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2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1116-1126, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104771

RESUMO

Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although the length of this repeat is inversely correlated with age of onset (AOO), it does not fully explain the variability in AOO. We assessed the sequence downstream of the CAG repeat in HTT [reference: (CAG)n-CAA-CAG], since variants within this region have been previously described, but no study of AOO has been performed. These analyses identified a variant that results in complete loss of interrupting (LOI) adenine nucleotides in this region [(CAG)n-CAG-CAG]. Analysis of multiple HD pedigrees showed that this LOI variant is associated with dramatically earlier AOO (average of 25 years) despite the same polyglutamine length as in individuals with the interrupting penultimate CAA codon. This LOI allele is particularly frequent in persons with reduced penetrance alleles who manifest with HD and increases the likelihood of presenting clinically with HD with a CAG of 36-39 repeats. Further, we show that the LOI variant is associated with increased somatic repeat instability, highlighting this as a significant driver of this effect. These findings indicate that the number of uninterrupted CAG repeats, which is lengthened by the LOI, is the most significant contributor to AOO of HD and is more significant than polyglutamine length, which is not altered in these individuals. In addition, we identified another variant in this region, where the CAA-CAG sequence is duplicated, which was associated with later AOO. Identification of these cis-acting modifiers have potentially important implications for genetic counselling in HD-affected families.

7.
J Huntingtons Dis ; 8(1): 71-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689590

RESUMO

Amongst the main reasons people at risk for Huntington's disease (HD) have for undergoing predictive genetic testing are planning a family and prevention of passing on an expanded CAG-repeat to future offspring. After having received an unfavourable test result, a couple may consider prenatal testing in the foetus or preimplantation genetic diagnostic testing (PGD) in embryos. Testing of the foetus or embryos is possible by means of direct testing of the expanded repeat. Optimal reliability in testing the foetus or embryos requires the establishment of the origin of the repeats of both parents in the foetus. For PGD the analysis is combined with or sometimes solely based on identification of the at-risk haplotype in the embryo. This policy implies that in the context of direct testing, the healthy partner's CAG repeat lengths in the HD gene are also tested, but with the expectation that the repeat lengths of the partner are within the normal range, with the proviso that the partner's pedigree is free of clinically confirmed HD. However, recent studies have shown that the expanded repeat has been observed more often in the general population than previously estimated. Moreover, we have unexpectedly observed an expanded repeat in the non-HD partner in four cases which had far-reaching consequences. Hence, we propose that in the context of reproductive genetic counselling, prior to a planned pregnancy, and irrespective of the outcome of the predictive test in the HD-partner, the non-HD partner should also be given the option of being tested on the expanded allele. International recommendations for predictive testing for HD should be adjusted.

8.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 462-478, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677142

RESUMO

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, specific facial features, and marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction, especially with disturbances of regulating respiration and intestinal mobility. It is caused by variants in the transcription factor TCF4. Heterogeneity in the clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria and care practices has prompted a group of international experts to establish guidelines for diagnostics and care. For issues, for which there was limited information available in international literature, we collaborated with national support groups and the participants of a syndrome specific international conference to obtain further information. Here, we discuss the resultant consensus, including the clinical definition of PTHS and a molecular diagnostic pathway. Recommendations for managing particular health problems such as dysregulated respiration are provided. We emphasize the need for integration of care for physical and behavioral issues. The recommendations as presented here will need to be evaluated for improvements to allow for continued optimization of diagnostics and care.

9.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 61: 101-105, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of late-onset Huntington's disease (>59 years) is assumed to be low and the clinical course milder. However, previous literature on late-onset disease is scarce and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to study clinical characteristics of late-onset compared to common-onset HD patients in a large cohort of HD patients from the Registry database. METHODS: Participants with late- and common-onset (30-50 years)were compared for first clinical symptoms, disease progression, CAG repeat size and family history. Participants with a missing CAG repeat size, a repeat size of ≤35 or a UHDRS motor score of ≤5 were excluded. RESULTS: Of 6007 eligible participants, 687 had late-onset (11.4%) and 3216 (53.5%) common-onset HD. Late-onset (n = 577) had significantly more gait and balance problems as first symptom compared to common-onset (n = 2408) (P < .001). Overall motor and cognitive performance (P < .001) were worse, however only disease motor progression was slower (coefficient, -0.58; SE 0.16; P < .001) compared to the common-onset group. Repeat size was significantly lower in the late-onset (n = 40.8; SD 1.6) compared to common-onset (n = 44.4; SD 2.8) (P < .001). Fewer late-onset patients (n = 451) had a positive family history compared to common-onset (n = 2940) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Late-onset patients present more frequently with gait and balance problems as first symptom, and disease progression is not milder compared to common-onset HD patients apart from motor progression. The family history is likely to be negative, which might make diagnosing HD more difficult in this population. However, the balance and gait problems might be helpful in diagnosing HD in elderly patients.

