Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 87
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388800

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Greater neighborhood greenspace has been associated with brain health, including better cognition and lower odds of Alzheimer's disease in older adults. We investigated associations between neighborhood greenspace and brain-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and potential effect modification by sex or apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE), a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We obtained a sample of non-demented participants 65 years or older (n = 1125) from the longitudinal, population-based Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Greenspace data were derived from the National Land Cover Dataset. Adjusted multivariable linear regression estimated associations between neighborhood greenspace five years prior to the MRI and left and right hippocampal volume and 10-point grades of ventricular size and burden of white matter hyperintensity. Interaction terms tested effect modification by APOE genotype and sex. CHS data (1989-1999) were obtained/analyzed in 2020. RESULTS: Participants were on average 79 years old [standard deviation (SD) = 4], 58% were female, and 11% were non-white race. Mean neighborhood greenspace was 38% (SD = 28%). Greater proportion of greenspace in the neighborhood five years before MRI was borderline associated with lower ventricle grade (estimate: - 0.30; 95% confidence interval: - 0.61, 0.00). We observed no associations between greenspace and the other MRI outcome measures and no evidence of effect modification by APOE genotype and sex. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a possible association between greater greenspace and less ventricular enlargement, a measure reflecting global brain atrophy. If confirmed in other longitudinal cohort studies, interventions and policies to improve community greenspaces may help to maintain brain health in older age.

2.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137338

RESUMO

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not predict survival to very old age. Studies have shown associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) with cardiovascular disease and mortality in older populations. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of the level and change in eGFR and NT-pro-BNP with longevity to age 90 years. METHODS: The population included participants (n=3,645) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged between 67-75 at baseline. The main exposures were eGFR, calculated with the Berlin Initiative Study equation (BIS2), and NT-pro-BNP, and the main outcome was survival to age 90. Mixed models were used to estimate level and change of the main exposures. RESULTS: There was an association between baseline level and change of both eGFR and NT-pro-BNP and survival to 90, and this association persisted after adjustment for covariates. Each 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 higher eGFR level was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.34) of survival to 90, and a 0.5 ml/min/ 1.73 m2 slower decline in eGFR was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.74). A 2-fold higher level of NT-pro-BNP level had an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.73), and a 1.05-fold increase per year in NT-pro-BNP had an OR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.65) for survival to age 90. CONCLUSION: eGFR and NT-pro-BNP appear to be important risk factors for longevity to age 90.

4.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(11): 2207-2214, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population age 90 years and older is the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. Only recently is it possible to study the factors that portend survival to this age. METHODS: Among participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study, we studied the association of repeated measures of cardiovascular risk factors measured over 15-23 years of follow-up and not only survival to 90 years of age, but also healthy aging outcomes among the population who reached age 90. We included participants aged 67-75 years at baseline (n = 3,613/5,888) to control for birth cohort effects, and followed participants until death or age 90 (median follow-up = 14.7 years). RESULTS: Higher systolic blood pressure was associated with a lower likelihood of survival to age 90, although this association was attenuated at older ages (p-value for interaction <.001) and crossed the null for measurements taken in participants' 80's. Higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater longevity. Among the survivors to age 90, those with worse cardiovascular profile (high blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, glucose, and BMI; low HDL cholesterol) had lower likelihood of remaining free of cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and disability. CONCLUSION: In summary, we observed paradoxical associations between some cardiovascular risk factors and survival to old age; whereas, among those who survive to very old age, these risk factors were associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014070, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248728

RESUMO

Background FABP-4 (fatty acid binding protein-4) is a lipid chaperone in adipocytes and has been associated with prognosis in selected clinical populations. We investigated the associations between circulating FABP-4, risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk of CVD mortality among older adults with and without established CVD. Methods and Results In the Cardiovascular Health Study, we measured FABP4 levels in stored specimens from the 1992-993 visit and followed participants for incident CVD if they were free of prevalent CVD at baseline and for CVD mortality through June 2015. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for incident CVD and CVD mortality per doubling in serum FABP-4 adjusted for age, sex, race, field center, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, and C-reactive protein. Among 4026 participants free of CVD and 681 with prevalent CVD, we documented 1878 cases of incident CVD and 331 CVD deaths, respectively. In adjusted analyses, FABP-4 was modestly associated with risk of incident CVD (mean, 34.24; SD, 18.90; HR, 1.10 per doubling in FABP-4, 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). In contrast, FABP-4 was more clearly associated with risk of CVD mortality among participants without (HR hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI, 1.10-1.40) or with prevalent CVD (HR hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.24-1.98). These associations were not significantly modified by sex, age, and waist circumference. Conclusions Serum FABP-4 is modestly associated with risk of incident CVD even after adjustment for standard risk factors, but more strongly associated with CVD mortality among older adults with and without established CVD.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 163, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919418

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1459-1474, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Marcadores Genéticos , Gota/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gota/epidemiologia , Gota/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos
8.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2075-2082, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies have implicated soluble (s)CD14, an effector of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, in insulin resistance, but its role in human metabolic endotoxemia has not been studied. We evaluated sCD14 in relation to dysglycemia in older adults and how this compares to other markers of inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated associations of sCD14, interleukin-6 (IL-6), CRP, and white blood cell (WBC) count with insulin resistance (quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index and HOMA 2 of insulin resistance) and incident type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort of older adults. We also assessed the causal role of sCD14 in insulin resistance using an instrumental variable approach by Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional risk factors, each of the four biomarkers showed positive cross-sectional associations with both insulin resistance measures. These associations persisted after mutual adjustment for all markers except sCD14. Over a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 466 cases of diabetes occurred. All biomarkers except sCD14 were positively associated with diabetes, although only WBC count remained associated (hazard ratio 1.43 per doubling [95% CI 1.07, 1.90]) after mutual adjustment. Instrumental variable analysis did not support a causal role for sCD14 in insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults, sCD14 was associated with insulin resistance, but this disappeared after adjustment for other biomarkers, showed no evidence of a causal basis, and was not accompanied by a similar association with diabetes. IL-6, CRP, and WBC count were each associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, WBC count most robustly. These findings do not support a central role for sCD14, but they highlight the preeminence of WBC count as an inflammatory measure of diabetes risk in this population.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metanálise como Assunto , Animais , Creatinina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/urina , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fenômica , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Longevidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E is a glycoprotein best known as a mediator and regulator of lipid transport and uptake. The APOE-ε4 allele has long been associated with increased risks of Alzheimer's disease and mortality, but the effect of the less prevalent APOE-ε2 allele on diseases in the elderly and survival remains elusive. METHODS: We aggregated data of 38,537 individuals of European ancestry (mean age 65.5 years; 55.6% women) from six population-based cohort studies (Rotterdam Study, AGES-Reykjavik Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Health-ABC Study, and the family-based Framingham Heart Study and Long Life Family Study) to determine the association of APOE, and in particular APOE-ε2, with survival in the population. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.7 years, 17,021 individuals died. Compared with homozygous APOE-ε3 carriers, APOE-ε2 carriers were at lower risk of death (hazard ratio,95% confidence interval: 0.94,0.90-0.99; P = 1.1*10-2), whereas APOE-ε4 carriers were at increased risk of death (HR 1.17,1.12-1.21; P = 2.8*10-16). APOE was associated with mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner, with risk estimates lowest for homozygous APOE-ε2 (HR 0.89,0.74-1.08), and highest for homozygous APOE-ε4 (HR 1.52,1.37-1.70). After censoring for dementia, effect estimates remained similar for APOE-ε2 (HR 0.95,0.90-1.01), but attenuated for APOE-ε4 (HR 1.07,1.01-1.12). Results were broadly similar across cohorts, and did not differ by age or sex. APOE genotype was associated with baseline lipid fractions (e.g. mean difference(95%CI) in LDL(mg/dL) for ε2 versus ε33: -17.1(-18.1-16.0), and ε4 versus ε33: +5.7(4.8;6.5)), but the association between APOE and mortality was unaltered after adjustment for baseline LDL or cardiovascular disease. Given the European ancestry of the study population, results may not apply to other ethnicities. CONCLUSION: Compared with APOE-ε3, APOE-ε2 is associated with prolonged survival, whereas mortality risk is increased for APOE-ε4 carriers. Further collaborative efforts are needed to unravel the role of APOE and in particular APOE-ε2 in health and disease.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Genótipo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Magnésio/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
14.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(5): 483-485, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064218

