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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies have implicated soluble (s)CD14, an effector of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, in insulin resistance, but its role in human metabolic endotoxemia has not been studied. We evaluated sCD14 in relation to dysglycemia in older adults and how this compares to other markers of inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated associations of sCD14, interleukin-6 (IL-6), CRP, and white blood cell (WBC) count with insulin resistance (quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index and HOMA 2 of insulin resistance) and incident type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort of older adults. We also assessed the causal role of sCD14 in insulin resistance using an instrumental variable approach by Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional risk factors, each of the four biomarkers showed positive cross-sectional associations with both insulin resistance measures. These associations persisted after mutual adjustment for all markers except sCD14. Over a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 466 cases of diabetes occurred. All biomarkers except sCD14 were positively associated with diabetes, although only WBC count remained associated (hazard ratio 1.43 per doubling [95% CI 1.07, 1.90]) after mutual adjustment. Instrumental variable analysis did not support a causal role for sCD14 in insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults, sCD14 was associated with insulin resistance, but this disappeared after adjustment for other biomarkers, showed no evidence of a causal basis, and was not accompanied by a similar association with diabetes. IL-6, CRP, and WBC count were each associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, WBC count most robustly. These findings do not support a central role for sCD14, but highlight the preeminence of WBC count as an inflammatory measure of diabetes risk in this population.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E is a glycoprotein best known as a mediator and regulator of lipid transport and uptake. The APOE-ε4 allele has long been associated with increased risks of Alzheimer's disease and mortality, but the effect of the less prevalent APOE-ε2 allele on diseases in the elderly and survival remains elusive. METHODS: We aggregated data of 38,537 individuals of European ancestry (mean age 65.5 years; 55.6% women) from six population-based cohort studies (Rotterdam Study, AGES-Reykjavik Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Health-ABC Study, and the family-based Framingham Heart Study and Long Life Family Study) to determine the association of APOE, and in particular APOE-ε2, with survival in the population. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.7 years, 17,021 individuals died. Compared with homozygous APOE-ε3 carriers, APOE-ε2 carriers were at lower risk of death (hazard ratio,95% confidence interval: 0.94,0.90-0.99; P = 1.1*10-2), whereas APOE-ε4 carriers were at increased risk of death (HR 1.17,1.12-1.21; P = 2.8*10-16). APOE was associated with mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner, with risk estimates lowest for homozygous APOE-ε2 (HR 0.89,0.74-1.08), and highest for homozygous APOE-ε4 (HR 1.52,1.37-1.70). After censoring for dementia, effect estimates remained similar for APOE-ε2 (HR 0.95,0.90-1.01), but attenuated for APOE-ε4 (HR 1.07,1.01-1.12). Results were broadly similar across cohorts, and did not differ by age or sex. APOE genotype was associated with baseline lipid fractions (e.g. mean difference(95%CI) in LDL(mg/dL) for ε2 versus ε33: -17.1(-18.1-16.0), and ε4 versus ε33: +5.7(4.8;6.5)), but the association between APOE and mortality was unaltered after adjustment for baseline LDL or cardiovascular disease. Given the European ancestry of the study population, results may not apply to other ethnicities. CONCLUSION: Compared with APOE-ε3, APOE-ε2 is associated with prolonged survival, whereas mortality risk is increased for APOE-ε4 carriers. Further collaborative efforts are needed to unravel the role of APOE and in particular APOE-ε2 in health and disease.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
8.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(5): 483-485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064218

RESUMO

Carboxymethyl-lysine is an advanced glycation end product that is detectable in the serum. Higher carboxymethyl-lysine levels have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. We determined whether high carboxymethyl-lysine levels are also associated with the risk of peripheral artery disease in Cardiovascular Health Study participants who were all aged 65 years and older at baseline. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association of baseline carboxymethyl-lysine levels with incident peripheral artery disease in 3267 individuals followed for a median length of 10.0 years. A total of 157 cases of incident peripheral artery disease occurred during follow-up. No significant relationship between carboxymethyl-lysine and risk of peripheral artery disease was found (hazard ratio per standard deviation increment = 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 1.23).

