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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460


p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.

Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
Hepatology ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284502


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The liver plays a central role in all metabolic processes in the body. However, precise characterization of liver metabolism is often obscured by its inherent complexity. Phosphorylated metabolites occupy a prominent position in all anabolic and catabolic pathways. Here, we develop a 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based method to study the liver "phosphorome" through the simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple hydrophilic and hydrophobic phosphorylated metabolites. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We applied this technique to define the metabolic landscape in livers from a mouse model of the rare disease disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) as well as two well-known murine models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one genetic, methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice, and the other dietary, mice fed a high-fat choline-deficient diet. We report alterations in the concentrations of phosphorylated metabolites that are readouts of the balance between glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation and of phospholipid metabolism and apoptosis. Moreover, these changes correlate with the main histological features: steatosis, apoptosis, iron deposits, and fibrosis. Strikingly, treatment with the repurposed drug ciclopirox improves the phosphoromic profile of CEP mice, an effect that was mirrored by the normalization of liver histology. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMR-based phosphoromics may be used to unravel metabolic phenotypes of liver injury and to identify the mechanism of drug action.

World J Gastroenterol ; 26(34): 5101-5117, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982112


BACKGROUND: Arachidyl amido cholanoic acid (Aramchol) is a potent downregulator of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) protein expression that reduces liver triglycerides and fibrosis in animal models of steatohepatitis. In a phase IIb clinical trial in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 52 wk of treatment with Aramchol reduced blood levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c, an indicator of glycemic control. AIM: To assess lipid and glucose metabolism in mouse hepatocytes and in a NASH mouse model [induced with a 0.1% methionine and choline deficient diet (0.1MCD)] after treatment with Aramchol. METHODS: Isolated primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with 20 µmol/L Aramchol or vehicle for 48 h. Subsequently, analyses were performed including Western blot, proteomics by mass spectrometry, and fluxomic analysis with 13C-uniformly labeled glucose. For the in vivo part of the study, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly fed a control or 0.1MCD for 4 wk and received 1 or 5 mg/kg/d Aramchol or vehicle by intragastric gavage for the last 2 wk. Liver metabolomics were assessed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-MS for the determination of glucose metabolism-related metabolites. RESULTS: Combination of proteomics and Western blot analyses showed increased AMPK activity while the activity of nutrient sensor mTORC1 was decreased by Aramchol in hepatocytes. This translated into changes in the content of their downstream targets including proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis and oxidation [P-ACCα/ß(S79), SCD1, CPT1A/B, HADHA, and HADHB], oxidative phosphorylation (NDUFA9, NDUFB11, NDUFS1, NDUFV1, ETFDH, and UQCRC2), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (MDH2, SUCLA2, and SUCLG2), and ribosome (P-p70S6K[T389] and P-S6[S235/S236]). Flux experiments with 13C-uniformely labeled glucose showed that TCA cycle cataplerosis was reduced by Aramchol in hepatocytes, as indicated by the increase in the number of rounds that malate remained in the TCA cycle. Finally, liver metabolomic analysis showed that glucose homeostasis was improved by Aramchol in 0.1MCD fed mice in a dose-dependent manner, showing normalization of glucose, G6P, F6P, UDP-glucose, and Rbl5P/Xyl5P. CONCLUSION: Aramchol exerts its effect on glucose and lipid metabolism in NASH through activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTORC1, which in turn activate FA ß-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation.

Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Cólicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo