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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596787

RESUMO

Immobilized enzyme-based catalytic constructs could greatly improve various industrial processes due to their extraordinary catalytic activity and reaction specificity. In recent decades, nano-enzymes, defined as enzyme immobilized on nanomaterials, gained popularity for the enzymes' improved stability, reusability, and ease of separation from the biocatalytic process. Thus, enzymes can be strategically incorporated into nanostructured materials to engineer nano-enzymes, such as nanoporous particles, nanofibers, nanoflowers, nanogels, nanomembranes, metal-organic frameworks, multi-walled or single-walled carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles with tuned shape and size. Surface-area-to-volume ratio, pore-volume, chemical compositions, electrical charge or conductivity of nanomaterials, protein charge, hydrophobicity, and amino acid composition on protein surface play fundamental roles in the nano-enzyme preparation and catalytic properties. With proper understanding, the optimization of the above-mentioned factors will lead to favorable micro-environments for biocatalysts of industrial relevance. Thus, the application of nano-enzymes promise to further strengthen the advances in catalysis, biotransformation, biosensing, and biomarker discovery. Herein, this review article spotlights recent progress in nano-enzyme development and their possible implementation in different areas, including biomedicine, biosensors, bioremediation of industrial pollutants, biofuel production, textile, leather, detergent, food industries and antifouling.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617635

RESUMO

The increased demand for cheese and the limited availability of calf rennet justifies the search for milk-clotting enzymes from alternative sources. Trypsin-like protease by Penicillium roqueforti was produced by solid-state fermentation using cocoa shell waste as substrate. The production of a crude enzyme extract that is rich in this enzyme was optimized using a Doehlert-type multivariate experimental design. The biochemical characterization showed that the enzyme has excellent activity and stability at alkaline pH (10-12) and an optimum temperature of 80°C, being stable at temperatures above 60°C. Enzymatic activity was maximized in the presence of Na+ (192%), Co2+ (187%), methanol (153%), ethanol (141%), and hexane (128%). Considering the biochemical characteristics obtained and the milk coagulation activity, trypsin-like protease can be applied in the food industry, such as in milk clotting and in the fabrication of cheeses.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150856, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627923

RESUMO

The rise in living standards and the continuous development in the global economy led to the depletion of resources and increased waste generation per capita. This waste might posture a significant threat to human health or the environmental matrices (water, air, soil) when inadequately treated, transported, stored, or managed/disposed of. Therefore, effective waste management in an economically viable and environmentally friendly way has become meaningful. Prominent technology is the need of the day for circular economy and sustainable development to reduce the speed of depletion in resources and produce an alternative means for the future demands in the different sectors of science and technology. In order to meet the potential requirements for energy production or producing secondary raw material, solid waste may be the prime source. The activities of living organisms convert waste products in one form or another in which electronic waste (e-waste) is a modern-day problem that is growing by leaps and bounds. The disposal protocols of the e-waste management need to be given proper attention to avoid its hazardous impacts. The e-waste is obtained from any equipment or devices that run by electricity or batteries like laptops, palmtops, computers, televisions, mobile phones, digital video discs (DVD), and many more. E-waste is one of the rapidly growing causes of world pollution today. Plenty of research is available in the scientific literature, which shows different approaches being set up and followed to manage and dispose of waste products. These strategies to manage waste products designed by the states all over the globe revolves around minimal production, authentic techniques for the management of waste produced, reuse and recycling, etc. The virtual survey of the available literature on waste management shows that it lacks specificity regarding the management of waste products parallel to ecological sustainability. The presented review covers the sources, potential environmental impacts, and highlights the importance of waste management strategies to provide the latest and updated knowledge. The review also put forward the countermeasures that need to be taken on national and International levels addressing the sensitive issue of waste management.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112855, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628153

