for educational policy and prevention programming.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pennsylvania , Pobreza
13.
Dev Psychol ; 56(3): 528-540, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077722

RESUMO

Children with externalizing symptoms typically show dysregulated arousal when facing emotional challenges and are at risk for antisocial outcomes later in life. The model of emotion socialization (Eisenberg, Cumberland, & Spinrad, 1998) points to supportive emotion-related parenting as central to promoting children's regulatory capability and behavioral adjustment. However, the role of emotion-related parenting is less clear for children living in disadvantaged conditions and already displaying behavioral problems, and little is known about how these parenting practices shape the physiological underpinnings of behavioral adjustment. This study examined the relation between supportive emotion-related parenting and the trajectories of physiological regulation and externalizing symptoms across early school years among 207 children (66% male) from high-risk urban communities, who showed aggressive/oppositional behaviors at school entry. Mothers' supportive emotion-related parenting was observed in kindergarten during structured interactions. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an indicator of parasympathetic influence over cardiac arousal, was measured at rest and during an anger scene each year from kindergarten to the 2nd grade. Teacher ratings of externalizing symptoms were also obtained every year. Over time, supportive emotion-related parenting was related to a developmental trend from RSA augmentation toward RSA withdrawal during the anger scene as well as lower risk for escalating externalizing symptoms. The developmental changes of RSA reactivity partially accounted for the relation between parenting and trajectories of externalizing symptoms. Findings underscore the potential of supportive emotion-related parenting for diverting at-risk children from antisocial trajectories by shaping their physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Socialização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Risco
14.
Early Child Res Q ; 53: 151-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994660

RESUMO

This study examined the sustained effects of the Head Start Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) program, which enriched preschools with evidence-based programming targeting social-emotional and language/emergent literacy skills. 44 Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to intervention or a usual practice control group, and 356 4-year-olds (25% African American, 17% Latino, 54% female) were followed through the end of 5th grade. Growth curve analyses revealed that significant intervention effects on teacher-rated social adjustment, academic engagement, and parent involvement identified at the end of the Head Start year were sustained throughout elementary school. These findings demonstrate that evidence-based curricula combined with professional development support can enhance preschool programming and promote the elementary school adjustment of children living in poverty.

15.
J Atten Disord ; 24(13): 1891-1904, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861156

RESUMO

Objective: Measurement reliability is assumed when executive function (EF) tasks are used to compare groups or to examine relationships between cognition and etiologic and maintaining factors of psychiatric disorders. However, the test-retest reliabilities of many commonly used EF tasks have rarely been examined in young children. Furthermore, measurement invariance between typically developing and psychiatric populations has not been examined. Method: Test-retest reliability of a battery of commonly used EF tasks was assessed in a group of children between the ages of 5 and 6 years old with (n = 63) and without (n = 44) ADHD. Results: Few individual tasks achieved adequate reliability. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models identified two factors, working memory and inhibition, with test-retest correlations approaching 1.0. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models confirmed configural measurement invariance between the groups. Conclusion: Problems created by poor reliability, including reduced power to detect group differences, index change over time, or to identify relationships with other measures, may be mitigated using latent variable approaches.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Função Executiva , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 1072019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866702

RESUMO

Early childhood education (ECE) interventions hold great promise for not only improving lives but also for potentially producing an economic return on investment linked to key outcomes from program effectiveness. Assessment of economic impact relies on accurate estimates of program costs that should be derived consistently to enable program comparability across the field. This is challenged by a lack of understanding of the best approach to determine program costs that represent how they will occur in the real world and how they may vary across differing circumstances. Thorough and accurate cost analyses are vital for providing important information toward future implementations and for enabling analysis of potential return on investment. In this paper, we present five key issues most relevant to cost analysis for ECE programs that interventionists should acknowledge when estimating their programs' costs. Attention to these issues more broadly can lead to comprehensive and thorough cost estimates and potentially increase consistency in cost analyses. These issues are illustrated within the cost analysis of REDI (Research-based, Developmentally Informed), an enrichment program that seeks to extend the benefits of preschool through enhanced classroom and home visiting services. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009701