10.
Diabetes Care ; 41(9): 1901-1908, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone formation, and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a marker of bone resorption, with incident diabetes in older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 1,455 female participants from the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (mean [SD] age 74.6 [5.0] years). The cross-sectional association of serum total OC and CTX levels with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was examined using multiple linear regression. The longitudinal association of both markers with incident diabetes, defined by follow-up glucose measurements, medications, and ICD-9 codes, was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: OC and CTX were strongly correlated (r = 0.80). In cross-sectional analyses, significant or near-significant inverse associations with HOMA-IR were observed for continuous levels of OC (ß = -0.12 per SD increment; P = 0.004) and CTX (ß = -0.08 per SD; P = 0.051) after full adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical covariates. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 196 cases of incident diabetes occurred. After full adjustment, both biomarkers exhibited inverse associations with incident diabetes (OC: hazard ratio 0.85 per SD [95% CI 0.71-1.02; P = 0.075]; CTX: 0.82 per SD [0.69-0.98; P = 0.031]), associations that were comparable in magnitude and approached or achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In late postmenopausal women, lower OC and CTX levels were associated with similarly increased risks of insulin resistance at baseline and incident diabetes over long-term follow-up. Further research to delineate the mechanisms linking abnormal bone homeostasis and energy metabolism could uncover new approaches for the prevention of these age-related disorders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Reabsorção Óssea/epidemiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Osteocalcina/sangue , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197730, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender persons are highly victimized, marginalized, disproportionately experience incarceration, and have alarmingly increased rates of HIV infection compared to cis-gender persons. Few studies have examined the HIV care continuum outcomes among transgender women (TW), particularly TW who are involved with the criminal justice (CJ) system. METHODS: To improve our understanding of HIV care continuum outcomes and risk behaviors among HIV-infected TW who are involved with the CJ system, we analyzed data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse-supported Seek, Test, Treat, Retain (STTR) Data Harmonization Initiative. Baseline data were pooled and analyzed from three U.S. STTR studies to examine HIV risk and care continuum indicators among CJ-involved HIV-infected TW compared to cisgender men (CM), matched on age (within 5 years) and study at a ratio of 1:5. RESULTS: Eighty-eight TW and 440 CM were included in the study. Among matched participants, TW were more likely to report crack and cocaine use compared to CM (40%,16% respectively, p<0.001); both TW and CM reported high rates of condomless sex (58%, 64%, respectively); TW were more likely than CM to have more than one sexual partner (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.2; p<0.001) and have engaged in exchange sex (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3, 6.6; p<0.001). There were no significant differences between TW and CM in the percentage currently taking ART (52%, 49%, respectively), the mean percent adherence to ART (77% for both groups), and the proportion who achieved viral suppression (61%, 58%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected CJ-involved TW and CM had similar use of ART and viral suppression but TW were more likely than matched CM to engage in exchange sex, have multiple sexual partners, and use crack/cocaine. TW and CM had similarly high rates of condomless sex and use of other drugs. TW require tailored risk reduction interventions, however both CJ-involved TW and CM require focused attention to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV continuum of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Prisioneiros , Assunção de Riscos , Transexualismo , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Direito Penal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Estados Unidos
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(8)2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ECG global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) is associated with sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study would identify genetic loci related to GEH. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested genotyped and imputed variants in black (N=3057) and white (N=10 769) participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study and CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). GEH (QRS-T angle, sum absolute QRST integral, spatial ventricular gradient magnitude, elevation, azimuth) was measured on 12-lead ECGs. Linear regression models were constructed with each GEH variable as an outcome, adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, study site, and principal components to account for ancestry. GWAS identified 10 loci that showed genome-wide significant association with GEH in whites or joint ancestry. The strongest signal (rs7301677, near TBX3) was associated with QRS-T angle (white standardized ß+0.16 [95% CI 0.13-0.19]; P=1.5×10-26), spatial ventricular gradient elevation (+0.11 [0.08-0.14]; P=2.1×10-12), and spatial ventricular gradient magnitude (-0.12 [95% CI -0.15 to -0.09]; P=5.9×10-15). Altogether, GEH-SNPs explained 1.1% to 1.6% of GEH variance. Loci on chromosomes 4 (near HMCN2), 5 (IGF1R), 11 (11p11.2 region cluster), and 7 (near ACTB) are novel ECG phenotype-associated loci. Several loci significantly associated with gene expression in the left ventricle (HMCN2 locus-with HMCN2; IGF1R locus-with IGF1R), and atria (RP11-481J2.2 locus-with expression of a long non-coding RNA and NDRG4). CONCLUSIONS: We identified 10 genetic loci associated with ECG GEH. Replication of GEH GWAS findings in independent cohorts is warranted. Further studies of GEH-loci may uncover mechanisms of arrhythmogenic remodeling in response to cardiovascular risk factors.

