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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 479-482, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559807

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma is the third cause of death among the general population in Poland, and the first in people aged 1-44 years. Trauma centers are hospitals dedicated to treating patients with multiple organ injuries, in a complex way that endeavours to ensure a lower mortality rate, shorter hospital stay and better outcomes if the patients are transferred to such a center. Worldwide, there are many models on how to treat a trauma patient, but them to be qualified for the procedure, the selection of potential patients is crucial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the Polish model for qualification to a trauma center and American Guidelines for Field Triage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical documentation recorded between 1 January 2014 - 31 December 2014 was undertaken. The study concerned trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department of the Regional Trauma Center at the Copernicus Memorial Hospital in Lódz, Poland. Inclusion criterion was initial diagnosis 'multiple-organ injury' among patients transported by the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). RESULTS: In the period indicated, 3,173 patients were admitted to the Emergency Department at the Copernicus Memorial Hospital. From among them, 159 patients were included in the study. Only 13.2% of the patients fulfilled the Polish Qualification Criteria to Trauma Center in comparison to 87.4% who fulfilled the American Guidelines for Field Triage. CONCLUSIONS: Polish qualification criteria do not consider the large group of patients with severe injuries (ISS>15), but indicate patients with minimal chance of survival. Polish criteria do not consider the mechanism of injury, which is a relevant predictive indicator of severe or extremely severe injuries (ISS>15). Further studies should be undertaken to improve the qualification and treatment of trauma patients in Poland.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Triagem/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Polônia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(1): 65-73, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was a survey-based assessment concerning parents of children undergoing CT examinations and their knowledge of detailed information about procedures involved in imaging diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A statistical analysis of 108 surveys of parents of children undergoing CT studies in the Department of Pediatric Radiology in Poznan, Poland was done, with the use of Statistica software. RESULTS: In result of the evaluation of all subsections of the substantive question number, the majority of answers were incorrect (68-98%). No correlation between the number of CT examinations conducted for a child and the number of correct answers to substantive questions was observed. No correlation between the number of CT examinations conducted for a child and the fact of noting the examination with the use of ionizing radiation down in a child's health certificate was stated. The statistical analysis showed that children of parents who declared that the aim of the CT examination had been explained to them better underwent more of them. CONCLUSIONS: Parents are poorly informed about a radiation dose and risk related to a CT examination procedure. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(1):65-73.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Doses de Radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Polônia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 24(4): 566-569, 2017 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Baclofen is a drug used mainly to treat muscle spasticity. Its overdose can lead to life-threatening clinical symptoms, including acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected clinical symptoms associated with baclofen poisoning comparing to an ingested dose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 cases of oral baclofen poisoning were analyzed. Gender, age distribution, and correlation between the dose of ingested baclofen were studied, as well as and following clinical parameters: degree of altered consciousness, heart rate, blood pressure, presence of acute respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation, and presence of psychotic symptoms. RESULTS: The study found statistically significant correlations between dosage of ingested baclofen and presence of acute respiratory failure, as well as duration of mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant correlations were found between the dose of ingested baclofen and presence of hypertension, bradycardia, acute psychotic symptoms, or level of consciousness disturbance. However, it was found that patients who suffered from hypertension, bradycardia, and altered mental status ingested a larger dose of baclofen. CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistically significant correlation between the dose of ingested baclofen and the presence of acute respiratory failure, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Patients who have taken a single dose of baclofen of 200 mg, or higher, should be managed in centres able to provide continuous monitoring of life functions. Those with a higher level of a single dose of baclofen ingestion (>500 mg), should be hospitalized in a Toxicology Unit or Intensive Care Unit able to provide airway support and mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
Baclofeno/envenenamento , Relaxantes Musculares Centrais/envenenamento , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Baclofeno/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relaxantes Musculares Centrais/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 56(8): 2331-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25393675

RESUMO

This prospective study estimated outcomes in 509 elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with different treatment approaches depending on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients were stratified into fit (ECOG 0-2 and CCI 0-2) or frail (ECOG>2 and/or CCI>2) groups. Fit patients with CCI 0 received intensive chemotherapy whilst reduced-intensive chemotherapy (R-IC) was given to those with CCI 1-2. Frail patients received best supportive therapy. Fit patients presented a longer overall survival (OS) than frail subjects, but 8-week mortality rates were similar. The complete response (CR) rate between fit CCI 0 and CCI 1-2 subgroups was significantly different. Both of the fit subgroups showed similar 8-week mortality rates and OS probabilities. Allocating fit patients with CCI 1-2 to R-IC enabled an increase in the group of elderly patients who could be treated with the intention of inducing remission.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 61(3): 485-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25210936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In June 2009 the World Health Organization announced influenza pandemic caused by A/H1N1/v virus. It became crucial to recognize new cases of A/H1N1/v infection. An effective screening diagnostic procedure was needed for patients suffering from influenza-like symptoms for making an initial diagnosis and analyzing epidemiological pattern of infection. We used a strip test for influenza A/B as a screening diagnostic procedure for patients suffering from influenza-like symptoms for making an initial diagnosis. For comparison, RT PCR for detecting A/H1N1/v was performed. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and sensitivity of the strip test and its value for making initial diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1/v. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Strip testing for the influenza A/B infection was performed on 1123 patients with influenza-like symptoms in the Admission Unit of the Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital in Warsaw. Strip test results were analyzed according to the age of patients and season of the year. For 97 patients strip test results for detecting A/H1N1 infection were compared with those obtained by RT PCR. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences found between the methods and strip testing demonstrated sensitivity of 61% and specificity of 71%. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant differences were found between the two methods, however, strip test had low sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Fitas Reagentes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 61(2): 165-74, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23283519