RESUMO

Carboxymethyl-lysine is an advanced glycation end product that is detectable in the serum. Higher carboxymethyl-lysine levels have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. We determined whether high carboxymethyl-lysine levels are also associated with the risk of peripheral artery disease in Cardiovascular Health Study participants who were all aged 65 years and older at baseline. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association of baseline carboxymethyl-lysine levels with incident peripheral artery disease in 3267 individuals followed for a median length of 10.0 years. A total of 157 cases of incident peripheral artery disease occurred during follow-up. No significant relationship between carboxymethyl-lysine and risk of peripheral artery disease was found (hazard ratio per standard deviation increment = 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 1.23).


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lisina/sangue , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Diabetes Care ; 41(9): 1901-1908, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone formation, and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a marker of bone resorption, with incident diabetes in older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 1,455 female participants from the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (mean [SD] age 74.6 [5.0] years). The cross-sectional association of serum total OC and CTX levels with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was examined using multiple linear regression. The longitudinal association of both markers with incident diabetes, defined by follow-up glucose measurements, medications, and ICD-9 codes, was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: OC and CTX were strongly correlated (r = 0.80). In cross-sectional analyses, significant or near-significant inverse associations with HOMA-IR were observed for continuous levels of OC (ß = -0.12 per SD increment; P = 0.004) and CTX (ß = -0.08 per SD; P = 0.051) after full adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical covariates. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 196 cases of incident diabetes occurred. After full adjustment, both biomarkers exhibited inverse associations with incident diabetes (OC: hazard ratio 0.85 per SD [95% CI 0.71-1.02; P = 0.075]; CTX: 0.82 per SD [0.69-0.98; P = 0.031]), associations that were comparable in magnitude and approached or achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In late postmenopausal women, lower OC and CTX levels were associated with similarly increased risks of insulin resistance at baseline and incident diabetes over long-term follow-up. Further research to delineate the mechanisms linking abnormal bone homeostasis and energy metabolism could uncover new approaches for the prevention of these age-related disorders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Reabsorção Óssea/epidemiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Osteocalcina/sangue , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197730, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender persons are highly victimized, marginalized, disproportionately experience incarceration, and have alarmingly increased rates of HIV infection compared to cis-gender persons. Few studies have examined the HIV care continuum outcomes among transgender women (TW), particularly TW who are involved with the criminal justice (CJ) system. METHODS: To improve our understanding of HIV care continuum outcomes and risk behaviors among HIV-infected TW who are involved with the CJ system, we analyzed data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse-supported Seek, Test, Treat, Retain (STTR) Data Harmonization Initiative. Baseline data were pooled and analyzed from three U.S. STTR studies to examine HIV risk and care continuum indicators among CJ-involved HIV-infected TW compared to cisgender men (CM), matched on age (within 5 years) and study at a ratio of 1:5. RESULTS: Eighty-eight TW and 440 CM were included in the study. Among matched participants, TW were more likely to report crack and cocaine use compared to CM (40%,16% respectively, p<0.001); both TW and CM reported high rates of condomless sex (58%, 64%, respectively); TW were more likely than CM to have more than one sexual partner (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.2; p<0.001) and have engaged in exchange sex (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3, 6.6; p<0.001). There were no significant differences between TW and CM in the percentage currently taking ART (52%, 49%, respectively), the mean percent adherence to ART (77% for both groups), and the proportion who achieved viral suppression (61%, 58%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected CJ-involved TW and CM had similar use of ART and viral suppression but TW were more likely than matched CM to engage in exchange sex, have multiple sexual partners, and use crack/cocaine. TW and CM had similarly high rates of condomless sex and use of other drugs. TW require tailored risk reduction interventions, however both CJ-involved TW and CM require focused attention to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV continuum of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Prisioneiros , Assunção de Riscos , Transexualidade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Direito Penal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Estados Unidos
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(8)2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ECG global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) is associated with sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study would identify genetic loci related to GEH. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested genotyped and imputed variants in black (N=3057) and white (N=10 769) participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study and CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). GEH (QRS-T angle, sum absolute QRST integral, spatial ventricular gradient magnitude, elevation, azimuth) was measured on 12-lead ECGs. Linear regression models were constructed with each GEH variable as an outcome, adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, study site, and principal components to account for ancestry. GWAS identified 10 loci that showed genome-wide significant association with GEH in whites or joint ancestry. The strongest signal (rs7301677, near TBX3) was associated with QRS-T angle (white standardized ß+0.16 [95% CI 0.13-0.19]; P=1.5×10-26), spatial ventricular gradient elevation (+0.11 [0.08-0.14]; P=2.1×10-12), and spatial ventricular gradient magnitude (-0.12 [95% CI -0.15 to -0.09]; P=5.9×10-15). Altogether, GEH-SNPs explained 1.1% to 1.6% of GEH variance. Loci on chromosomes 4 (near HMCN2), 5 (IGF1R), 11 (11p11.2 region cluster), and 7 (near ACTB) are novel ECG phenotype-associated loci. Several loci significantly associated with gene expression in the left ventricle (HMCN2 locus-with HMCN2; IGF1R locus-with IGF1R), and atria (RP11-481J2.2 locus-with expression of a long non-coding RNA and NDRG4). CONCLUSIONS: We identified 10 genetic loci associated with ECG GEH. Replication of GEH GWAS findings in independent cohorts is warranted. Further studies of GEH-loci may uncover mechanisms of arrhythmogenic remodeling in response to cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(10): 1168-1179, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020206