13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(10): 1168-1179, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020206

RESUMO

Reports on the associations between multiple clinical and behavioral health indicators and major health outcomes among older adults are scarce. We prospectively examined concordance with guidelines from the American Cancer Society and American Heart Association for disease prevention in relation to cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality among Cardiovascular Health Study enrollees aged 65-98 years who, at baseline assessment in 1989-1996 (n = 3,491), were free of CVD and cancer. Total and cause-specific mortality, as well as incidence of cancer and CVD, were lower with higher guideline concordance. Independent of body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, better health behaviors (diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were associated with lower mortality (2-sided P < 0.0001). Among individuals with ideal levels for 3-4 of these 4 cardiometabolic biomarkers, those with poor concordance with health behavior recommendations had higher mortality compared with those who had the highest concordance with these behavioral recommendations (adjusted mortality hazard ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.67). Older adults who are concordant with recommendations for cancer and CVD prevention have reduced rates of chronic disease and mortality. Interventions to achieve and maintain healthy lifestyle behaviors may offer benefits both in the presence and absence of adverse traditional clinical risk factors.


Assuntos
American Cancer Society , American Heart Association , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dieta/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(12): 4541-4547, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040592

RESUMO

Context: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has structural and functional similarities to insulin and may play a role in glucose homeostasis, along with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which binds the majority of circulating IGF-I. Objective: To assess whether IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes in older adults. Design: Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 3133), a cohort of adults aged ≥65 years, were observed for 16 years (n = 3133) for the development of incident diabetes. Statistical models were fit separately for men and women because of interactions with sex (P interaction: IGF-I, 0.02; IGFBP-3, 0.009) and were adjusted for relevant covariates. Setting: General community. Participants: Older adults who were nondiabetic at baseline and who did not develop diabetes within the first year of follow-up. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Incident diabetes as measured by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dL, non-FPG ≥200 mg/dL, use of pharmacological treatment of diabetes, or existence of two or more inpatient or three or more outpatient or (at least one inpatient and at least one outpatient) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims with the diagnostic International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code of 250.xx. Results: In women, higher IGFBP-3 (hazard ratio tertile 3 vs tertile 1 = 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.55 to 3.40; P trend < 0.0001) was significantly associated with incident diabetes. Total IGF-I was not significantly associated with incident diabetes. In men, neither IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 was significantly associated with incident diabetes. Conclusions: We confirmed a previously reported association between circulating IGFBP-3 and diabetes risk in the older adult population, establishing that this association is present among women but could not be shown to be associated in men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , New England/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 227-238, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757204

RESUMO

Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 × 10-88). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 × 10-12). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 × 10-5) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
16.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 12(1): 24, 2017 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement. METHODS: The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved in the criminal justice system, often but not exclusively for reasons related to substance use. The studies were conducted in a variety of CJ settings and collected information across 11 pre-selected domains: demographic characteristics, CJ involvement, HIV risk behaviors, HIV and/or Hepatitis C infections, laboratory measures of CD4 T-cell count (CD4) and HIV RNA viral load (VL), mental illness, health related quality of life (QoL), socioeconomic status, health care access, substance use, and social support. RESULTS: The STTR CJ cohort includes data on 11,070 individuals with and without HIV infection who range in age from 18 to 77 years, with a median age at baseline of 37 years. The cohort reflects racial, ethnic and gender distributions in the U.S. CJ system, and 64% of participants are African-American, 12% are Hispanic and 83% are men. Cohort members reported a wide range of HIV risk behaviors including history of injection drug use and, among those who reported on pre-incarceration sexual behaviors, the prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse ranged across studies from 4% to 79%. Across all studies, 53% percent of the STTR CJ cohort reported recent polysubstance use. CONCLUSIONS: The STTR CJ cohort is comprised of participants from a wide range of CJ settings including jail, prison, and community supervision who report considerable diversity in their characteristics and behavioral practices. We have developed harmonized measures, where feasible, to improve the integration of these studies together to answer questions that cannot otherwise be addressed.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
AIDS Behav ; 21(10): 2945-2957, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188460

