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1.
Chest ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of morbid obesity on mortality in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been consistently evaluated. METHODS: We used the data from RIETE registry to compare the mortality risk during anticoagulation in VTE patients with morbid obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥40) versus those with normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9). Patients with or without active cancer were analyzed separately. RESULTS: By September 2018, there were 4,443 VTE patients with morbid obesity and 12,047 with normal weight in RIETE. Of these, 245 (5.5%) and 1,397 (11.6%) respectively had cancer. Median duration of anticoagulant therapy was longer in the morbidly obese, with- (185 vs. 114 days) or without cancer (203 vs. 177 days). Among cancer patients, 44 (18.0%) morbidly obese and 1,377 (32.8%) patients with normal weight died during anticoagulation. Among those without cancer, 44 (3.1%) and 601 (5.6%) respectively died. On bivariate analysis, morbid obesity was associated with a lower mortality rate, both in patients with cancer (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34; 95%CI: 0.25-0.45) and in those without cancer (HR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.32-0.58). Multivariable analysis confirmed a lower hazard of death in morbidly obese patients with- (HR: 0.68; 95%CI: 0.50-0.94) or without cancer (HR: 0.67; 95%CI: 0.49-0.96). The risk for VTE recurrences or major bleeding did not differ in patients with or without morbid obesity. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with VTE, the risk for death during anticoagulation was about one third lower in morbidly obese patients than in those with normal weight, independently of the presence of cancer.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898272

RESUMO

Hallux valgus surgery (HVS) is one of the most common orthopedic procedures, often occurring in older adults. Guidelines provide inconsistent recommendations about venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after HVS and data are scarce regarding VTE presentation and outcomes in this population. We reported the clinical characteristics and outcomes of VTE following HVS among patients enrolled in Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbolica (RIETE), a prospective multicenter VTE registry. We compared the findings with those of other patients in RIETE. Consecutive patients with VTE post HVS were included in the study. Baseline characteristics, administration of VTE prophylaxis prior to diagnosis, presenting symptoms and signs, risk factors for VTE, and 90-day outcomes including recurrent VTE, major bleeding and death were determined. A total of 54 patients with VTE post HVS were identified in RIETE [median age: 64 (interquartile range 56-71) years; 85.2% female] and were compared with 74,111 VTE patients who had not undergone HVS. Among those with VTE post HVS, 63.0% had received VTE prophylaxis, in contrast to 35.6% in the rest of the RIETE cohort. Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index was zero in 66.7% of the patients with pulmonary embolism post HVS and 33.3% of other RIETE patients (P = 0.011). Compared with other VTE patients, use of estrogens was higher in HVS group (13.0% vs 5.4%, P = 0.01). All patients with VTE post HVS (100%) and most of other VTE patients (99.6%) were treated with anticoagulation, most commonly with low-molecular weight heparins. In contrast to the rest of the patients in RIETE, the absolute number of all fatal and non-fatal outcomes at 90 days was zero in the post HVS group (i.e. no deaths, no recurrence of VTE, and no major bleeding). In a large registry of patients with VTE, all patients with VTE post HVS underwent anticoagulation. These patients had much better outcomes than the rest of VTE patients, with no deaths, recurrences or major bleeding events at 90-day follow-up.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist about the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) who develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS: We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) registry to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with lower limb DVT, according to the presence or absence of IVCA. Major outcomes included recurrent DVT, major bleeding and post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). RESULTS: Among 50,744 patients with lower-limb DVT recruited in October 2018, 31 (0.06%) had IVCA. On multivariable analysis, patients aged < 30 years (odds ratio [OR]: 17.9; 95%CI: 7.05-45.3), with unprovoked DVT (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.17-5.29), proximal (OR: 2.81; 95%CI: 1.05-7.53) or bilateral DVT (OR: 11.5; 95%CI: 4.75-27.8) were at increased risk to have IVCA. Patients with DVT and IVCA had lower odds to present with coexisting PE (OR: 0.22; 95%CI: 0.07-0.73). During the first year of follow-up, the rates of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.30; 95%CI: 0.07-6.43), pulmonary embolism (HR: 2.30; 95%CI: 0.11-11.4) or major bleeding (HR: 1.32; 95%CI: 0.07-6.50) were not significantly different with those with versus those without IVCA. One year after the index DVT, IVCA patients had a higher rate of skin induration (OR: 3.70; 95%CI: 1.30-9.52), collateral vein circulation (OR: 3.57; 95%CI: 1.42-8.79) or venous ulcer (OR: 5.87; 95%CI: 1.36-1.87) in the lower limb than those without IVCA. CONCLUSIONS: Certain clinical features such as unprovoked and bilateral proximal DVT in young patients should raise the suspicion for IVCA. Patients with IVCA had higher odds for symptoms of post-thrombotic syndrome.

5.
J Card Fail ; 26(2): 180-189, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935458

RESUMO

Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts the cardiovascular system through modulation of oxidative stress. It is unknown whether zinc levels are affected in heart failure (HF), and whether the association, if present, is causal. A systematic search for publications that report coexisting zinc deficiency in patients with HF was performed to provide an overview of the pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of this association (last search April 2019). Review of the literature suggests multiple potential pathophysiologic causes for zinc deficiency in HF as a result of impaired micronutrient consumption, hyper-inflammatory state, upregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, diminished absorption, and hyperzincuria from HF medications. In a longitudinal study of patients with HF in the setting of intestinal malabsorption, there was partial cardiomyocyte and left ventricular ejection fraction recovery with intravenous selenium and zinc supplementation. Two randomized double-blind control trials evaluating micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation including zinc in patients with HF found improvement in echocardiographic findings compared with placebo. Two recently completed studies evaluated the role for zinc supplementation in 2 different HF populations: a trial of zinc supplementation in patients with non-ischemic HF, and a trial of micronutrient supplementation (including B vitamins, vitamin D, and zinc) in veterans with systolic dysfunction; the results of which are still pending. Several pathobiological pathways to link zinc deficiency with the development and deterioration of HF are presented. Preliminary clinical data are supportive of such an association and future studies should further investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on outcomes in patients with HF.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Overlap exists between the risk factors for coronary artery disease and venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, a paucity of data is available on the incidence of major acute cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE) among patients presenting with VTE. Moreover, it is unknown whether the rate of cardiovascular outcomes differs among patients with unprovoked vs provoked VTE. METHODS: We analyzed the data from 2009 to 2017 in the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad Tromboembólica registry, an ongoing, multicenter, international registry of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of objectively confirmed VTE. The query was restricted it to patients with data entry for the arterial outcomes. The baseline prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors was compared between patients with provoked (ie, immobility, cancer, surgery, travel >6 hours, hormonal causes) and unprovoked VTE. After the initial VTE event, we followed up patients for the composite primary outcome of incident MACE (ie, stroke, myocardial infarction, unstable angina) and/or MALE (ie, major limb events). We used the χ2 test for baseline associations and a Cox proportional hazard for multivariate analysis. We used IBM SPSS, version 24 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) for statistical analysis. A P value of <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We analyzed the data from 41,259 patients with VTE, of whom 22,633 (55.6%) had experienced a provoked VTE. During follow-up, the patients with provoked VTE were more likely to develop MACE or MALE than were patients with unprovoked VTE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.5). The association of arterial events with recent immobility (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.5-12.1) and cancer (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9) was strong. After adjusting for multiple conventional cardiovascular risk factors, provoked VTE, compared with unprovoked VTE, was significantly associated with an increased hazard for MACE (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7). Cancer remained a significant adjusted predictor for both MACE (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and MALE (HR, 2.1; 95% CI 1.01-4.6) in those with provoked VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with VTE, provoked cases, specifically those with cancer-associated VTE, have an increased risk of major arterial events.

9.
Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of periprocedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results. Study-level meta-analyses lack granularity to adjust for confounders, explore heterogeneity, or identify subgroups that may particularly benefit or be harmed. OBJECTIVE: To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop an individual patient-data pooled database of RCTs comparing bivalirudin versus heparin. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs in which ≥1,000 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing PCI were randomized to bivalirudin versus heparin. RESULTS: From 738 identified studies, 8 RCTs met the prespecified criteria. The principal investigators of each study agreed to provide patient-level data. The data were pooled and checked for accuracy against trial publications, with discrepancies addressed by consulting with the trialists. Consensus-based definitions were created to resolve differing antithrombotic, procedural, and outcome definitions. The project required 3.5 years to complete, and the final database includes 27,409 patients (13,346 randomized to bivalirudin and 14,063 randomized to heparin). CONCLUSION: We have created a large individual patient database of bivalirudin versus heparin RCTs in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. This endeavor may help identify the optimal periprocedural anticoagulation regimen for patient groups with different relative risks of adverse ischemic versus bleeding events, including those with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation MI, radial versus femoral access, use of a prolonged bivalirudin infusion or glycoprotein inhibitors, and others. Adherence to standardized techniques and rigorous validation processes should increase confidence in the accuracy and robustness of the results.

10.
TH Open ; 3(4): e356-e363, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815247

RESUMO

Limited information exists about the prevalence, management, and outcomes of intermediate-high risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated consecutive patients with intermediate-high risk PE at a large, tertiary, academic medical center between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2019. Adjudicated outcomes included PE-related mortality and a complicated course through 30 days after initiation of PE treatment. Repeat systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measurements, and echocardiography were performed within 48 hours after diagnosis. Among 1,015 normotensive patients with acute PE, 97 (9.6%) had intermediate-high risk PE. A 30-day complicated course and 30-day PE-related mortality occurred in 23 (24%) and 7 patients (7.2%) with intermediate-high risk PE. Seventeen (18%) intermediate-high risk patients received reperfusion therapy. Within 48 hours after initiation of anticoagulation, normalization of SBP, HR, cTnI, BNP, and echocardiography occurred in 82, 86, 78, 72, and 33% of survivors with intermediate-high risk PE who did not receive immediate thrombolysis. A complicated course between day 2 and day 30 after PE diagnosis for the patients who normalized SBP, HR, cTnI, BNP, and echocardiography measured at 48 hours occurred in 2.9, 1.4, 4.5, 3.3, and 14.3%, respectively. Intermediate-high risk PE occurs in approximately one-tenth of patients with acute symptomatic PE, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Normalization of HR 48 hours after diagnosis might identify a group of patients with a very low risk of deterioration during the first month of follow-up.

11.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776841

RESUMO

In the original publication, part of the conflict of statement was incorrectly published as "Dr. Bikdeli reports that he was approached by lawyers on behalf of plaintiffs in litigation related to IVC filters". The correct statement should read as "Dr. Bikdeli reports that he is a consulting expert (on behalf of the plaintiff) for litigation related to a specific type of IVC filters".

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal cutoff for systolic blood pressure (SBP) level to define high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) remains to be defined. METHODS: To evaluate the relationship between SBP levels on admission and mortality in patients with acute symptomatic PE, the current study included 39,257 consecutive patients with acute symptomatic PE from the RIETE registry between 2001 and 2018. Primary outcomes included all-cause and PE-specific 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included major bleeding and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). RESULTS: There was a linear inverse relationship between admission SBP and 30-day all-cause and PE-related mortality that persisted after multivariable adjustment. Patients in the lower SBP strata had higher rates of all-cause death (reference: SBP 110-129 mmHg) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.2 for SBP <70 mmHg; and OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1 for SBP 70-89 mmHg). The findings for 30-day PE-related mortality were similar (adjusted OR 4.4; 95% CI, 2.7-7.2 for SBP <70 mmHg; and OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.4 for SBP 70-89 mmHg). Patients in the higher strata of SBP had significantly lower rates of 30-day all-cause mortality compared with the same reference group (adjusted OR 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9 for SBP 170-190 mmHg; and OR 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9 for SBP >190 mmHg). Consistent findings were also observed for 30-day PE-related death. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute symptomatic PE, a low SBP portends an increased risk of all-cause and PE-related mortality. The highest mortality was observed in patients with SBP <70 mmHg.

13.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(8): 793-801, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614388

RESUMO

Patients with cirrhosis are not only at an increased risk of bleeding but also at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to determine the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes after VTE in patients with cirrhosis. We used the data from RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica), an international registry of patients with VTE, to compare the outcomes in patients with and without cirrhosis. Main outcomes included all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality, recurrent VTE, and bleeding. Among 43,611 patients with acute VTE, 187 (0.4%) had cirrhosis. Of these, 184 (98.4%) received anticoagulation for a median of 109 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 43-201 days), most commonly with enoxaparin (median dose: 1.77 [IQR: 1.38-2.00] mg/kg/day). Compared with patients without cirrhosis, those with cirrhosis had a higher rate of all-cause mortality (10.7 vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR]: 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.03-5.46) and fatal bleeding (2.1 vs. 0.2%; OR: 13.94; 95% CI: 3.65-37.90) but similar rates of fatal PE (0.5 vs. 0.5%; OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.03-6.70). Patients with cirrhosis had a higher rate of all-cause mortality per 100 patient-years of follow-up (58.9 vs. 16.0; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.69-4.91). One-year hazard ratio of clinically relevant bleeding (HR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.91-4.27), fatal bleeding (HR: 8.51; 95% CI: 3.5-20.7), or recurrent VTE (HR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.00-4.36) was higher in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a challenging comorbidity in patients with VTE. Most patients were treated with anticoagulation and had an elevated risk of recurrence, similar risk of fatal PE, and a very high risk of bleeding including fatal bleeds.

