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1.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066621995426, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multicenter data from 2 decades ago demonstrated that critically ill and injured patients spending more than 6 hours in the emergency department (ED) before transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) had higher mortality rates. A contemporary analysis of ED length of stay in critically injured patients at American College of Surgeons' Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS-TQIP) centers was performed to test whether prolonged ED length of stay is still associated with mortality. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of critically injured patients admitted directly to ICU from the ED in ACS-TQIP centers from 2010-2015. Spending more than 6 hours in the ED was defined as prolonged ED length of stay. Patients with prolonged ED length of stay were matched to those with non-prolonged ED length of stay and mortality was compared. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 113,097 patients were directly admitted from the ED to the ICU following injury. The median ED length of stay was 167 minutes. Prolonged ED length of stay occurred in 15,279 (13.5%) of patients. Women accounted for 29.4% of patients with prolonged ED length of stay but only 25.8% of patients with non-prolonged ED length of stay, P < 0.0001. Mortality rates were similar after matching-4.5% among patients with prolonged ED length of stay versus 4.2% among matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression of the matched cohorts demonstrated prolonged ED length of stay was not associated with mortality. However, women had higher adjusted mortality compared to men Odds Ratio = 1.41, 95% Confidence Interval 1.28 -1.61, P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Prolonged ED length of stay is no longer associated with mortality among critically injured patients. Women are more likely to have prolonged ED length of stay and mortality.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the learning environment (i.e., workload, program efficiency, social support, organizational culture, meaning in work, and mistreatment) and evaluate associations with burnout in general surgery residents. BACKGROUND SUMMARY DATA: Burnout remains high among general surgery residents and has been linked to workplace exposures such as workload, discrimination, abuse, and harassment. Associations between other measures of the learning environment are poorly understood. METHODS: Following the 2019 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, a cross-sectional survey was administered to all U.S. general surgery residents. The learning environment was characterized using an adapted Areas of Worklife survey instrument, and burnout was measured using an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Associations between burnout and measures of the learning environment were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Analysis included 5,277 general surgery residents at 301 programs (85.6% response rate). Residents reported dissatisfaction with workload (n = 784, 14.9%), program efficiency and resources (n = 1,392, 26.4%), social support and community (n = 1,250, 23.7%), organizational culture and values (n = 853, 16.2%), meaning in work (n = 1,253, 23.7%), and workplace mistreatment (n = 2,661, 50.4%). The overall burnout rate was 43.0%, and residents were more likely to report burnout if they also identified problems with residency workload (aOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.31-1.94), efficiency (aOR 1.74; 95%CI 1.49-2.03), social support (aOR 1.37, 95%CI 1.15-1.64), organizational culture (aOR 1.64; 95%CI 1.39-1.93), meaning in work (aOR 1.87; 95%CI 1.56-2.25), or experienced workplace mistreatment (aOR 2.49; 95%CI 2.13-2.90). Substantial program-level variation was observed for all measures of the learning environment. CONCLUSIONS: Resident burnout is independently associated with multiple aspects of the learning environment, including workload, social support, meaning in work, and mistreatment. Efforts to help programs identify and address weaknesses in a targeted fashion may improve trainee burnout.

4.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of personal accomplishment (PA) with the other subscales, assess its association with well-being outcomes, and evaluate drivers of PA by resident level. BACKGROUND: Most studies investigating physician burnout focus on the emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) subscales, neglecting PA. Therefore, the role of PA is not well understood. METHODS: General surgery residents were surveyed following the 2019 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination regarding their learning environment. Pearson correlations of PA with EE and DP were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association of PA with attrition, job satisfaction, and suicidality and identified factors associated with PA by postgraduate year. RESULTS: Residents from 301 programs were surveyed (85.6% response rate, N=6,956). Overall, 89.4% reported high PA, which varied by PGY-level (PGY1: 91.0%, PGY2/3: 87.7%, PGY4/5: 90.2%; p=0.02). PA was not significantly correlated with EE (r=-0.01) or DP (r=-0.08). After adjusting for EE and DP, PA was associated with attrition (OR 0.60, 95%CI 0.46-0.78) and job satisfaction (OR 3.04, 95%CI 2.45-3.76) but not suicidality (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.48-1.09). While the only factor significantly associated with PA for interns was resident cooperation, time in operating room and clinical autonomy were significantly associated with PA for PGY2/3. For PGY4/5s, PA was associated with time for patient care, resident cooperation, and mentorship. CONCLUSION: PA is a distinct metric of resident well-being, associated with job satisfaction and attrition. Drivers of PA differ by PGY level and may be targets for intervention to promote resident wellness and engagement.

