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1.
RMD Open ; 5(2): e001041, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673420

RESUMO

Objectives: The aims of this study were to update the evidence on the incidence and prevalence rates of vaccine preventable infections (VPI) in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) and compare the data to the general population when available. Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane library (October 2009 to August 2018). The primary outcome was the incidence or prevalence of VPI in the adult AIIRD population. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Results: Sixty-three publications out of 3876 identified records met the inclusion criteria: influenza (n=4), pneumococcal disease (n=7), hepatitis B (n=10), herpes zoster (HZ) (n=29), human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (n=13). An increased incidence of influenza and pneumococcal disease was reported in patients with AIIRD. HZ infection-pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 2.9 (95% CI 2.4 to 3.3) in patients with AIIRD versus general population. Among AIIRD, inflammatory myositis conferred the highest incidence rate (IR) of HZ (pooled IRR 5.1, 95% CI 4.3 to 5.9), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (pooled IRR 4.0, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.7) and rheumatoid arthritis (pooled IRR 2.3, 95% CI 2.1 to 2.6). HPV infection-pooled prevalence ratio was 1.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 3.4 versus general population, based on studies mainly conducted in the SLE population in Latin America and Asia. Pooled prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antibody in patients with AIIRD was similar to the general population, 3%, 95% CI 1% to 5% and 15%, 95% CI 7% to 26%, respectively. Conclusion: Current evidence shows an increased risk of VPI in patients with AIIRD, emphasising that prevention of infections is essential in these patients.

2.
RMD Open ; 5(2): e001035, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565247

RESUMO

Aim: To present a systematic literature review (SLR) on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD), aiming to provide a basis for updating the EULAR evidence-based recommendations. Methods: An SLR was performed according to the standard operating procedures for EULAR-endorsed recommendations. Outcome was determined by efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccination in adult patients with AIIRD, including those receiving immunomodulating therapy. Furthermore, a search was performed on the effect of vaccinating household members of patients with AIIRD on the occurrence of vaccine-preventable infections in patients and their household members (including newborns). The literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library (October 2009 to August 2018). Results: While most investigated vaccines were efficacious and/or immunogenic in patients with AIIRD, some were less efficacious than in healthy control subjects, and/or in patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. Adverse events of vaccination were generally mild and the rates were comparable to those in healthy persons. Vaccination did not seem to lead to an increase in activity of the underlying AIIRD, but insufficient power of most studies precluded arriving at definite conclusions. The number of studies investigating clinical efficacy of vaccination is still limited. No studies on the effect of vaccinating household members of patients with AIIRD were retrieved. Conclusion: Evidence on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccination in patients with AIIRD was systematically reviewed to provide a basis for updated recommendations.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413005

RESUMO

To update the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) published in 2011. Four systematic literature reviews were performed regarding the incidence/prevalence of vaccine-preventable infections among patients with AIIRD; efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccines; effect of anti-rheumatic drugs on the response to vaccines; effect of vaccination of household of AIIRDs patients. Subsequently, recommendations were formulated based on the evidence and expert opinion. The updated recommendations comprise six overarching principles and nine recommendations. The former address the need for an annual vaccination status assessment, shared decision-making and timing of vaccination, favouring vaccination during quiescent disease, preferably prior to the initiation of immunosuppression. Non-live vaccines can be safely provided to AIIRD patients regardless of underlying therapy, whereas live-attenuated vaccines may be considered with caution. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination should be strongly considered for the majority of patients with AIIRD. Tetanus toxoid and human papilloma virus vaccination should be provided to AIIRD patients as recommended for the general population. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B and herpes zoster vaccination should be administered to AIIRD patients at risk. Immunocompetent household members of patients with AIIRD should receive vaccines according to national guidelines, except for the oral poliomyelitis vaccine. Live-attenuated vaccines should be avoided during the first 6 months of life in newborns of mothers treated with biologics during the second half of pregnancy. These 2019 EULAR recommendations provide an up-to-date guidance on the management of vaccinations in patients with AIIRD.

4.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16021, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714469

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with marked gender and ethnic disparities. We report a large transancestral association study of SLE using Immunochip genotype data from 27,574 individuals of European (EA), African (AA) and Hispanic Amerindian (HA) ancestry. We identify 58 distinct non-HLA regions in EA, 9 in AA and 16 in HA (∼50% of these regions have multiple independent associations); these include 24 novel SLE regions (P<5 × 10-8), refined association signals in established regions, extended associations to additional ancestries, and a disentangled complex HLA multigenic effect. The risk allele count (genetic load) exhibits an accelerating pattern of SLE risk, leading us to posit a cumulative hit hypothesis for autoimmune disease. Comparing results across the three ancestries identifies both ancestry-dependent and ancestry-independent contributions to SLE risk. Our results are consistent with the unique and complex histories of the populations sampled, and collectively help clarify the genetic architecture and ethnic disparities in SLE.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Carga Genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Herança Multifatorial , Mutagênese Insercional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deleção de Sequência
5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 55(12): 2260-2270, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. This can lead to secondary necrosis and release of nuclear proteins, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We hypothesized that increased HMGB1 levels, as present in SLE, skew macrophage differentiation towards M1-like phenotypes and thereby diminish uptake of apoptotic cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HMGB1 on macrophage polarization and on phagocytic capacity of differentiated macrophages. METHODS: SLE patients with quiescent disease (SLEDAI ⩽4) and healthy controls (HCs) were included. Monocytes and differentiated M1 and M2 macrophages were assessed for expression of M1 and M2 markers and for phagocytic capacity. HMGB1 was added during differentiation and during phagocytosis. RESULTS: Expression of CD86 (M1) was not different, whereas CD163 (M2) was significantly lower on SLE monocytes. After differentiation, no differences regarding surface receptor expression and phagocytic capacity were observed between M1 and M2 macrophages from SLE patients and HCs. Addition of HMGB1 during M2 differentiation resulted in high IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reduced phagocytic capacity of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, adding HMGB1 to apoptotic Jurkat cells diminished phagocytosis of these cells. CONCLUSION: Circulating monocytes from SLE patients display an M1-like phenotype compared with HCs, but in vitro differentiation abolishes this difference. HMGB1 skews differentiation of M2-like macrophages towards an M1-like phenotype and, subsequently, reduces phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. These data imply that the phenotype of monocytes or macrophages is determined by their environment, such as the presence of cytokines and HMGB1.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Adulto , Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células Jurkat/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mol Med ; 22: 12-21, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26837069

RESUMO

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA binding protein that acts as an alarmin when secreted. HMGB1 is increased in systemic lupus erythematosus and might represent a potential therapeutic target. We investigated whether treatment with an anti-HMGB1 antibody affects the development of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice. Seven-week-old MRL/lpr mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for 10 wks with 50 µg monoclonal anti-HMGB1 (2G7, mouse IgG2b) (n = 12) or control antibody (n = 11). Control MRL/MPJ mice (n = 10) were left untreated. Every 2 wks, blood was drawn and urine was collected at wk 7, 11 and 17. Mice were sacrificed at 17 wks for complete disease evaluation. Plasma HMGB1 and anti-HMGB1 levels were increased in MRL/lpr mice compared with control MRL/MPJ mice. There were no differences in albuminuria, urine HMGB1 and plasma levels of complement C3, anti-dsDNA and proinflammatory cytokines between untreated and treated mice at any time point. Lupus nephritis of mice treated with anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was classified as class III (n = 3) and class IV (n = 9), while mice treated with control mAb were classified as class II (n = 4), class III (n = 2) and class IV (n = 5). IgG and C3 deposits in kidneys were similar in mice treated with anti-HMGB1 mAb or control mAb. In conclusion, treatment with monoclonal anti-HMGB-1 antibody 2G7 does not affect development of lupus nephritis, disease progression or proinflammatory cytokine levels in MRL/lpr mice. This result indicates that blocking of HMGB1 by this neutralizing antibody does not affect lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice.

7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 55(5): 939-48, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26748351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine relevant Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) polymorphisms in relation to susceptibility to SLE and LN, and to determine the functional consequences of genetic associations found. METHODS: Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, copy number regions (CNRs) and relevant known functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of FcγRII and FcγRIII were determined in a LN-enriched cohort of 266 Dutch Caucasian SLE patients and 919 healthy Caucasian controls. Expression of FcγRs on leukocytes was assessed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: In multivariable analysis, low copy number of CNR1 (including FCGR3B; odds ratio (OR) 2.04; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.23), FCGR2A-131RR (OR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.33, 2.99), and the 2B.4 haplotype of FCGR2B (OR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.24), but not FCGR2C open reading frame, were significantly (all P < 0.01) and independently associated with susceptibility to SLE. The 2B.4 haplotype was negatively associated with LN and led to surface expression of FcγRIIb on neutrophils and monocytes. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to investigate the most relevant and functional single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations of FcγRII and FcγRIII polymorphisms in one study population, enabling the determination of the individual contribution of each polymorphism in multivariable analysis. Three polymorphisms were shown to be independently associated with susceptibility to SLE. The novel findings of a negative association of the 2B.4 haplotype with LN, and increased expression of FcγRIIb on neutrophils and monocytes as a result of this 2B.4 haplotype warrant future research in the role of these cells and FcγRs in the pathogenesis of SLE and LN.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de IgG/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta
8.
Semin Immunopathol ; 38(1): 97-112, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637330