16.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1686-1694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430799

RESUMO

Although prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is recommended after many surgeries, evidence base for use of VTE prophylaxis after foot or ankle surgery has been elusive, leading into varying guidelines recommendations and notable practice variations. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine if use of VTE prophylaxis decreased the frequency of subsequent VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), compared with control. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov through May 2018, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective controlled observational studies of VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery. Our search retrieved 263 studies, of which 6 were finally included comprising 1,600 patients. Patients receiving VTE prophylaxis had lower risk for subsequent DVT (risk ratio [RR]: 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.94) and subsequent VTE (RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55-0.94). There was only one case of nonfatal PE, no cases of fatal PE, and no change in all-cause mortality (RR: 3.51; 95% CI: 0.14-84.84). There was no significant difference in the risk for bleeding (RR: 2.12; 95% CI: 0.53-8.56). Very few RCTs exist regarding the efficacy and safety of VTE prophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery. Prophylaxis appears to reduce the risk of subsequent VTE, but the event rates are low and symptomatic events are rare. Future studies should determine the subgroups of patients undergoing foot or ankle surgery in whom prophylaxis may be most useful.

17.
Eur J Intern Med ; 68: 30-35, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes during the course of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) using statins remain controversial. METHODS: We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) registry to compare the risk for VTE recurrences, major bleeding or death during anticoagulation, according to the use of statins at baseline. We used propensity score-matching (PSM) to adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS: From February 2009 to January 2018, 32,062 VTE patients were included. Of these, 7,085 (22%) were using statins. Statin users were 10 years older (73±11 vs. 63±19 years, respectively) and more likely to have comorbidities or to be using antiplatelets or corticosteroids at baseline than non-users. During the course of anticoagulation (median, 177 days), 694 patients developed VTE recurrences, 848 bled and 3,169 died (fatal pulmonary embolism 176, fatal bleeding 121). Statin users had a similar rate of VTE recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.82-1.17), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.11-1.50) and a similar mortality rate (HR: 1.01; 95%CI: 0.93-1.10) than non-users. On PSM analysis, statin users had a significantly lower risk for death (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.48-0.79) and a similar risk for VTE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.61-1.57) or major bleeding (HR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.59-1.21) than non-users. CONCLUSIONS: During anticoagulation for VTE, patients using statins at baseline had a lower risk to die than non-users.

19.
BMJ ; 366: l4416, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between experience in the management of acute pulmonary embolism, reflected by hospital case volume, and mortality. DESIGN: Multinational population based cohort study using data from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry between 1 January 2001 and 31 August 2018. SETTING: 353 hospitals in 16 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 39 257 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pulmonary embolism related mortality within 30 days after diagnosis of the condition. RESULTS: Patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism admitted to high volume hospitals (>40 pulmonary embolisms per year) had a higher burden of comorbidities. A significant inverse association was seen between annual hospital volume and pulmonary embolism related mortality. Admission to hospitals in the highest quarter (that is, >40 pulmonary embolisms per year) was associated with a 44% reduction in the adjusted odds of pulmonary embolism related mortality at 30 days compared with admission to hospitals in the lowest quarter (<15 pulmonary embolisms per year; adjusted risk 1.3% v 2.3%; adjusted odds ratio 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.95); P=0.03). Results were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. All cause mortality at 30 days was not significantly reduced between the two quarters (adjusted odds ratio 0.78 (0.50 to 1.22); P=0.28). Survivors showed little change in the odds of recurrent venous thromboembolism (odds ratio 0.76 (0.49 to 1.19)) or major bleeding (1.07 (0.77 to 1.47)) between the low and high volume hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism, admission to high volume hospitals was associated with significant reductions in adjusted pulmonary embolism related mortality at 30 days. These findings could have implications for management strategies.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
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