RESUMO

The present study reports the synthesis, photocatalytic decolorization of reactive black 5 dye and phytotoxicity of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and iron co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts via modified sol gel method. GQDs were synthesized by direct pyrolysis of citric acid (CA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) were used to determine the physicochemical properties of the best performing photocatalysts. The results indicated improved physicochemical properties of GQD-0.1Fe-TiO2-300 with root mean square roughness (Rz) (33.82 nm), higher surface area (170.79 m2 g-1), pore volume (0.08 cm3 g-1), and bandgap (2.94 eV). Moreover, GQD-0.1Fe co-doping of TiO2 greatly improved the photocatalytic decolorization efficiency for RB5 dye. The photocatalytic reaction followed the pseudo first order reaction with gradual decrease in Kapp values for increment in RB5 concentration. The KC value was obtained as 2.45 mg L-1 min-1 while the KLH value was 0.45 L mg-1 indicating the heterogeneous reaction system followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood isotherm and simultaneously occurring adsorption and photocatalytic processes. Photocatalytic reaction mechanism studies exhibited the holes and OH radicals as the main active species in the GQD-0.1Fe-TiO2-300 responsible for the decolorization of RB5. The proposed reaction pathway showed that both Fe-TiO2 and GQDs play important role in generation of electrons and holes. Additionally, GQD-0.1Fe-TiO2-300 were durable up to four cycles. Phytotoxicity assay displayed that treated water and best performing photocatalysts had no effect on Lycopersicon esculentum seed germination. Therefore, the proposed system can pave a viable solution for safe usage of dye loaded wastewater and effluent for irrigation after treatment.

5.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132528, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637864

RESUMO

Global warming issues, rapid fossil fuel diminution, and increasing worldwide energy demands have diverted accelerated attention in finding alternate sources of biofuels and energy to combat the energy crisis. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass has emerged as a prodigious way to produce various renewable biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, and biohydrogen. Ideal microbial hosts for biofuel synthesis should be capable of using high substrate quantity, tolerance to inhibiting substances and end-products, fast sugar transportation, and amplified metabolic fluxes to yielding enhanced fermentative bioproduct. Genetic manipulation and microbes' metabolic engineering are fascinating strategies for the economical production of next-generation biofuel from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Metabolic engineering is a rapidly developing approach to construct robust biofuel-producing microbial hosts and an important component for future bioeconomy. This approach has been widely adopted in the last decade for redirecting and revamping the biosynthetic pathways to obtain a high titer of target products. Biotechnologists and metabolic scientists have produced a wide variety of new products with industrial relevance through metabolic pathway engineering or optimizing native metabolic pathways. This review focuses on exploiting metabolically engineered microbes as promising cell factories for the enhanced production of advanced biofuels.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639450

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spreads from one person to another rapidly. A recently discovered coronavirus causes it. COVID-19 has proven to be challenging to detect and cure at an early stage all over the world. Patients showing symptoms of COVID-19 are resulting in hospitals becoming overcrowded, which is becoming a significant challenge. Deep learning's contribution to big data medical research has been enormously beneficial, offering new avenues and possibilities for illness diagnosis techniques. To counteract the COVID-19 outbreak, researchers must create a classifier distinguishing between positive and negative corona-positive X-ray pictures. In this paper, the Apache Spark system has been utilized as an extensive data framework and applied a Deep Transfer Learning (DTL) method using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) three architectures -InceptionV3, ResNet50, and VGG19-on COVID-19 chest X-ray images. The three models are evaluated in two classes, COVID-19 and normal X-ray images, with 100 percent accuracy. But in COVID/Normal/pneumonia, detection accuracy was 97 percent for the inceptionV3 model, 98.55 percent for the ResNet50 Model, and 98.55 percent for the VGG19 model, respectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizado Profundo , Big Data , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Raios X
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20429, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650086

RESUMO

Fractional calculus characterizes a function at those points, where classical calculus failed. In the current study, we explored the fractional behavior of the stagnation point flow of hybrid nano liquid consisting of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles across a stretching sheet. Silver Ag and Titanium dioxide TiO2 nanocomposites are one of the most significant and fascinating nanocomposites perform an important role in nanobiotechnology, especially in nanomedicine and for cancer cell therapy since these metal nanoparticles are thought to improve photocatalytic operation. The fluid movement over a stretching layer is subjected to electric and magnetic fields. The problem has been formulated in the form of the system of PDEs, which are reduced to the system of fractional-order ODEs by implementing the fractional similarity framework. The obtained fractional order differential equations are further solved via fractional code FDE-12 based on Caputo derivative. It has been perceived that the drifting velocity generated by the electric field E significantly improves the velocity and heat transition rate of blood. The fractional model is more generalized and applicable than the classical one.