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies have reported diagnostic yields up to 57% for rapid exome or genome sequencing (rES/GS) as a single test in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients, but the additional yield of rES/GS compared with other available diagnostic options still remains unquantified in this population. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all genetic NICU consultations in a 2-year period. RESULTS: In 132 retrospectively evaluated NICU consultations 27 of 32 diagnoses (84.4%) were made using standard genetic workup. Most diagnoses (65.6%) were made within 16 days. Diagnostic ES yield was 5/29 (17.2%). Genetic diagnoses had a direct effect on clinical management in 90.6% (29/32) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that exome sequencing has a place in NICU diagnostics, but given the associated costs and the high yield of alternative diagnostic strategies, we recommend to first perform clinical genetic consultation.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. METHODS: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. RESULTS: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

15.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

17.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(1): 35-39, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095566

RESUMO

A consistent feature of predictive testing guidelines for Huntington's disease (HD) is the recommendation not to undertake predictive tests on those < 18 years. Exceptions are made but the extent of, and reasons for, deviation from the guidelines are unknown. The UK Huntington's Prediction Consortium has collected data annually on predictive tests undertaken from the 23 UK genetic centers. DNA analysis for HD in the Netherlands is centralized in the Laboratory for Diagnostic Genome Analysis in Leiden. In the UK, 60 tests were performed on minors between 1994 and 2015 representing 0.63% of the total number of tests performed. In the Netherlands, 23 tests were performed on minors between 1997 and 2016. The majority of the tests were performed on those aged 16 and 17 years for both countries (23% and 57% for the UK, and 26% and 57% for the Netherlands). Data on the reasons for testing were identified for 36 UK and 22 Netherlands cases and included: close to the age of 18 years, pregnancy, currently in local authority care and likely to have less support available after 18 years, person never having the capacity to consent and other miscellaneous reasons. This study documents the extent of HD testing of minors in the UK and the Netherlands and suggests that, in general, the recommendation is being followed. We provide some empirical evidence as to reasons why clinicians have departed from the recommendation. We do not advise changing the recommendation but suggest that testing of minors continues to be monitored.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Menores de Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1542-1554, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741757

RESUMO

The closely related paralogues FOXP2 and FOXP1 encode transcription factors with shared functions in the development of many tissues, including the brain. However, while mutations in FOXP2 lead to a speech/language disorder characterized by childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), the clinical profile of FOXP1 variants includes a broader neurodevelopmental phenotype with global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and speech/language impairment. Using clinical whole-exome sequencing, we report an identical de novo missense FOXP1 variant identified in three unrelated patients. The variant, p.R514H, is located in the forkhead-box DNA-binding domain and is equivalent to the well-studied p.R553H FOXP2 variant that cosegregates with CAS in a large UK family. We present here for the first time a direct comparison of the molecular and clinical consequences of the same mutation affecting the equivalent residue in FOXP1 and FOXP2. Detailed functional characterization of the two variants in cell model systems revealed very similar molecular consequences, including aberrant subcellular localization, disruption of transcription factor activity, and deleterious effects on protein interactions. Nonetheless, clinical manifestations were broader and more severe in the three cases carrying the p.R514H FOXP1 variant than in individuals with the p.R553H variant related to CAS, highlighting divergent roles of FOXP2 and FOXP1 in neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Neurogenetics ; 18(2): 73-79, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27747449

RESUMO

Kinesins play a critical role in the organization and dynamics of the microtubule cytoskeleton, making them central players in neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration, and postmigrational development. Recently, KIF2A mutations were identified in cortical malformation syndromes associated with microcephaly. Here, we detected two de novo p.Ser317Asn and p.His321Pro mutations in KIF2A in two patients with lissencephaly and microcephaly. In parallel, we re-evaluated the two previously reported cases showing de novo mutations of the same residues. The identification of mutations only in the residues Ser317 and His321 suggests these are hotspots for de novo mutations. Both mutations lead to a classic form of lissencephaly, with a posterior to anterior gradient, almost indistinguishable from LIS1-related lissencephaly. However, three fourths of patients also showed variable congenital and postnatal microcephaly, up to -5 SD. Located in the motor domain of the KIF2A protein, the Ser317 and His321 alterations are expected to disrupt binding or hydrolysis of ATP and consequently the MT depolymerizing activity. This report also establishes that KIF2A mutations represent significant causes of classic lissencephaly with microcephaly.


Assuntos
Lissencefalias Clássicas e Heterotopias Subcorticais em Banda/genética , Cinesina/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lactente , Lisencefalia/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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