5.
J Surg Res ; 257: 169-177, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few opportunities exist for surgeons to receive technical skills feedback after training. Surgeons at hospitals within the Illinois Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative were invited to participate in a peer-to-peer video-based coaching initiative focused on improving technical skills in laparoscopic right colectomy. We present a formative qualitative evaluation of a video-based coaching initiative. METHODS: Concurrent with the implementation of our video-based coaching initiative, we conducted two focus groups and 15 individual semistructured interviews with participants; all interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. A subset of surgeons participated in a group video-review session, which was observed by qualitative researchers. Transcripts and notes were analyzed using an organizational behavior framework adapted from executive coaching. RESULTS: Participation in the initiative was primarily motivated by the opportunity to learn from others and improve skills. Surgeons highlighted the value of self-video and peer-video assessment not only to learn new techniques but also for self-reflection and benchmarking. Barriers to participation included logistics (e.g. using the laparoscopic recording devices, coordinating schedules for peer coaching), time commitment, and a surgical culture that assumes the intent of coaching is to address deficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: Video-based peer-coaching provides a platform for surgeons to reflect, benchmark against peers, and receive personalized feedback; however, more work is needed to increase participation and sustain involvement over time. There is an opportunity to decrease logistical barriers and increase acceptability of coaching by integrating video-based coaching into existing surgical conferences and established continuous professional development efforts.


Assuntos
Tutoria/métodos , Grupo Associado , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gravação em Vídeo
6.
J Surg Res ; 257: A1-A11, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768197

RESUMO

The issue of burnout among surgical trainees became evident during our work on the FIRST Trial. In studying the issue, we found that burnout symptoms occurred in a relatively large proportion of surgical trainees, and burnout was associated with significant risks of having thoughts of leaving the residency program or having suicidal thoughts. The SECOND Trial seeks to reduce trainee wellbeing and mistreatment by leveraging approaches used in healthcare quality performance improvement (e.g., comparative reports, toolkits, collaboration). Importantly, the epidemic of surgical trainee wellbeing issues have worsened (i.e., fanning the burnout fire) given our misconceptions about generational differences, our delayed adaptations to shifts in healthcare, and even some of our good intentions. However, there are several things we can do to improve the situation: (1) embrace the change that comes with each generation; (2) appreciate, respect, and enjoy our trainees; (3) teach residents constructively, leaving yelling and bullying behind; (4) embrace the concept of wellness for ourselves and each other; (5) provide meaningful feedback and mentorship; and (6) give each other the benefit of the doubt (e.g., principle of charity). Despite these issues, academic surgery remains the best job in the world, and the strength of our profession, leaders, and colleagues will see us through these challenges. The Association for Academic Surgery will help lead the way on these important issues.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgiões/tendências , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/tendências
7.
J Surg Res ; 257: 1-8, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we developed online interactive clinician education modules highlighting best practices to minimize opioid prescribing at discharge after surgery. The modules were implemented as part of a multicomponent quality improvement initiative across a six-hospital health system. This article describes the development and evaluation of this educational intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinician education modules targeting surgical prescribers, nurses, and pharmacists were developed and implemented by an interdisciplinary team. Clinicians were invited to participate in an evaluation survey after completing the modules. Survey items assessed clinicians' rating of the module and intention to change clinical practice because of the module. Quantitative and qualitative survey responses were analyzed by the study team. RESULTS: A total of 2119 clinicians completed the module and 1831 of these clinicians (86.4%) completed the survey. Of clinicians completing the survey, 65.6% reported that they intend to change clinical practice after completing the module. Intended changes were related to increased knowledge and awareness, provider empowerment, opioid prescribing practices, nonopioid prescribing practices, and patient education. Many clinicians who indicated they do not intend to change practice reported that their clinical practices were already in line with module recommendations. Some clinicians did not perceive the module to be relevant to their role. CONCLUSIONS: Module completion was associated with the intention to improve clinical practice in areas related to provider empowerment, opioid prescribing, nonopioid prescribing, and patient education. Evaluation data will inform future module improvements. There is an opportunity to ensure that all clinicians, including those who are not prescribers, recognize their role in opioid stewardship.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/educação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Farmacêuticos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cirurgiões/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
JAMA ; 324(20): 2058-2068, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231664

RESUMO

Importance: Certificate of need laws provide state-level regulation of health system expenditure. These laws are intended to limit spending and control hospital expansion in order to prevent excess capacity and improve quality of care. Several states have recently introduced legislation to modify or repeal these regulations, as encouraged by executive order 13813, issued in October 2017 by the Trump administration. Objective: To evaluate the difference in markers of hospital activity and quality by state certificate of need status. These markers include hospital procedural volume, hospital market share, county-level procedures per 10 000 persons, and patient-level postoperative outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study involving Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who underwent 1 of the following 10 procedures from January 1, 2016, through November 30, 2018: total knee or hip arthroplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting, colectomy, ventral hernia repair, lower extremity vascular bypass, lung resection, pancreatic resection, cystectomy, or esophagectomy. Exposures: State certificate of need regulation status as determined by data from the National Conference of State Legislatures. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes of interest included hospital procedural volume; hospital market share (range, 0-1; reflecting 0%-100% of market share); county-level procedures per 10 000 persons; and patient-level postoperative 30-day mortality, surgical site infection, and readmission. Results: A total of 1 545 952 patients (58.0% women; median age 72 years; interquartile range, 68-77 years) at 3631 hospitals underwent 1 of the 10 operations. Of these patients, 468 236 (30.3%) underwent procedures in the 15 states without certificate of need regulations and 1 077 716 (69.7%) in the 35 states with certificate of need regulations. The total number of procedures ranged between 729 855 total knee arthroplasties (47.21%) and 4558 esophagectomies (0.29%). When comparing states without vs with certificate of need regulations, there were no significant differences in overall hospital procedural volume (median hospital procedure volume, 241 vs 272 operations per hospital for 3 years; absolute difference, 31; 95% CI, -27.64 to 89.64; P = .30). There were no statistically significant differences between states without vs with certificate of need regulations for median hospital market share (median, 28% vs 52%; absolute difference, 24%; 95% CI, -5% to 55%; P = .11); procedure rates per 10 000 Medicare-eligible population (median, 239.23 vs 205.41 operations per Medicare-eligible population in 3 years; absolute difference, 33.82; 95% CI, -84.08 to 16.43; P = .19); or 30-day mortality (1.17% vs 1.33%, odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.16; P = .52), surgical site infection (1.24% vs 1.25%; OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.04; P = .21), or readmission rate (9.69% vs 8.40%; OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.12; P = .19). Conclusions and Relevance: Among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent a range of surgical procedures from 2016 through 2018, there were no significant differences in markers of hospital volume or quality between states without vs with certificate of need laws. Policy makers should consider reevaluating whether the current approach to certificate of need regulation is achieving the intended objectives and whether those objectives should be updated.

9.
J Surg Educ ; 77(6): e94-e102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No method or data exist to allow surgical trainees or their programs to contextualize their technical progress. The objective of this study was to create peer benchmarks for Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) charts based upon operative evaluations from a national cohort of general surgery residents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: In 2016-2018, faculty from 26 general surgery residency programs nationwide rated 328 residents' operative performance on a case-by-case basis using a validated 5-point Likert scale. An individual case was considered a "misstep" if scoring below the national median score for that procedure in that postgraduate year (PGY). We constructed 2-sided observed-expected CUSUM charts to capture each resident's cumulative performance over time relative to the national medians. Upper (failure) and lower (positive outlier) benchmarks were established based on the PGY-specific 75th percentile and median misstep rates; consistent/repeated missteps are reflected by crossing of the upper boundary. Procedures with ≤10 observations and residents who were evaluated <10 times for each PGY were excluded. RESULTS: Around 8,161 evaluations on 76 procedure types were analyzed. The individual misstep rate was lowest among PGY-3s at 13.3% and highest among PGY-4s at 28.6%. No interns had curves that crossed the failure boundary. 8.7% of PGY-2s and 8.9% of PGY-3s finished the year past the failure boundary. PGY-2s had the most positive outliers, with 28.3% of them demonstrating an outlying success performance beyond the lower boundary for at least once. PGY-5s most frequently failed, with 16.7% ever crossing the upper boundary and 11.1% remaining above it at graduation. CONCLUSIONS: CUSUM is a valid statistical approach for benchmarking individual residents' operative performance against national peers as they progress through the year in real-time. With further validation, CUSUM could be used to set progression and/or graduation standards and objectively identify residents who might benefit from remediation.