RESUMO

The U.S. female criminal justice (CJ) population is rapidly growing, yet large-scale studies exploring gender-specific HIV risk behaviors in the CJ population are lacking. This analysis uses baseline data on adults with a CJ history from eight U.S. studies in an NIH-funded "Seek, Test, Treat, Retain" harmonization consortium. Data were collected using a standardized HIV risk behavior assessment tool and pooled across studies to describe participants' characteristics and risk behaviors. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to test for gender-based behavior differences. Among 784 HIV-positive (21.4% female) and 5521 HIV-negative (8.5% female) participants, HIV-positive women had higher odds than HIV-positive men of engaging in condomless sexual intercourse (AOR 1.84 [1.16-2.95]) with potentially sero-discordant partners (AOR 2.40 [1.41-4.09]) and of sharing injection equipment (AOR 3.36 [1.31-8.63]). HIV risk reduction interventions targeting CJ-involved women with HIV are urgently needed as this population may represent an under-recognized potential source of HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Prisões , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(1): 33-39, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732332

RESUMO

Context: Although sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone (T) have been inversely associated with risk of diabetes, few studies have examined dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent androgen than T, in older adults, whose glycemic pathophysiology differs from younger adults. Objective: To determine the associations of SHBG, T, and DHT with insulin resistance and incident diabetes in older adult men. Design: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated baseline levels of SHBG, T, and DHT using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry among 852 men free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study in 1994. Main Outcome: Insulin resistance estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity estimated by the Gutt index in 1996, and incident diabetes (n = 112) ascertained over a mean follow-up of 9.8 years. Results: In linear regression models adjusted for demographics, alcohol consumption, current smoking, body mass index, and other androgens, SHBG [HOMA-IR 0.30 units lower per doubling; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08 to 0.52; P = 0.01] and total DHT (HOMA-IR 0.18 units lower per doubling; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.30; P = 0.01), but not free T (P = 0.33), were inversely associated with insulin resistance. In corresponding Cox proportional hazards models, total DHT was again inversely associated with risk of diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio per doubling, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.92; P = 0.01), but SHBG (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.59; P = 0.66) and free T (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.43; P = 0.23) were not. Conclusions: Among older men, higher levels of DHT were inversely associated with insulin resistance and risk of diabetes over the ensuing 10 years, whereas levels of T were not. Future studies are still needed to clarify the role of SHBG in risk of diabetes in this population.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Metabolism ; 65(10): 1489-97, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Natriuretic peptides have a well-recognized role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Recently, higher levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) have also been associated with decreased risk of diabetes in middle-aged adults. Whether this association persists into older age, where the pathophysiology of diabetes changes, has not been established, nor has its intermediate pathways. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between N-terminal (NT)-proBNP and incident diabetes in 2359 older adults free of cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study. RESULTS: We documented 348 incident cases of diabetes over 12.6years of median follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive treatment, smoking, alcohol use, and LDL, each doubling of NT-proBNP was associated with a 9% lower risk of incident diabetes (HR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.84-0.99]). Additional adjustment for waist circumference, physical activity, estimated glomerular filtration rate or C-reactive protein did not influence the association. Among putative mediators, HDL and triglycerides, adiponectin, and especially homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, all appeared to account for a portion of the lower risk associated with NT-proBNP. CONCLUSION: In older adults without prevalent cardiovascular or kidney disease, higher NT-proBNP is associated with decreased risk of incident diabetes even after adjustment for traditional risk factors. These findings suggest that the metabolic effects of natriuretic peptides persist late in life and offer a potential therapeutic target for prevention of diabetes in older people.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Diabetes ; 65(10): 3200-11, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27416945

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found few common variants that influence fasting measures of insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a GWAS of an integrated assessment of fasting and dynamic measures of insulin sensitivity would detect novel common variants. We performed a GWAS of the modified Stumvoll Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) within the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-Related Traits Consortium. Discovery for genetic association was performed in 16,753 individuals, and replication was attempted for the 23 most significant novel loci in 13,354 independent individuals. Association with ISI was tested in models adjusted for age, sex, and BMI and in a model analyzing the combined influence of the genotype effect adjusted for BMI and the interaction effect between the genotype and BMI on ISI (model 3). In model 3, three variants reached genome-wide significance: rs13422522 (NYAP2; P = 8.87 × 10(-11)), rs12454712 (BCL2; P = 2.7 × 10(-8)), and rs10506418 (FAM19A2; P = 1.9 × 10(-8)). The association at NYAP2 was eliminated by conditioning on the known IRS1 insulin sensitivity locus; the BCL2 and FAM19A2 associations were independent of known cardiometabolic loci. In conclusion, we identified two novel loci and replicated known variants associated with insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to clarify the causal variant and function at the BCL2 and FAM19A2 loci.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas CC/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Quimiocinas CC/fisiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/fisiologia
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