RESUMO

Reports on the associations between multiple clinical and behavioral health indicators and major health outcomes among older adults are scarce. We prospectively examined concordance with guidelines from the American Cancer Society and American Heart Association for disease prevention in relation to cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality among Cardiovascular Health Study enrollees aged 65-98 years who, at baseline assessment in 1989-1996 (n = 3,491), were free of CVD and cancer. Total and cause-specific mortality, as well as incidence of cancer and CVD, were lower with higher guideline concordance. Independent of body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, better health behaviors (diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were associated with lower mortality (2-sided P < 0.0001). Among individuals with ideal levels for 3-4 of these 4 cardiometabolic biomarkers, those with poor concordance with health behavior recommendations had higher mortality compared with those who had the highest concordance with these behavioral recommendations (adjusted mortality hazard ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.67). Older adults who are concordant with recommendations for cancer and CVD prevention have reduced rates of chronic disease and mortality. Interventions to achieve and maintain healthy lifestyle behaviors may offer benefits both in the presence and absence of adverse traditional clinical risk factors.


Assuntos
American Cancer Society , American Heart Association , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dieta/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(12): 4541-4547, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040592

RESUMO

Context: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has structural and functional similarities to insulin and may play a role in glucose homeostasis, along with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which binds the majority of circulating IGF-I. Objective: To assess whether IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes in older adults. Design: Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 3133), a cohort of adults aged ≥65 years, were observed for 16 years (n = 3133) for the development of incident diabetes. Statistical models were fit separately for men and women because of interactions with sex (P interaction: IGF-I, 0.02; IGFBP-3, 0.009) and were adjusted for relevant covariates. Setting: General community. Participants: Older adults who were nondiabetic at baseline and who did not develop diabetes within the first year of follow-up. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Incident diabetes as measured by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dL, non-FPG ≥200 mg/dL, use of pharmacological treatment of diabetes, or existence of two or more inpatient or three or more outpatient or (at least one inpatient and at least one outpatient) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims with the diagnostic International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code of 250.xx. Results: In women, higher IGFBP-3 (hazard ratio tertile 3 vs tertile 1 = 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.55 to 3.40; P trend < 0.0001) was significantly associated with incident diabetes. Total IGF-I was not significantly associated with incident diabetes. In men, neither IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 was significantly associated with incident diabetes. Conclusions: We confirmed a previously reported association between circulating IGFBP-3 and diabetes risk in the older adult population, establishing that this association is present among women but could not be shown to be associated in men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , New England/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA