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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532468

RESUMO

Importance: Infection-associated immune activation and inflammation are increasingly recognized in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Objective: To determine whether antibodies to common infectious agents, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Toxoplasma gondii, and measles, as well as the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein, in serum samples differ between patients with bipolar disorder and control individuals without bipolar disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, antibody titers were measured in serum samples from 1207 patients with bipolar disorder and 745 controls that were obtained from biobanks with participating sites in Rochester and Minneapolis, Minnesota (n = 1537), and Cincinnati, Ohio (n = 415), from January 5, 2009, through May 12, 2014. A subset of case patients and controls from Minnesota were matched by age, sex, and educational level. Bipolar type, age at onset, and history of psychosis were assessed for case patients as well as current drug treatment at the time of blood sample obtainment from the biobank. Data were analyzed from February 5, 2018, to January 4, 2019. Exposures: The CMV and T gondii antibodies with IgM titers were expressed as z scores and IgG titers dichotomized into seropositive and seronegative based on expected prevalence in the US population and further classified based on the joint CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status, C-reactive protein z score, and drug treatments with antitoxoplasma activity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients were stratified by bipolar disorder type I or type II, nonearly (>19 years of age) and early (≤19 years of age) onset, and history of psychosis during mania or no psychosis. Results: Of 1207 patients with bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [15.1] years; 742 [61.5%] female), the CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.62; P = .004) compared with that in the 745 controls (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [15.5] years; 444 [59.6%] female). The CMV-positive/T gondii-negative IgG status was associated with bipolar cases type I (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.75; P = .001), nonearly age at onset (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72; P = .001), and history of manic psychosis (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.88; P = .004). Patients with bipolar disorder who received drug treatment with antitoxoplasma activity (n = 272) had significantly lower T gondii IgM titers (median, 1.59; interquartile range, 1.30-2.07) compared with those (n = 900) who did not receive this treatment (median, 1.69; interquartile range, 1.35-2.25) (P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample, increased long-term antibody response to CMV and decreased long-term antibody response to T gondii were associated with bipolar disorder and the subphenotypes of bipolar type I, nonearly disease onset, and manic psychosis. Further work appears to be needed to better understand genetic vs environmental disease risk and infection or immune activation contribution to overall disease pathogenesis with particular reference to disease onset.

2.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 19(9): 867-879, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269819

RESUMO

Introduction: Clinical and genetic study of psychiatric conditions has underscored the co-occurrence of complex phenotypes and the need to refine them. Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Binge Eating (BE) behavior are common psychiatric conditions that have high heritability and high co-occurrence, such that at least one quarter of BD patients have BE (BD + BE). Genetic studies of BD alone and of BE alone suggest complex polygenic risk models, with many genetic risk loci yet to be identified. Areas covered: We review studies of the epidemiology of BD+BE, its clinical features (cognitive traits, psychiatric comorbidity, and role of obesity), genomic studies (of BD, eating disorders (ED) defined by BE, and BD + BE), and therapeutic implications of BD + BE. Expert opinion: Subphenotyping of complex psychiatric disorders reduces heterogeneity and increases statistical power and effect size; thus, it enhances our capacity to find missing genetic (and other) risk factors. BD + BE has a severe clinical picture and genetic studies suggests a distinct genetic architecture. Differential therapeutic interventions may be needed for patients with BD + BE compared with BD patients without BE. Recognizing the BD + BE subphenotype is an example of moving towards more precise clinical and genetic entities.

3.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 149, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123248

RESUMO

Glutamatergic dysregulation is implicated in the neurobiology of mood disorders. This study investigated the relationship between the anterior cingulate cortex (AC) glutamate, as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes (GLUL, SLC1A3, SLC1A2, and SLC1A7) that regulate the extracellular glutamate in 26 depressed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 15) and bipolar disorder (BD; n = 11). Two SNPs (rs3812778 and rs3829280), in perfect linkage disequilibrium, in the 3' untranslated region of the EAAT2 gene SLC1A2, were associated with AC glutamate, with minor allele carriers having significantly higher glutamate levels (p < 0.001) in comparison with common allele homozygotes. In silico analysis revealed an association of minor allele carriers of rs3812778/rs382920 with an upregulation of the astrocytic marker CD44 localized downstream of SLC1A2 on chromosome 11. Finally, we tested the disease relevance of these SNPs in a large group of depressed patients [MDD (n = 458); BD (n = 1473)] and found that minor allele carriers had a significantly higher risk for rapid cycling (p = 0.006). Further work is encouraged to delineate the functional impact of excitatory amino acid transporter genetic variation on CD44 associated physiology and glutamatergic neurotransmission, specifically glutamate-glutamine cycling, and its contribution to subphenotypes of mood disorders.