RESUMO

Preschool parent interventions may produce downstream benefits if initial intervention gains are sustained and improve later socialization experiences. This study explored associations between initial effects of the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program and later benefits. A randomized trial involving 200 Head Start children (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, Mage = 4.45 years) produced kindergarten gains in parenting and child skills. Four years later, sustained effects were evident in areas of academic performance and social-emotional competence at school and new benefits emerged at home. Initial gains in child academic and social-emotional domains mediated sustained gains within the same domains. In addition, initial gains in parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations, and child social-emotional skills mediated later reductions in parenting stress and child problems at home. Parent-focused preschool interventions may not only promote sustained improvements in child school adjustment but may also foster better family functioning over time.

19.
J Sch Psychol ; 70: 1-15, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340698

RESUMO

Longitudinal research suggests that student-teacher relationships characterized by elevated (or increasing) conflict and low (or decreasing) closeness promote heightened aggression in elementary school. However, prior research has not explored fluctuations in the quality of student-teacher relationships across school years, which may also impact students. This study applied a new methodology to determine whether year-to-year fluctuations in student-teacher conflict or closeness also predicted increased student aggression. 154 children were followed from Head Start preschools through elementary school. Early elementary teachers (kindergarten through third grade) rated the quality of conflict and closeness with students. Fifth grade teachers rated student aggression. Regression analyses revealed that year-to-year fluctuations in student-teacher conflict, along with mean levels of student-teacher conflict, each made unique contributions to fifth grade aggression, controlling for baseline aggression. In addition, for students with low aggression at kindergarten entry, year-to-year fluctuations in student-teacher closeness predicted increased aggression. Possible mechanisms accounting for the detrimental effects of fluctuations in student-teacher relationship quality are discussed, along with implications for practice.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Professores Escolares , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
JAMA Pediatr ; 172(8): e181029, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868868

RESUMO

Importance: Home visiting programs targeting the school readiness of preschool children (age range, 4-5 years) show promise in short-term and quasi-experimental studies but rarely are evaluated with rigorous designs and follow-up assessments. Objectives: To examine the sustained effects of a preschool home visiting program on child and family competencies and on child need for services 4 years later. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a randomized clinical trial, individual families with preschool children were assigned to receive the Research-Based and Developmentally Informed-Parent home visiting program (REDI-P) (intervention group) or math home learning games in the mail (control group). Follow-up assessments occurred in third grade. Families were recruited from 24 Head Start centers in 3 Pennsylvania counties serving rural and urban areas. Four-year-old children from 200 low-income families participated. Families were recruited in fall 2008 and fall 2009. The follow-up data used were collected in spring 2013 and spring 2014. The analyses were conducted in 2016 to 2017. Interventions: REDI-P visits followed a well-specified curriculum, with 10 home visits during preschool and 6 booster visits in kindergarten. Parents received coaching to enhance parent-child relationships and home learning materials to support child development and school readiness. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intervention focused on boosting competencies in academic performance and social-emotional adjustment and reducing child problems at home. Direct assessments, teacher ratings, and parent reports were collected. In addition, third-grade teachers recorded all services that children needed and received at school. Results: Two hundred participating children (110 [55.0%] white, 52 [26.0%] black, and 38 [19.0%] Latino; 112 [56.0%] male) had a mean (SD) age of 4.45 (0.29) years at the start of intervention. Third-grade outcomes were available for 153 (76.5%) of the initial sample and revealed statistically significant effects on multiple measures in each competency domain. In addition, REDI-P reduced child need for educational and mental health services at school. Significant effect sizes were small to moderate, averaging approximately one-third of 1 SD (Cohen d = 0.27 to 0.45). Mediation models demonstrated that intervention effects on services were accounted for by intervention effects on the targeted competencies. Conclusions and Relevance: REDI-P produced sustained benefits evident 4 years after intervention, significantly reducing child need for school services. The results of this study appear to validate the value of preschool home visiting as a strategy to help close the gap in school readiness and child well-being associated with poverty.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Visita Domiciliar , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pennsylvania , Pobreza , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia
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