8.
J Basic Microbiol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608659

RESUMO

Environmental protection from emerging pollutants has become a significant challenge for mankind as an increasing number of contaminants, including synthetic dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), represent a serious risk to ecological and environmental balance. Most synthetic dyes have complex aromatic structures and are resistant to degrade by classical approaches, such as physical and chemical processes, including adsorption, chemical coagulation, flocculation, ion exchange, membrane separation, froth flotation, and reverse osmosis. Enzymes-assisted catalytic transformation of pollutants has become a potential alternative to classical methods because of their ability to react with complex compounds, a quick degradation rate, and producing less harmful by-products. Plant peroxidases, and microbial laccase and lignin-degrading peroxidases (manganese and lignin peroxidase) have gained significant attention for treating aromatic waste due to their capability of oxidizing and detoxifying a wide range of recalcitrant xenobiotics, including PAHs and synthetic dyes. Peroxidases being efficient biocatalysts detoxify an array of toxic compounds by simple free-radical mechanism resulting in the formation of oxidized and depolymerized products of significantly reduced toxicity. Moreover, it is an ecofriendly and economically favorable approach towards the biodegradation of recalcitrant and toxic industrial waste. Among microbial and plant peroxidases, bacterial enzymes have broad substrate specificity and can transform a wide range of recalcitrant substrates. Ligninolytic enzymes oxidize the aromatic ring into quinones and acids by producing free hydroxyl radicals instead of dihydrodiols and mineralize aromatic hydrocarbon in combination with cytochrome P450, monooxygenases, and epoxide hydrolases. In the review, an attempt has been made to provide detailed knowledge about the availability of inexpensive peroxidases sources, their mechanism of action, and degradation potential. The present review summarizes the exploitation of peroxidases from plants, bacteria, and fungus (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccases) for detoxification and degradation of textile dyes as well as PAHs. Conclusively, peroxidases have great potential to react with almost all classes of synthetic dyes and most PAHs due to broad substrate specificity and transformed them into less harmful metabolites.

9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6853-6870, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477941

RESUMO

In wild strains of Bacillus, a handful of extracellular natural products act as signals that can regulate multicellular behavior, but relatively little is known about molecular mechanisms' detail. We proposed a previously unreported molecular mechanism for triggering multicellularity in B. velezensis Bs916 by an endogenous cyclic lipopeptide, bacillomycin L. The genome-wide effect on gene expression was caused by the disruption of bacillomycin L gene cluster, and 100 µg/mL bacillomycin L was revealed by quantitative transcriptomics. A total of 878 differentially expressed genes among Bs916, Δbl, and Δbl + 100BL were identified and grouped into 9 functional categories. The transcription levels of 40 candidate genes were further evaluated by RT-qPCR analysis. The expression of eight candidate genes regulated by bacillomycin L in a dose-dependent manner was revealed by LacZ fusion experiment. Although the addition of bacillomycin L could not completely restore the expression levels of the differentially regulated genes in △bl, our results strongly suggest that bacillomycin L acts as a tuning signal of swarming motility and complex biofilm formation by indirectly regulating the expression levels of some two-component systems (TCSs) connector genes, particularly including several Raps that potentially regulate the phosphorylation levels of three major regulators ComA, DegU, and Spo0A.Key points• Proposed model for bacillomycin L regulation in B. velezensis Bs916.• Bacillomycin L can act as an extracellular signal to regulate the phosphorylation levels of three major regulators, ComA, DegU, and Spo0A and control the multicellular processes of vegetative growth, competent, motility, matrix production, sporulation, and autolysis.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Lipopeptídeos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus subtilis , Peptídeos Cíclicos
10.
Nanoscale ; 13(30): 12991-12999, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477782

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs) have achieved remarkable progress recently in terms of mainly surface passivation and composition-matching matrices on CQDs, while improving the overall photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) through electron transport layer (ETL) modifications is less explored. We report a low-temperature solution route to synthesize donor (Al3+/Ga3+/In3+) incorporated zinc oxide (AZO/GZO/IZO) ETL films for PbS CQDSCs. Spectroscopic characterization studies indicate that the IZO ETL fabricated with 150 °C annealing can increase the bandgap the most from 3.56 eV to 3.74 eV, possesses enhanced light transmission (∼94%) and finer particle sizes, and importantly shows the most suitable band alignment and charge transfer ability. Well-dispersed PbS CQDs of around 3 nm are synthesized by a N2-protected reflux method and are surface exchanged with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (EMII) to allow I- grafting and ethanedithiol (EDT) for the active layer and hole transport layer, respectively. The IZO based PbS CQDSC, with a device architecture of ITO/IZO/PbS-EMII/PbS-EDT/Au, shows an enhanced PCE of 11.1% (comparatively 18% higher than that of the ZnO ETL), a VOC value of 0.64 V, and a JSC of 25.8 mA cm-2. The improved performances benefit from the higher recombination resistance and constrained photoluminescence emission with the utilization of the IZO ETL that provides a superior charge transfer property.

11.
Mol Metab ; 54: 101328, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Expansion of adipose tissue during obesity through the recruitment of newly generated adipocytes (hyperplasia) is metabolically healthy, whereas that through the enlargement of pre-existing adipocytes (hypertrophy) leads to metabolic complications. Accumulating evidence from genetic fate mapping studies suggests that in animal models receiving a high-fat diet (HFD), only adipocyte progenitors (APs) in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) have proliferative potential. However, the proliferative potential and differentiating capacity of APs in the inguinal WAT (iWAT) of male mice remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the proliferative and adipogenic potential of APs in the iWAT of HFD-fed male mice. METHODS: We generated PDGFRα-GFP-Cre-ERT2/tdTomato (KI/td) mice and traced PDGFRα-positive APs in male mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. We performed a comprehensive phenotypic analysis, including the histology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and gene expression analysis, of KI/td mice fed HFD. RESULTS: Contrary to the findings of others, we found an increased number of newly generated tdTomato+ adipocytes in the iWAT of male mice, which was smaller than that observed in the gWAT. We found that in male mice, the iWAT has more proliferating tdTomato+ APs than the gWAT. We also found that tdTomato+ APs showed a higher expression of Dpp4 and Pi16 than tdTomato- APs, and the expression of these genes was significantly higher in the iWAT than in the gWAT of mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Collectively, our results reveal that HFD feeding induces the proliferation of tdTomato+ APs in the iWAT of male mice. CONCLUSION: In male mice, compared with gWAT, iWAT undergoes hyperplasia in response to 8 weeks of HFD feeding through the recruitment of newly generated adipocytes due to an abundance of APs with a high potential for proliferation and differentiation.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112826, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592521

RESUMO

Levofloxacin antibiotic is frequently being detected in the environment and regarded as an emerging contaminant. The present study was focused on the green synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4 - gINPs) nanoparticles from Moringa olifera and its efficiency for removal of levofloxacin from aqueous solution. The adsorbent magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were prepared by green synthesis using Moringa olifera and coprecipitation method. Characterizations analyses of both chemically and green synthesized nanoparticles were performed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The average crystallite size of gINPs was 14.34 nm and chemically synthesized was 18.93 nm. The performance of the synthesized product was evaluated by adsorption capacity and removal efficiency. The parameters considered included adsorbent (gINPs) dosage, initial concentration of adsorbate, pH, contact time, and temperature. The obtained data were fitted to kinetic and isotherm models to determine the mechanism. Adsorption batch experiments were conducted to determine the reaction mechanism by studying kinetics while fitting isotherm models for samples analyzed using HPLC at 280 nm. Results showed that 86.15% removal efficiency of 4 mg L-1 levofloxacin was achieved by 100 mg L-1 gINPs in 24 h contact time when all other parameters (pH 7, temperature 25 °C) were kept constant. The maximum adsorption capacity achieved at equilibrium was 22.47 mg/g. Further, it was identified as a pseudo-second-order model with R2 = 0.965 for adsorption kinetics while isotherm data better fitted to the Freundlich model compared to Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.994. The potential pathway determined for levofloxacin removal was chemisorption with minor diffusion, multilayer, spontaneous and exothermic processes on the gINPs (Fe3O4). Reusability experiments were conducted in four cycles and removal efficiency varied from 85.35% to 80.47%, indicating very high potential of the adsorbent for re-use.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127145, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547693