11.
Surgery ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend extended chemoprophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients having operations for inflammatory bowel disease. Quantifying patients' risk of venous thromboembolism, however, remains challenging. We sought (1) to identify factors associated with postdischarge venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing colorectal resection for inflammatory bowel disease and (2) to develop a postdischarge venous thromboembolism risk calculator to guide prescribing of extended chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients who underwent an operation for inflammatory bowel disease from 2012 to 2018 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program for colectomy and proctectomy procedure targeted modules. Postdischarge venous thromboembolism included pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis diagnosed after discharge from the index hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the association of patient/operative factors with postdischarge venous thromboembolism. A postdischarge venous thromboembolism risk calculator was subsequently constructed. RESULTS: Of 18,990 patients, 199 (1.1%) developed a postdischarge venous thromboembolism within the first 30 postoperative days. Preoperative factors associated with postdischarge venous thromboembolism included body mass index (1.9% with body mass index ≥35 vs 0.8% with body mass index 18.5-24.9; odds ratio 2.34 [95% confidence interval 1.49-3.67]), steroid use (1.3% vs 0.7%; odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval 1.37-2.66]), and ulcerative colitis (1.5% vs 0.8% with Crohn's disease; odds ratio 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.32-2.34]). Minimally invasive surgery was associated with postdischarge venous thromboembolism (1.2% vs 0.9% with open; odds ratio 1.42 [95% confidence interval 1.05-1.92]), as was anastomotic leak (2.8% vs 1.0%; odds ratio 2.24 [95% confidence interval 1.31-3.83]) and ileus (2.1% vs 0.9%; odds ratio 2.60 [95% confidence interval 1.91-3.54]). The predicted probability of postdischarge venous thromboembolism ranged from 0.2% to 14.3% based on individual risk factors. CONCLUSION: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors are associated with postdischarge venous thromboembolism after an operation for inflammatory bowel disease. A postdischarge venous thromboembolism risk calculator was developed which can be used to tailor extended venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis by individual risk.

13.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgeon burnout is linked to poor outcomes for physicians and patients. Several conceptual models exist that describe drivers of physician wellness generally. No such model exists for surgical residents specifically. METHODS: A conceptual model for surgical resident well-being was adapted from published models with input gained iteratively from an interdisciplinary team. A survey was developed to measure residents' perceptions of their program. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tested the fit of our proposed model construct. RESULTS: The conceptual model outlines eight domains that contribute to surgical resident well-being: Efficiency and Resources, Faculty Relationships and Engagement, Meaning in Work, Resident Camaraderie, Program Culture and Values, Work-Life Integration, Workload and Job Demands, and Mistreatment. CFA demonstrated acceptable fit of the proposed 8-domain model. CONCLUSION: Eight distinct domains of the learning environment influence surgical resident well-being. This conceptual model forms the basis for the SECOND Trial, a study designed to optimize the surgical training environment and promote well-being.

14.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083559

RESUMO

Background: There has been a proliferation of urban high-level trauma centers. The aim of this study was to describe the density of high-level adult trauma centers in the 15 largest cities in the USA and determine whether density was correlated with urban social determinants of health and violence rates. Methods: The largest 15 US cities by population were identified. The American College of Surgeons' (ACS) and states' department of health websites were cross-referenced for designated high-level (levels 1 and 2) trauma centers in each city. Trauma centers and associated 20 min drive radius were mapped. High-level trauma centers per square mile and per population were calculated. The distance between high-level trauma centers was calculated. Publicly reported social determinants of health and violence data were tested for correlation with trauma center density. Results: Among the 15 largest cities, 14 cities had multiple high-level adult trauma centers. There was a median of one high-level trauma center per every 150 square kilometers with a range of one center per every 39 square kilometers in Philadelphia to one center per596 square kilometers in San Antonio. There was a median of one high-level trauma center per 285 034 people with a range of one center per 175 058 people in Columbus to one center per 870 044 people in San Francisco. The median minimum distance between high-level trauma centers in the 14 cities with multiple centers was 8 kilometers and ranged from 1 kilometer in Houston to 43 kilometers in San Antonio. Social determinants of health, specifically poverty rate and unemployment rate, were highly correlated with violence rates. However, there was no correlation between trauma center density and social determinants of health or violence rates. Discussion: High-level trauma centers density is not correlated with social determinants of health or violence rates. Level of evidence: VI. Study type: Economic/decision.