RESUMO

Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with clinical manifestations of differing severity. The exact pathomechanisms and interactions resulting in the inflammatory and immunological processes of this heterogeneous disease remain elusive. Approaches in the understanding of the pathomechanisms revealed that the clinical expression of LE is predisposed by susceptibility genes and that various environmental factors are responsible for an abnormal immune response. Several studies demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Standardized photoprovocation in patients with LE has been shown to be a safe and efficient model for evaluating the underlying pathomechanisms which lead to the production of autoantibodies and immune complexes. In particular, interferons were defined as important players in the early activation of the immune system and were observed to play a specific role in the immunological interface between the innate and the adaptive immune system. Abnormalities or disturbances in the different processes of cell death, such as apoptosis or necrosis, have also been recognized as crucial in the pathogenesis of LE. Although each process is different and characterized by unique features, the processes are interrelated and result in a complex disease.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Animais , Morte Celular , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/complicações , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
9.
Ther Adv Vaccines ; 3(4): 109-20, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478818

RESUMO

Herpes zoster (HZ) is primarily a disease of nerve tissue but the acute and longer-term manifestations require multidisciplinary knowledge and involvement in their management. Complications may be dermatological (e.g. secondary bacterial infection), neurological (e.g. long-term pain, segmental paresis, stroke), ophthalmological (e.g. keratitis, iridocyclitis, secondary glaucoma) or visceral (e.g. pneumonia, hepatitis). The age-related increased incidence of HZ and its complications is thought to be a result of the decline in cell-mediated immunity (immunosenescence), higher incidence of comorbidities with age and social-environmental changes. Individuals who are immunocompromised as a result of disease or therapy are also at increased risk, independent of age. HZ and its complications (particularly postherpetic neuralgia) create a significant burden for the patient, carers, healthcare systems and employers. Prevention and treatment of HZ complications remain a therapeutic challenge despite recent advances. This is an overview of the multidisciplinary implications and management of HZ in which the potential contribution of vaccination to reducing the incidence HZ and its complications are also discussed.

10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 54(12): 2151-5, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that acts as an alarmin when released into the extracellular milieu. HMGB1 is a biomarker of active disease in several systemic autoimmune diseases. Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder with a waxing/waning course. The objective of this study is to evaluate serum HMGB1 levels as a possible biomarker for disease activity in BD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study measuring serum HMGB1 levels was performed in 26 BD patients and 20 healthy controls. The Brazilian version of the simplified BD Current Activity Form (BR-BDCAFs) was used to measure disease activity. RESULTS: Serum HMGB1 levels were higher in patients with active disease [3.82 (2.54-6.11) ng/ml], in patients with BD without active disease but still on therapy [2.76 (1.89-5.78) ng/ml] and in patients in remission without treatment [2.66 (1.86-4.70) ng/ml] than in healthy controls [0.96 (0.59-1.39) ng/ml], P < 0.001. Levels were comparable between BD patients with active disease, BD without active disease but still on therapy and those in remission without treatment (P = 0.432). There was no correlation between serum HMGB1 levels and BR-BDCAF(s) (ρ = 0.195; P = 0.339). No association could be found between serum HMGB1 levels and specific disease involvement or therapy. So serum HMGB1 levels cannot be used as a biomarker in BD. CONCLUSION: Serum HMGB1 levels are increased in patients with BD as compared with healthy controls. However, no association was found with disease activity, specific organ involvement or therapy in BD.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/sangue , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Behçet/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Autoimmun Rev ; 14(11): 1057-65, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209906