5.
Eat Behav ; 33: 30-33, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the potential factor structure of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a sample of individuals with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Exploratory common factor analyses were conducted in a sample of 1031 people with bipolar disorder as defined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. RESULTS: Approximately 27% of participants had a comorbid eating disorder. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 3 factor solution (i.e., shape/weight concerns; binge eating behaviors, compensatory behavior). CONCLUSIONS: The 3-factor solution of the EDDS in a bipolar disorder sample is consistent with major eating disorder symptom domains. Future research is necessary to replicate these findings in eating disorder samples with diverse comorbid psychopathology.

6.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(2): 167-172, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796778

RESUMO

AIMS: Replicate the previously reported association of elevated alcohol craving, measured by Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) during residential treatment, with post-treatment relapse and explore whether elevated craving scores 3 months post-treatment are also associated with subsequent relapse. METHODS: Alcohol craving was assessed with the PACS on admission and at several time points post-treatment in 190 subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence admitted to residential treatment. Data about relapse to any drinking (primary outcome measure) was collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. Cox regression models were used to determine whether PACS scores were associated with relapse. Statistical models were adjusted for meaningful demographic and clinical covariates. RESULTS: Follow-up data was available for 149/190 (78%) of subjects. Elevated PACS scores at discharge were associated with increased relapse risk within the first 3 and 12 months after discharge (P = 0.032 and P = 0.045, respectively). Elevated PACS scores at 3 months were associated with increased risk of subsequent relapse within 12 months after treatment in contacted subjects (P = 0.034) and in the intent-to-treat analysis (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate strong association of post-treatment relapse with elevated alcohol craving measured at treatment completion and at 3 months after treatment and justify the use of this measure to guide relapse-prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Fissura , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tratamento Domiciliar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 196: 31-39, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders as well as positive and negative emotional states on alcohol consumption in alcohol dependent men and women. METHODS: Per day alcohol consumption during 90 days before enrolment was assessed by the Time Line Follow Back (TLFB) in 287 men and 156 women meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for alcohol dependence. Propensity to drink in negative/positive emotional states was assessed using the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS). Psychiatric comorbidities, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance-induced depression (SID), anxiety disorders (AnxD), or substance-induced anxiety (SIA) were identified by Psychiatric Research Interview of Substance and Mood Disorders (PRISM). RESULTS: In the combined group, increased number of drinks per day and number of heavy drinking days correlated with increased IDTS scores (all p < 0.0001), while the lifetime history of MDD was associated with fewer drinking days (p = 0.045) but not average number of drinks per day. Male sex was associated with higher alcohol consumption per day (p < 0.0001), but not with the number of drinking days (p > 0.05). Lifetime MDD history was associated with less drinking days (p = 0.0084) and less heavy drinking days (p = 0.021) in alcohol dependent men, while current MDD was associated with higher alcohol use per day in alcohol dependent women (p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that emotional states and lifetime MDD history have sex-specific impact on alcohol use in alcohol dependent men and women. The mechanisms underlying these findings and their relevance to treatment outcomes need to be examined in future studies.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 126(1): 35-45, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610379

RESUMO

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, treatment response during an initial therapeutic trial is often poor and is difficult to predict. Heterogeneity of response to SSRIs in depressed patients is partly driven by co-occurring somatic disorders such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. CAD and obesity may also be associated with metabolic side effects of SSRIs. In this study, we assessed the association of CAD and obesity with treatment response to SSRIs in patients with MDD using a polygenic score (PGS) approach. Additionally, we performed cross-trait meta-analyses to pinpoint genetic variants underpinnings the relationship of CAD and obesity with SSRIs treatment response. First, PGSs were calculated at different p value thresholds (PT) for obesity and CAD. Next, binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association of the PGSs to SSRIs treatment response in a discovery sample (ISPC, N = 865), and in a replication cohort (STAR*D, N = 1,878). Finally, a cross-trait GWAS meta-analysis was performed by combining summary statistics. We show that the PGSs for CAD and obesity were inversely associated with SSRIs treatment response. At the most significant thresholds, the PGS for CAD and body mass index accounted 1.3%, and 0.8% of the observed variability in treatment response to SSRIs, respectively. In the cross-trait meta-analyses, we identified (1) 14 genetic loci (including NEGR1, CADM2, PMAIP1, PARK2) that are associated with both obesity and SSRIs treatment response; (2) five genetic loci (LINC01412, PHACTR1, CDKN2B, ATXN2, KCNE2) with effects on CAD and SSRIs treatment response. Our findings implicate that the genetic variants of CAD and obesity are linked to SSRIs treatment response in MDD. A better SSRIs treatment response might be achieved through a stratified allocation of treatment for MDD patients with a genetic risk for obesity or CAD.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 62-68, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify specific pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) factors that affect the likelihood of treatment remission with a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) in depressed patients whose initial selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) failed. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression modeling of PK and PD variation hypothesized to contribute to SNRI (i.e. duloxetine or venlafaxine) treatment remission in prior SSRI (i.e. citalopram or escitalopram) failure was conducted on 139 subjects from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) and Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) studies. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Clinician-rated (QIDS-C16). RESULTS: Venlafaxine-XR remission was associated with a significant interaction between CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizer (URM) phenotype and SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR L/L genotype. A similar significant interaction effect was observed between CYP2D6 URM and SLC6A2 G1287A GA genotype. Stratifying by transporter genotypes, venlafaxine-XR remission was associated with CYP2D6 URM in patients with SLC6A4 L/L (p = 0.001) and SLC6A2 G1287A GA genotypes. LIMITATIONS: The primary limitation of this post hoc study was small sample size. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizer status contributes to venlafaxine-XR treatment remission in MDD patients; in particular, there is a PK-PD interaction with treatment remission associated with CYP2D6 URM phenotype and SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR L/L or SLC6A2 G1287A G/A genotype, respectively. These preliminary data are encouraging and support larger pharmacogenomics studies differentiating treatment response to mechanistically different antidepressants in addition to further PK-PD interactive analyses.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antidepressivos/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Norepinefrina/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Falha de Tratamento , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacocinética
10.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 597-601, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder demonstrate sex differences in clinical presentation, particularly in the sub-phenotypes related to periodicity of mood episodes, such as rapid cycling. Additionally, recent studies have linked P2RX7 gene variants with the risk of rapid cycling in clinical cohorts of patients with bipolar disorder, as well as other mood disorders. However, little is known about potential sex differences in the relationship between variants in P2RX7 and bipolar disorder. METHODS: We investigated sex-specific genetic associations between variants of P2RX7 (rs1621388 and rs2230912) in 756 patients with bipolar disorder and 787 control patients matched on age, sex, and ancestry. We examined sex-specific genetic associations with bipolar disorder by comparing cases and controls, as well as rapid cycling of mood episodes in cases. Findings were replicated in an independent dataset. RESULTS: P2RX7 variants implying an increased pore activity were more common in bipolar disorder, in females but not in males. Neither P2RX7 variants associated with rapid cycling among bipolar patients. LIMITATIONS: Low sample size limited power for tests of SNP by sex interaction, and data about the onset of rapid cycling and the timing of medication use were not available. CONCLUSION: The effects of P2RX7 variants on bipolar disorder may be sex-specific, with increased P2X7 activity potentially elevating risk for bipolar disorder in females. Future research to examine the effect of P2RX7 on bipolar disorder should consider sex-specific effects.