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is a critical issue that requires proper measures to maintain environmental health in a sustainable and effective manner. The growing persistence of several active pharmaceutical residues, such as antibiotics like tetracycline, and anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac in water matrices is considered an issue of global concern. Numerous sewage/drain waste lines from the domestic and pharmaceutical sector contain an array of toxic compounds, so-called "emerging pollutants" and possess adverse effects on entire living ecosystem and damage its biodiversity. Therefore, effective solution and preventive measures are urgently required to sustainably mitigate and/or remediate pharmaceutically active emerging pollutants from environmental matrices. In this context, herein, the entry pathways of the pharmaceutical waste into the environment are presented, through the entire lifecycle of a pharmaceutical product. There is no detailed review available on carbon-dots (CDs) as robust materials with multifunctional features that support sustainable mitigation of emerging pollutants from water matrices. Thus, CDs-based photocatalysts are emerging as an efficient alternative for decontamination by pharmaceutical pollutants. The addition of CDs on photocatalytic systems has an important role in their performance, mainly because of their up-conversion property, transfer photoinduced electron capacities, and efficient separation of electrons and holes. In this review, we analyze the strategies followed by different researchers to optimize the photodegradation of various pharmaceutical pollutants. In this manner, the effect of different parameters such as pH, the dosage of photocatalyst, amount of carbon dots, and initial pollutant concentration, among others are discussed. Finally, current challenges are presented from a pollution prevention perspective and from CDs-based photocatalytic remediation perspective, with the aim to suggest possible research directions.

14.
Trials ; 22(1): 618, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considering the therapeutic potential of honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the objective of the study is defined to evaluate the prophylactic role of HNS. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial with parallel group design, superiority framework with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among experimental (HNS) and placebo group. An interim analysis will be done when half of the patients have been recruited to evaluate the need to adapt sample size, efficacy, and futility of the trial. PARTICIPANTS: All asymptomatic patients with hospital or community based COVID-19 exposure will be screened if they have had 4 days exposure to a confirmed case. Non-pregnant adults with significant exposure level will be enrolled in the study High-risk exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min without face protection) Moderate exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min with face protection) Subjects with acute or chronic infection, COVID-19 vaccinated, and allergy to HNS will be excluded from the study. Recruitment will be done at Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this clinical study, patients will receive either raw natural honey (0.5 g) and encapsulated organic Nigella sativa seeds (40 mg) per kg body weight per day or empty capsule with and 30 ml of 5% dextrose water as a placebo for 14 days. Both the natural products will be certified for standardization by Government College University (Botany department). Furthermore, each patient will be given standard care therapy according to version 3.0 of the COVID-19 clinical management guidelines by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome will be Incidence of COVID-19 cases within 14 days of randomisation. Secondary endpoints include incidence of COVID-19-related symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths along with the severity of COVID-19-related symptoms till 14th day of randomization. RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomized into experimental and control groups (1:1 allocation ratio) via the lottery method. There will be stratification based on high risk and moderate risk exposure. BLINDING (MASKING): Quadruple blinding will be ensured for the participants, care providers and outcome accessors. Data analysts will also be blinded to avoid conflict of interest. Site principal investigator will be responsible for ensuring masking. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 1000 participants will be enrolled in the study with 1:1 allocation. TRIAL STATUS: The final protocol version 1.4 was approved by institutional review board of Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex on February 15, 2021. The trial recruitment was started on March 05, 2021, with a trial completion date of February 15, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial was registered on February 23, 2021, www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04767087 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mel , Nigella sativa , Adulto , Hospitais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 396-408, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506857

RESUMO

The surface chemistry, pendent functional entities, and ease in tunability of various materials play a central role in properly coordinating with enzymes for immobilization purposes. Due to the interplay between the new wave of support matrices and enzymes, the development of robust biocatalytic constructs via protein engineering expands the practical scope and tunable catalysis functions. The concept of stabilization via functional entities manipulation, the surface that comprises functional groups, such as thiol, aldehyde, carboxylic, amine, and epoxy have been the important driving force for immobilizing purposes. Enzyme immobilization using multi-functional supports has become a powerful norm and presents noteworthy characteristics, such as selectivity, specificity, stability, resistivity, induce activity, reaction efficacy, multi-usability, high catalytic turnover, optimal yield, ease in recovery, and cost-effectiveness. There is a plethora of literature on traditional immobilization approaches, e.g., intramolecular chemical (covalent) attachment, adsorption, encapsulation, entrapment, and cross-linking. However, the existing literature is lacking state-of-the-art smart chemistry of immobilization. This review is a focused attempt to cover the literature gap of surface functional entities that interplay between support materials at large and enzyme of interest, in particular, to tailor robust biocatalysts to fulfill the growing and contemporary needs of several industrial sectors.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 700-712, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520777