RESUMO

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In addition to its nuclear functions, extracellular HMGB1 released from activated, injured or dying cells becomes a proinflammatory mediator via binding to various receptors on the surface of responding cells. HMGB1 interacts with various systems involved in inflammation, such as the complement system and the coagulation system. Thus, HMGB1 could amplify inflammation and enhance immune responses in pathophysiology of certain diseases. In the past years, HMGB1 has been studied in several vasculitides including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, Kawasaki disease, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis. Several studies showed that circulating HMGB1 levels are higher in patients with active disease compared with healthy controls, and levels are associated with disease severity. Further studies on pathogenetic mechanisms revealed pathogenic roles of HMGB1 in some vasculitides. Here we review clinical and experimental studies dealing with the role of HMGB1 in vascular inflammation, and its relation to the manifestations and prognosis of specific vasculitides, in particular ANCA-associated vasculitis.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína HMGB1/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/imunologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/imunologia
12.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 17: 158, 2015 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26062541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Takayasu arteritis (TA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are large vessel vasculitides (LVV) that usually present as granulomatous inflammation in arterial walls. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that acts as an alarmin when released by dying or activated cells. This study aims to evaluate whether serum HMGB1 can be used as a biomarker in LVV. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive TA patients with 29 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Eighteen consecutive GCA patients with 16 HC were evaluated at the onset of disease and some of them during follow-up. Serum HMGB1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In GCA patients at disease onset mean serum HMGB1 levels did not differ from HC (5.74 ± 4.19 ng/ml vs. 4.17 ± 3.14 ng/ml; p = 0.230). No differences in HMGB1 levels were found between GCA patients with and without polymyalgia rheumatica (p = 0.167), ischemic manifestations (p = 0.873), systemic manifestations (p = 0.474) or relapsing disease (p = 0.608). During follow-up, no significant fluctuations on serum HMGB1 levels were observed from baseline to 3 months (n = 13) (p = 0.075), 12 months (n = 6) (p = 0.093) and at the first relapse (n = 4) (p = 0.202). Serum HMGB1 levels did not differ between TA patients and HC [1.19 (0.45-2.10) ng/ml vs. 1.46 (0.89-3.34) ng/ml; p = 0.181] and no difference was found between TA patients with active disease and in remission [1.31 (0.63-2.16) ng/ml vs. 0.75 (0.39-2.05) ng/ml; p = 0.281]. HMGB1 levels were significantly lower in 16 TA patients on statins compared with 13 patients without statins [0.59 (0.29-1.46) ng/ml vs. 1.93 (0.88-3.34) ng/ml; p = 0.019]. Age was independently associated with higher HMGB1 levels regardless of LVV or control status. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TA and GCA present similar serum HMGB1 levels compared with HC. Serum HMGB1 is not useful to discriminate between active disease and remission. In TA, use of statins was associated with lower HMGB1 levels. HMGB1 is not a biomarker for LVV.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Arterite de Células Gigantes/sangue , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Arterite de Takayasu/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Exp Hematol ; 43(6): 439-47.e1, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25795522

RESUMO

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) arises from a clonal expansion of plasma cells in the bone marrow, secreting monoclonal (M) paraprotein. It is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, which may reflect altered B-cell repertoire. To investigate this, we examined the immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and IgA B-cell repertoire diversity in MGUS at baseline and after influenza vaccination (n = 16) in comparison with healthy controls (HCs; n = 16). The Complementary Determining Region 3 region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene was amplified and B-cell spectratypes analyzed by high-resolution electrophoresis. Spectratype Gaussian distribution, kurtosis, and skewness were quantified to measure repertoire shifts. Both HC and MGUS baseline spectratypes show interindividual variability that is more pronounced in the IGHG and IGHA repertoires. Overall, baseline B-cell repertoire is more altered in MGUS, with oligoclonality observed in 50% (p = 0.01). Postvaccination, significant differences emerged in MGUS in relation to M-protein levels. High M-protein concentration is associated with a more oligoclonal IgG and IgA response at day 7 postvaccination, and, in contrast to HCs, vaccination also induced significant perturbations in the MGUS IgM repertoire at day 7 (p = 0.005). Monoclonal expansion in MGUS thus has an effect on the baseline B-cell repertoire and influences the recruited repertoire upon vaccination.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Paraproteínas/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 54(7): 1257-61, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25587178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in RA. This study was designed to evaluate whether a reduction in disease activity influences early markers of CVD. METHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study, 58 newly diagnosed RA patients and 58 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. Endothelial dysfunction was measured by small artery elasticity (SAE) and endothelial cell activation was assessed by measuring soluble vascular cellular activation molecule 1(sVCAM-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were quantified by skin autofluorescence. After 1 year, measurements were repeated in all RA patients. RESULTS: At entry, SAE was decreased in RA vs HCs [median 3.4 ml/mmHg100 (range 1.2-9.0) vs 6.1 (range 5.0-15.3), P < 0.0001] and sVCAM-1 and vWF were increased: 391 ng/ml (range 256-680) vs 341 (range 223-691) (P = 0.0015) and 120 ng/ml (range 26.5-342) vs 99 (range 22-298) (P = 0.02), respectively. SAE was inversely correlated with the 28-joint DAS (DAS28; r = -0.31, P = 0.016). AGEs were increased by 2.55 arbitrary units (range 1.29-4.65) vs 2.12 (range 1.32-3.82) in HCs (P = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, the presence of RA, age and systolic blood pressure were independently and inversely related to SAE. After 1 year, SAE had significantly improved in RA, from 3.4 (range 1.2-9.0) to 3.8 (range 1.5-10.3) (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Endothelial dysfunction is present in newly diagnosed RA patients, independently of traditional risk factors and is inversely correlated with disease activity. By reducing disease activity, endothelial dysfunction improves, although not to normal values. Also, a reduction in disease activity targeting traditional risk factors remains important in preventing CVD in RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 11(3): 135-45, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25486980

RESUMO

Patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) are at increased risk of infections. This risk has been further increased by the introduction of biologic agents over the past two decades. One of the most effective strategies to prevent infection is vaccination. However, patients with an AIRD have a compromised immune system, which is further impaired by medication. Another important issue is the possibility of triggering a broad nonspecific response by vaccination, potentially resulting in increased activity of the underlying autoimmune disease. In this Review, we provide an analysis of data on vaccination of patients with an AIRD. Both the efficacy and the safety of vaccination are addressed, together with the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in different subgroups of adults with AIRDs. Special attention is given to vaccination of patients who are treated with biologic agents.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/imunologia , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
16.
J Nucl Med ; 55(12): 1945-51, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25359878

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: In atherosclerotic plaques, the risk of rupture is increased at sites of macrophage accumulation. Activated macrophages express folate receptor-ß (FR-ß), which can be targeted by folate coupled to radioactive ligands to visualize vulnerability. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of activated macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques by (99m)Tc-folate imaging and to evaluate whether this technique can discriminate between an M1-like and M2-like macrophage phenotype. METHODS: Carotid endarterectomy specimens of 20 patients were incubated with (99m)Tc-folate, imaged using micro-SPECT, and divided into 3-mm slices. The mean accumulation was calculated per slice, and the distribution of M1-like and M2-like macrophages per slice was quantified by immunohistochemical staining for CD86 as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for M1 and CD163 and FR-ß for M2 macrophages. Monocytes from healthy donors were differentiated toward M1-like or M2-like phenotype by in vitro culturing. Messenger RNA levels of specific M1 and M2 markers were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and expression of FR-ß, CD86, and CD163 by flow cytometry. RESULTS: There was a heterogeneous accumulation of (99m)Tc-folate in plaques (median, 2.45 [0.77-6.40] MBq/g). Slices with the highest (99m)Tc-folate accumulation of each plaque showed significantly more expression of FR-ß and CD163, compared with slices with the lowest (99m)Tc-folate accumulation, which showed significantly more expression of iNOS. In in vitro polarized macrophages, messenger RNA expression of FR-ß, mannose receptor, IL-10, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was significantly increased in M2-like macrophages, compared with M1-like macrophages. On a receptor level, CD86 was shown to be overexpressed on M1-like macrophages whereas FR-ß and CD163 were overexpressed on M2-like macrophages measured by flow cytometry. CONCLUSION: Higher numbers of M2-like macrophages were present in areas of high (99m)Tc-folate accumulation than areas with low accumulation. It is anticipated that (99m)Tc-folate imaging using SPECT as a marker for M2-like macrophages in atherosclerosis might be a good indicator for plaque vulnerability.


Assuntos
Receptor 2 de Folato/metabolismo , Macrófagos/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos de Organotecnécio , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , RNA/biossíntese , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 66(11): 3122-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25223407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) have a 3-20-fold increased risk of herpes zoster compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate if susceptibility is due to decreased levels of cellular and/or humoral immunity to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of VZV-specific immunity was performed in 38 SLE patients, 33 GPA patients, and 51 healthy controls. Levels of IgG and IgM antibodies to VZV were measured using an in-house glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cellular responses to VZV were determined by interferon-γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye dilution proliferation assay. RESULTS: Levels of IgG antibodies to VZV were increased in SLE patients as compared to healthy controls, but levels of IgM antibodies to VZV were not. Antibody levels in GPA patients did not differ significantly from levels in healthy controls. In response to stimulation with VZV, decreased numbers of IFNγ spot-forming cells were found among SLE patients (although not GPA patients) as compared to healthy controls. Proliferation of CD4+ T cells in response to stimulation with VZV was decreased in SLE patients but not GPA patients. CONCLUSION: SLE patients have increased levels of IgG antibodies against VZV, while cellular immunity is decreased. In GPA patients, antibody levels as well as cellular responses to VZV were comparable to those in healthy controls. These data suggest that increased prevalence of herpes zoster in SLE patients is due to a poor cellular response. Vaccination strategies should aim to boost cellular immunity against VZV.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Imunidade Humoral/fisiologia , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/patologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/fisiopatologia , Herpes Zoster/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Front Immunol ; 5: 257, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24917865

RESUMO

The plasma cell proliferative disorders monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and malignant multiple myeloma (MM) are characterized by an accumulation of transformed clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. They typically affect an older population, with median age of diagnosis of approximately 70 years. In both disorders, there is an increased risk of infection due to the immunosuppressive effects of disease and conjointly of therapy in MM, and response to vaccination to counter infection is compromised. The underlying factors in a weakened immune response in MGUS and MM are as yet not fully understood. A confounding factor is the onset of normal aging, which quantitatively and qualitatively hampers humoral immunity to affect response to infection and vaccination. In this review, we examine the status of immune alterations in MGUS and MM and set these against normal aging immune responses. We focus primarily on quantitative and functional aspects of B-cell immunity. Furthermore, we review the current knowledge relating to susceptibility to infectious disease in MGUS and MM, and how efficacy of conventional vaccination is affected by proliferative disease-related and therapy-related factors.

19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 16(3): R128, 2014 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24946689

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to replicate a recent study which showed higher genetic risk load at 15 loci in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This difference was very significant, and it was interpreted as indicating that men require more genetic susceptibility than women to develop SLE. METHODS: Nineteen SLE-associated loci (thirteen of which are shared with the previous study) were analyzed in 1,457 SLE patients and 1,728 healthy controls of European ancestry. Genetic risk load was calculated as sex-specific sum genetic risk scores (GRS(s)). RESULTS: Our results did not replicate those of the previous study at either the level of individual loci or the global level of GRS(s). GRS(s) were larger in women than in men (4.20 ± 1.07 in women vs. 3.27 ± 0.98 in men). This very significant difference (P < 10(-16)) was more dependent on the six new loci not included in the previous study (59% of the difference) than on the thirteen loci that are shared (the remaining 41%). However, the 13 shared loci also showed a higher genetic risk load in women than in men in our study (P = 6.6 × 10(-7)), suggesting that heterogeneity of participants, in addition to different loci, contributed to the opposite results. CONCLUSION: Our results show the lack of a clear trend toward higher genetic risk in one of the sexes for the analyzed SLE loci. They also highlight several limitations of assessments of genetic risk load, including the possibility of ascertainment bias with loci discovered in studies that have included mainly women.


Assuntos
Carga Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e96067, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24776932

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) patients are associated with carotid atherosclerosis, related to levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) and influenced by immunosuppressive or lipid-lowering therapy. Twenty-three GPA patients and 20 controls were evaluated for HMGB1- and sRAGE levels and for carotid atherosclerosis using ultrasound to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). In vitro the effect of atorvastatin on the production of HMGB1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was assessed. Serum HMGB1 and sRAGE levels did not differ between patients and controls. A negative correlation was found between sRAGE and maximum IMT but HMGB1 and carotid IMT were not related. HMGB1 levels were reduced in GPA patients on statins and prednisolone. In vitro, atorvastatin reduced HMGB1 levels in supernatants of activated HUVEC. In conclusion, carotid IMT is inversely correlated with sRAGE levels but not with HMGB1 levels. Statins and prednisolone are associated with reduced serum HMGB1 levels and atorvastatin decreases HMGB1 release by activated HUVEC in vitro, indicating an additional anti-inflammatory effect of statins.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Receptores Imunológicos/sangue , Receptores Imunológicos/química , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina , Feminino , Ácidos Heptanoicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Heptanoicos/uso terapêutico , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/farmacologia , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Solubilidade
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