11.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(12): 1656-1669, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482948

RESUMO

Liability to alcohol dependence (AD) is heritable, but little is known about its complex polygenic architecture or its genetic relationship with other disorders. To discover loci associated with AD and characterize the relationship between AD and other psychiatric and behavioral outcomes, we carried out the largest genome-wide association study to date of DSM-IV-diagnosed AD. Genome-wide data on 14,904 individuals with AD and 37,944 controls from 28 case-control and family-based studies were meta-analyzed, stratified by genetic ancestry (European, n = 46,568; African, n = 6,280). Independent, genome-wide significant effects of different ADH1B variants were identified in European (rs1229984; P = 9.8 × 10-13) and African ancestries (rs2066702; P = 2.2 × 10-9). Significant genetic correlations were observed with 17 phenotypes, including schizophrenia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and use of cigarettes and cannabis. The genetic underpinnings of AD only partially overlap with those for alcohol consumption, underscoring the genetic distinction between pathological and nonpathological drinking behaviors.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 188, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201969

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heterogeneous in symptomatology. Narrowing the clinical phenotype may increase the power to identify risk genes that contribute to particular BD subtypes. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genetic overlap between schizophrenia (SZ) and BD is higher for BD with a history of manic psychosis. Analyses were conducted using a Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank cohort of 957 bipolar cases (including 333 with history of psychosis during mania, 64 with history of psychosis only during depression, 547 with no history of psychosis, and 13 with unknown history of psychosis) and 778 controls. Polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis was performed by calculating a SZ-PRS for the BD cases and controls, and comparing the calculated SZ risk between different psychosis subgroups and bipolar types. The SZ-PRS was significantly higher for BD-I cases with manic psychosis than BD-I cases with depressive psychosis (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.021; p = 0.045), BD-I cases without psychosis (R2 = 0.015; p = 0.007), BD-II cases without psychosis (R2 = 0.014; p = 0.017), and controls (R2 = 0.065; p = 2 × 10-13). No other significant differences were found. Our results show that BD-I with manic psychosis is genetically more similar to SZ than any other tested BD subgroup. Further investigations on genetics of distinct clinical phenotypes composing major psychoses may help refine the current diagnostic classification system.

13.
Pain ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211780

RESUMO

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) regulates extracellular catecholamines. A widely studied COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4680) changes the translated amino acid from valine to methionine (Val158Met); the polymorphism has been shown to influence opioid use. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of COMT Val158Met on the likelihood and dose of opioid use in adults with chronic pain. Adults with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program were recruited for study participation (N = 298). Individuals were genotyped for COMT Val158Met (rs4680). The polymorphism was analyzed using an additive and codominant genotype model. The distribution of genotypes was 23% (N = 70) for Val/Val, 49% (N = 146) for Val/Met, and 27% (N = 82) for Met/Met (Hardy-Weinberg, P > 0.90). No significant association was observed between opioid use and genotype under the additive model; however, a significant association was observed under the codominant model (P = 0.027). A post hoc comparison demonstrated that the Met/Met genotype was more likely to use opioids compared with the Val/Met genotype (P = 0.0089). No significant association was observed between morphine equivalent dose and genotype under the additive model; however, a significant association was observed under the codominant model (P = 0.0496). A post hoc comparison demonstrated that the Val/Met (P = 0.019) and Met/Met (P = 0.043) genotypes used greater morphine equivalent dose compared with the Val/Val genotype. This study extends key knowledge about the influence of the Met/Met genotype and Met allele on opioid use in adults with chronic pain.

14.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 28(8): 945-954, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135031

RESUMO

Cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes have a primary role in antidepressant metabolism and variants in these polymorphic genes are targets for pharmacogenetic investigation. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate how CYP2C19 polymorphisms predict citalopram/escitalopram efficacy and side effects. CYP2C19 metabolic phenotypes comprise poor metabolizers (PM), intermediate and intermediate+ metabolizers (IM; IM+), extensive and extensive+ metabolizers (EM [wild type]; EM+) and ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM) defined by the two most common CYP2C19 functional polymorphisms (rs4244285 and rs12248560) in Caucasians. These polymorphisms were genotyped or imputed from genome-wide data in four samples treated with citalopram or escitalopram (GENDEP, STAR*D, GenPod, PGRN-AMPS). Treatment efficacy was assessed by standardized percentage symptom improvement and by remission. Side effect data were available at weeks 2-4, 6 and 9 in three samples. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was performed using EM as the reference group. Analysis of 2558 patients for efficacy and 2037 patients for side effects showed that PMs had higher symptom improvement (SMD = 0.43, CI = 0.19-0.66) and higher remission rates (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.23-1.96) compared to EMs. At weeks 2-4, PMs showed higher risk of gastro-intestinal (OR = 1.26, CI = 1.08-1.47), neurological (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.07-1.53) and sexual side effects (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.23-1.87; week 6 values were similar). No difference was seen at week 9 or in total side effect burden. PMs did not have higher risk of dropout at week 4 compared to EMs. Antidepressant dose was not different among CYP2C19 groups. CYP2C19 polymorphisms may provide helpful information for guiding citalopram/escitalopram treatment, despite PMs being relatively rare among Caucasians (∼2%).

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1679-1686, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089830

RESUMO

Testing for gene-environment (GE) interactions in a gene-set defined by a biological pathway can help us understand the interplay between genes and environments and provide insight into disease etiology. A self-contained gene-set analysis can be performed by combining gene-level p-values using approaches such as the Gamma Method. In a gene-set analysis of genetic main effects, permutation approaches are commonly used to avoid inflated probability of a type 1 error caused by correlation of genes within the same pathway. However, when testing interaction effects, it is typically not possible to construct an exact permutation test. We therefore propose using a parametric bootstrap. For testing an interaction term, this approach requires fitting the null model, which only contains main effects; however, for a gene-set GE interaction model, the number of main effects can be large and therefore they may not be estimable. To estimate the main effects of SNPs in a gene-set, we propose modeling them as random effects. We then repetitively simulate null data from this model and analyze it to generate the null distribution of gene-set GE p-values, allowing for an empirical assessment of significance of the global GE effect in the gene-set of interest. Through simulation, we demonstrate that this approach maintains correct type I error, and is well powered to detect GE interactions. We apply our method to test whether the association of obesity with bipolar disorder (BD) is modified by genetic variation in the Wnt signaling pathway.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 207, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904359

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Lithium is the best-established long-term treatment for BD, even though individual response is highly variable. Evidence suggests that some of this variability has a genetic basis. This is supported by the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of lithium response to date conducted by the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen). Recently, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of the involvement of miRNAs in BD and identified nine BD-associated miRNAs. However, it is unknown whether these miRNAs are also associated with lithium response in BD. In the present study, we therefore tested whether common variants at these nine candidate miRNAs contribute to the variance in lithium response in BD. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed whether any other miRNA in the genome is implicated in the response to lithium. For this purpose, we performed gene-based tests for all known miRNA coding genes in the ConLiGen GWAS dataset (n = 2,563 patients) using a set-based testing approach adapted from the versatile gene-based test for GWAS (VEGAS2). In the candidate approach, miR-499a showed a nominally significant association with lithium response, providing some evidence for involvement in both development and treatment of BD. In the genome-wide miRNA analysis, 71 miRNAs showed nominally significant associations with the dichotomous phenotype and 106 with the continuous trait for treatment response. A total of 15 miRNAs revealed nominal significance in both phenotypes with miR-633 showing the strongest association with the continuous trait (p = 9.80E-04) and miR-607 with the dichotomous phenotype (p = 5.79E-04). No association between miRNAs and treatment response to lithium in BD in either of the tested conditions withstood multiple testing correction. Given the limited power of our study, the investigation of miRNAs in larger GWAS samples of BD and lithium response is warranted.

17.
Bipolar Disord ; 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) with early disease onset is associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome and constitutes a clinically and biologically homogenous subgroup within the heterogeneous BD spectrum. Previous studies have found an accumulation of early age at onset (AAO) in BD families and have therefore hypothesized that there is a larger genetic contribution to the early-onset cases than to late onset BD. To investigate the genetic background of this subphenotype, we evaluated whether an increased polygenic burden of BD- and schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated risk variants is associated with an earlier AAO in BD patients. METHODS: A total of 1995 BD type 1 patients from the Consortium of Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen), PsyCourse and Bonn-Mannheim samples were genotyped and their BD and SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated using the summary statistics of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a training data set. AAO was either separated into onset groups of clinical interest (childhood and adolescence [≤18 years] vs adulthood [>18 years]) or considered as a continuous measure. The associations between BD- and SCZ-PRSs and AAO were evaluated with regression models. RESULTS: BD- and SCZ-PRSs were not significantly associated with age at disease onset. Results remained the same when analyses were stratified by site of recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the largest conducted so far to investigate the association between the cumulative BD and SCZ polygenic risk and AAO in BD patients. The reported negative results suggest that such a polygenic influence, if there is any, is not large, and highlight the importance of conducting further, larger scale studies to obtain more information on the genetic architecture of this clinically relevant phenotype.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 238: 1-7, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial research progress can be achieved if available clinical datasets can be mapped to the National Institute of Mental Health Research-Domain-Criteria (RDoC) constructs. This mapping would allow investigators to both explore more narrowly defined clinical phenotypes and the relationship of these phenotypes to biological markers and clinical outcomes approximating RDoC criteria. METHODS: Using expert review and consensus, we defined four major depression phenotypes based on specific RDoC constructs. Having matched these constructs to individual items from the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, we identified subjects meeting criteria for each of these phenotypes from two large clinical trials of patients treated for major depression. In a post hoc analysis, we evaluated the overall treatment response based on the phenotypes: Core Depression (CD), Anxiety (ANX), and Neurovegetative Symptoms of Melancholia (NVSM) and Atypical Depression (NVSAD). RESULTS: The phenotypes were prevalent (range 10.5-52.4%, 50% reduction range 51.9-82.9%) and tracked with overall treatment response. Although the CD phenotype was associated with lower rates of remission in both cohorts, this was mainly driven by baseline symptom severity. However, when controlling for baseline severity, patients with the ANX phenotype had a significantly lower rate of remission. LIMITATIONS: The lack of replication between the studies of the phenotypes' treatment prediction value reflects important variability across studies that may limit generalizability. CONCLUSION: Further work evaluating biological markers associated with these phenotypes is needed for further RDoC concept development.

19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 139, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After decades of identifying risk factors using array-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genetic research of complex diseases has shifted to sequencing-based rare variants discovery. This requires large sample sizes for statistical power and has brought up questions about whether the current variant calling practices are adequate for large cohorts. It is well-known that there are discrepancies between variants called by different pipelines, and that using a single pipeline always misses true variants exclusively identifiable by other pipelines. Nonetheless, it is common practice today to call variants by one pipeline due to computational cost and assume that false negative calls are a small percent of total. RESULTS: We analyzed 10,000 exomes from the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) using multiple analytic pipelines consisting of different read aligners and variant calling strategies. We compared variants identified by using two aligners in 50,100, 200, 500, 1000, and 1952 samples; and compared variants identified by adding single-sample genotyping to the default multi-sample joint genotyping in 50,100, 500, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 samples. We found that using a single pipeline missed increasing numbers of high-quality variants correlated with sample sizes. By combining two read aligners and two variant calling strategies, we rescued 30% of pass-QC variants at sample size of 2000, and 56% at 10,000 samples. The rescued variants had higher proportions of low frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 1-5%) and rare (MAF < 1%) variants, which are the very type of variants of interest. In 660 Alzheimer's disease cases with earlier onset ages of ≤65, 4 out of 13 (31%) previously-published rare pathogenic and protective mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes were undetected by the default one-pipeline approach but recovered by the multi-pipeline approach. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of the complete variant set from sequencing data is the prerequisite of genetic association analyses. The current analytic practice of calling genetic variants from sequencing data using a single bioinformatics pipeline is no longer adequate with the increasingly large projects. The number and percentage of quality variants that passed quality filters but are missed by the one-pipeline approach rapidly increased with sample size.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Composição de Bases/genética , Descoberta de Drogas , Genoma , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Bipolar Disord ; 20(6): 506-514, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: For this paper, we reviewed the phenomenological differences between bipolar individuals of African and European ancestry in the context of diagnostic criteria and clinical factors that may contribute to a potential racial bias. RESULTS: Published data show that bipolar persons of African ancestry, compared with bipolar persons of non-African ancestry, are more often misdiagnosed with a disease other than bipolar disorder (i.e. schizophrenia). Additionally, studies show that there are disparities in recruiting patients of African ancestry to participate in important genomic studies. This gap in biological research in this underrepresented minority may represent a missed opportunity to address potential racial differences in the risk and course of bipolar illness. CONCLUSION: A concerted effort by the research community to increase inclusion of diverse persons in studies of bipolar disorder through community engagement may facilitate fully addressing these diagnostic and treatment disparities in bipolar individuals of African ancestry.

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