RESUMO

Fast industrialization and population growth are associated with the increased release of hazardous contaminants in the environment. These hazardous substances, including pharmaceutical, biomedical, personal-care products, heavy metals, endocrine-disrupters, and colorants, pollute the ecosystem by disturbing nature's balance. Nanotechnology has paved new horizons in biochemical engineering by designing novel approaches of integrating nanoscale science with biotechnology to construct improved quality materials for target uptake of pollutants. Recently, nanostructured materials have emerged as research and development frontiers owing to their excellent properties. The tailored designing of nanohybrids constructs with physicochemical alteration enables the nano-bioadsorbent with high target specificity and efficiency. The development of eco-friendly, biodegradable, cost-efficient, and biopolymer-based nanohybrid constructs is gaining attention to remove hazardous environmental pollutants. κ-carrageenan biopolymer is frequently used with different nanomaterials to design nanohybrid bio-adsorbents to remove various contaminants. Herein, the potentialities of carrageenan-based nanohybrid constructs in environmental remediation have been summarized. Different nanostructures, e.g., silica, non-magnetic/magnetic, carbon nanotubes/nanorods, nanoclay/nanomembrane, metal organic frameworks, graphene oxide, and other nanomaterials have been described in combination with carrageenan biopolymers focusing on environmental remediation.

17.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113762, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543967

RESUMO

Biochar is a well-known carbon material with diversified functionalities and excellent physicochemical characteristics with high wastewater treatment potential. This review aims to summarize recent advancements in the development of biochar and biochar-based nanohybrid materials as a potential tool for the removal of harmful organic compounds such as synthetic dyes/effluents. The formation of biochar using pyrolysis of renewable feedstocks and their applications in various industries are explained hereafter. The characteristics and construction of biochar-based hybrid materials are explained in detail. Diversity of feedstocks, including municipal wastes, industrial byproducts, agricultural, and forestry residues, endows different biochar types with a wide structural variety. The production of cost-effective biochar drives the interest in manipulating biochars and induces desire functionality using nanoscale reinforcements. Various types of biochars, such as magnetic biochar, layered nanomaterial coated biochar, nanometallic oxide composites, chemically and physically functionalized biochar, have been produced. With the aid of nanomaterial, hybrid biochar exhibits a high potential to remove toxic contaminants. Depending upon biochar type, dyes/effluents can be removed via different mechanisms, including the Fenton process, photocatalytic degradation, π-π interaction, electrostatic interaction, and physical adsorption. In conclusion, desired physicochemical features, and tunable surface properties of biochar present high potential material in removing organic dyes and other effluents. The blended biochar with different materials/nanomaterials endows broader development and multi-functional opportunities for treating dyes/effluents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise
18.
Neural Comput Appl ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539091

RESUMO

Smart healthcare monitoring systems are proliferating due to the Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled portable medical devices. The IoT and deep learning in the healthcare sector prevent diseases by evolving healthcare from face-to-face consultation to telemedicine. To protect athletes' life from life-threatening severe conditions and injuries in training and competitions, real-time monitoring of physiological indicators is critical. In this research work, we present a deep learning-based IoT-enabled real-time health monitoring system. The proposed system uses wearable medical devices to measure vital signs and apply various deep learning algorithms to extract valuable information. For this purpose, we have taken Sanda athletes as our case study. The deep learning algorithms help physicians properly analyze these athletes' conditions and offer the proper medications to them, even if the doctors are away. The performance of the proposed system is extensively evaluated using a cross-validation test by considering various statistical-based performance measurement metrics. The proposed system is considered an effective tool that diagnoses dreadful diseases among the athletes, such as brain tumors, heart disease, cancer, etc. The performance results of the proposed system are evaluated in terms of precision, recall, AUC, and F1, respectively.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545517

RESUMO

The current improvement in science and engineering, actively dealing with surfaces and interfaces, turns into a functioning control with a thriving advancement propensity. Superlyophobic/superlyophilic phenomena in surface sciences have pulled in broad considerations of researchers and specialists. Inspired by the natural and living organism, researchers have designed different biomimetic materials with exceptional surface wettability, such as the smart wetting of asymmetric spider silk surfaces. These smart materials with superlyophobic/superlyophilic wettability are generally utilized for water assortment, self-cleaning, fluid transportation and separation, and many researchers' domains. Among them, emulsion separation, including division of oil-water blend, mixtures of immiscible liquids and oil-water emulsions, is highlighted by an increasing number of researchers. Numerous materials with one- and two-dimensional morphology, smart surfaces, and super wettability have been effectively designed and utilized in various scientific research applications. We expect that these bioinspired materials with super wettability can have promising applications in practical for emulsion destabilization and liquid transportation.

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