15.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 46(10): 558-564, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cost of surgical care is largely measured by charges or payments, both of which are inadequate. Actual cost data from the hospital's perspective are required to accurately quantify the financial return on investment of engaging in quality improvement. The objective of this study was to define the cost of individual, 30-day postoperative complications using robust cost data from a diverse group of hospitals. METHODS: Using clinical data derived from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, this retrospective study assessed postoperative complications for patients who underwent surgery at one of four hospitals in 2016. Actual direct and indirect 30-day costs were obtained, and the adjusted cost per complication was determined. RESULTS: From the 6,387 patients identified, the three complications associated with the highest independent adjusted cost per event were prolonged ventilation ($48,168; 95% confidence interval [CI]: $21,861-$74,476), unplanned intubation ($26,718; 95% CI: $15,374-$38,062), and renal failure ($18,528; CI: $17,076-$19,981). The three complications associated with the lowest independent adjusted cost per event were urinary tract infection (-$372; 95% CI: -$1,336-$592), superficial surgical site infection ($2,473; 95% CI: -$256-$5,201) and venous thromboembolism ($7,909; 95% CI: -$17,903-$33,721). After colectomy, the adjusted independent cost of anastomotic leak was $10,195 (95% CI: $5,941-$14,449), while the cost of postoperative ileus was $10,205 (95% CI: $6,259-$14,149). CONCLUSION: The actual hospital costs of complications were estimated using cost data from four diverse hospitals. These data can be used by hospitals to estimate the financial benefit of reducing surgical complications.

16.
JAMA Surg ; 155(11): 1043-1049, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902609

RESUMO

Importance: Physician burnout is a serious issue, given its associations with physician attrition, mental and physical health, and self-reported medical errors. Burnout is typically measured in health care by assessing the frequency of symptoms in 2 domains, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. However, the lack of a clinically diagnostic threshold to define burnout has led to considerable variability in reported burnout rates. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of burnout using a range of definitions (ie, requiring symptoms in both domains or just 1) and thresholds (ie, requiring symptoms to occur weekly vs a few times per year) and examine the strength of the association of various definitions of burnout with suicidal thoughts and thoughts of attrition among general surgery residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional national survey of clinically active US general surgery residents administered in conjunction with the 2019 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination assessed burnout symptoms, thoughts of attrition, and suicidal thoughts during the past year. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association of burnout symptoms with thoughts of attrition and suicidal thoughts. Values of R2 and C statistic were used to evaluate multivariable model performance. Exposures: Burnout was evaluated with a 6-item, modified, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory for 2 burnout domains: emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was prevalence of burnout. Secondary outcomes were thoughts of attrition and suicidal thoughts within the past year. Results: Among 6956 residents (a 85.6% response rate; including 3968 men [57.0%] and 4041 non-Hispanic White individuals [58.1%]) from 301 surgical residency programs, 2329 (38.6%) reported at least weekly symptoms of emotional exhaustion, and 1389 (23.1%) reported at least weekly depersonalization symptoms. Using the most common definition, 2607 general surgery residents (43.2%) reported weekly burnout symptoms on either subscale. Subtle changes in the definition of burnout selected resulted in prevalence estimates varying widely from 3.2% (159 residents; most stringent: daily symptoms on both subscales) to 91.4% (5521 residents; least stringent: symptoms a few times per year on either subscale). In multivariable models, all measures of higher burnout symptoms were associated with increased thoughts of attrition (depersonalization: R2, 0.097; C statistic, 0.717; emotional exhaustion: R2, 0.137; C statistic, 0.758; both: R2, 0.138; C statistic, 0.761) and suicidal thoughts (depersonalization: R2, 0.077; C statistic, 0.718; emotional exhaustion: R2, 0.102; C statistic, 0.750; both: R2, 0.106; C statistic, 0.751) among general surgery residents (all P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In a national evaluation of general surgery residents, prevalence estimates of burnout varied considerably, depending on the burnout definition selected. Frequent burnout symptoms were strongly associated with both thoughts of attrition and suicide, regardless of the threshold selected. Future research on burnout should explicitly include a clear description and rationale for the burnout definition used.

18.
Med Care ; 58(10): 867-873, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient utilization of public reporting has been suboptimal despite attempts to encourage use. Lack of utilization may be due to discordance between reported metrics and what patients want to know when making health care choices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify measures of quality that individuals want to be presented in public reporting and explore factors associated with researching health care. RESEARCH DESIGN: Patient interviews and focus groups were conducted to develop a survey exploring the relative importance of various health care measures. SUBJECTS: Interviews and focus groups conducted at local outpatient clinics. A survey administered nationally on an anonymous digital platform. MEASURES: Likert scale responses were compared using tests of central tendency. Rank-order responses were compared using analysis of variance testing. Associations with binary outcomes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 4672 responses were received (42.0% response rate). Census balancing yielded 2004 surveys for analysis. Measures identified as most important were hospital reputation (considered important by 61.9%), physician experience (51.5%), and primary care recommendations (43.2%). Unimportant factors included guideline adherence (17.6%) and hospital academic affiliation (13.3%, P<0.001 for all compared with most important factors). Morbidity and mortality outcome measures were not among the most important factors. Patients were unlikely to rank outcome measures as the most important factors in choosing health care providers, irrespective of age, sex, educational status, or income. CONCLUSIONS: Patients valued hospital reputation, physician experience, and primary care recommendations while publicly reported metrics like patient outcomes were less important. Public quality reports contain information that patients perceive to be of relatively low value, which may contribute to low utilization.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Hospitais/normas , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Registros Públicos de Dados de Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
JAMA Surg ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838425

RESUMO

Importance: Postoperative complications remain common after surgery, but little is known about the extent of variation in operative technical skill and whether variation is associated with patient outcomes. Objectives: To examine the (1) variation in technical skill scores of practicing surgeons, (2) association between technical skills and patient outcomes, and (3) amount of variation in patient outcomes explained by a surgeon's technical skill. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this quality improvement study, 17 practicing surgeons submitted a video of a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy that was then rated by at least 10 blinded peer surgeons and 2 expert raters. The association between surgeon technical skill scores and risk-adjusted outcomes was examined using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The association between technical skill scores and outcomes was examined for colorectal procedures and noncolorectal procedures (ie, assessed on whether technical skills demonstrated during colectomy were associated with patient outcomes across other cases). In addition, the proportion of patient outcomes explained by technical skill scores was examined using robust regression techniques. The study was conducted from September 23, 2016, to February 10, 2018; data analysis was performed from November 2018 to January 2019. Exposures: Colorectal and noncolorectal procedures. Main Outcomes and Measures: Any complication, mortality, unplanned hospital readmission, unplanned reoperation related to principal procedure, surgical site infection, and death or serious morbidity. Results: Of the 17 surgeons included in the study, 13 were men (76%). The participants had a range from 1 to 28 years in surgical practice (median, 11 years). Based on 10 or more reviewers per video and with a maximum quality score of 5, overall technical skill scores ranged from 2.8 to 4.6. From 2014 to 2016, study participants performed a total of 3063 procedures (1120 colectomies). Higher technical skill scores were significantly associated with lower rates of any complication (15.5% vs 20.6%, P = .03; Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient r = -0.54, P = .03), unplanned reoperation (4.7% vs 7.2%, P = .02; r = -0.60, P = .01), and a composite measure of death or serious morbidity (15.9% vs 21.4%, P = .02; r = -0.60, P = .01) following colectomy. Similar associations were found between colectomy technical skill scores and patient outcomes for all types of procedures performed by a surgeon. Overall, technical skill scores appeared to account for 25.8% of the variation in postcolectomy complication rates and 27.5% of the variation when including noncolectomy complication rates. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that there is wide variation in technical skill among practicing surgeons, accounting for more than 25% of the variation in patient outcomes. Higher colectomy technical skill scores appear to be associated with lower complication rates for colectomy and for all other procedures performed by a surgeon. Efforts to improve surgeon technical skills may result in better patient outcomes.

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