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify whether pretreatment plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) correlate with prognosis and survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Plasma VEGF levels were assessed at the time of diagnosis in 157 DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Plasma VEGF levels greater than or equal to the highest quartile (high VEGF levels) were associated with lower probability of a complete remission achievement (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-0.6; p = 0.002) in univariate as well as in multivariate analysis (p = 0.04). The estimated 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of patients with high VEGF levels was 31.7% (95% CI 17-51) compared to the 62.5% 3-year PFS rate (95% CI 53-71; p = 0.0004) in the patients with lower values. The former group of patients demonstrated an estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of 47.1% (95% CI 30-65) in contrast to the 3-year OS rate of 64.3% (95% CI 54-73; p = 0.02) in the latter. In multivariate analysis, the high VEGF level retained its independent impact on shorter PFS (p = 0.02). Our results suggest that VEGF plays an important role in the clinical course of DLBCL. VEGF may be a useful marker for selecting the patients for whom new treatment approaches, especially those based on VEGF inhibitors, could be recommended.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(3): 357-64, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23020024

RESUMO

Since 2008, it has been recognised by most health authorities worldwide that the abuse of newly-emerging psychoactive drugs, ('designer drugs'/'legal highs'; DD), in youth is a rapidly increasing problem, especially in the EU, threatening to offset gains made in tackling established and illegal drugs which they are intended to mimic; DD diversity is continually increasing to circumvent laws. The aim of the study was to determine the scale of DD abuse/availability amongst Polish youth. The surveyed test population was randomly selected from a representative group of adolescents attending high schools, secondary schools and universities throughout Poland. Questionnaires were completed by 14,511 subjects (10,083 school pupils and 4,428 students). Few persons from each group admitted using DDs; 453 school pupils (4.49%) vs. 81 students (1.83%). More males (4.74%) took DDs than females (2.77%). The tendency to take DDs in the company of friends was high in both DD-taking groups (>80%). DDs were consumed mostly in open spaces (34.15%), discos/pubs (21.13%) and boarding school/friend's house (20.57). Most frequently, DDs came from shops (57.68%), friends (31.46%) or dealers (10.11%). Ensuing symptoms included; happy/euphoric mood (58.80%), talkativeness (42.51%) and hallucinations (22.85%). Over 74% of DD-takers in both groups experienced adverse reactions, and those requiring help sought it from: friends/colleagues (6.74%), doctors (5.06%), and hospitals (4.87%), but most rarely from parents/guardians (2.62%). Urgent action is being taken, especially in youth education, to prevent DDs becoming the serious menace seen with conventional drugs.


Assuntos
Drogas Desenhadas/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Drogas Desenhadas/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/provisão & distribução , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(3): 395-402, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23020029

RESUMO

Summaries in 2 parts are presented from a conference held in London at the Royal Society for Public Health on 16-17 May 2012, on the latest developments in dealing with waterborne hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial), from the UK perspective. Also included were some views from continental Europe. The first part, focuses on management strategies and plans that are either in use or recommended by domestic/international guidelines, such as the WHO, for prevention, control and risk assessment of disease outbreaks resulting from the presence of these pathogenic microorganisms in water appliances/supplies. Various solutions are discussed, some more effective than others, but all require a comprehensive strategy and technical expertise run by properly trained and dedicated professionals.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Medição de Risco
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(3): 491-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23020045

RESUMO

The interaction between environmental signals and genes has now taken on a clear molecular form as demonstrated by stable changes in chromatin structure. These changes occur through activation or repression of specific gene programmes by a combination of chromatin remodelling, activation and enzymatic modification of DNA and histones as well as nucleosomal subunit exchange. Recent research investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling drug-induced transcriptional, behavioural and synaptic activity has shown a direct role for chromatin remodelling--termed as epigenetic regulation--of neuronal gene programmes and subsequent addictive behaviour arising from it. Recent data suggest that repeated exposure to certain drugs promotes changes in levels of histone acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation, together with alterations in DNA methylation levels in the neurons of the brain reward centre, localised in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) region of the limbic system. The combination of acetylating, phosphorylating and methylating H3 and H4 histone tails alter chromatin compaction thereby promoting altered levels of cellular gene expression. Histone modifications, which weaken histone interaction with DNA or that promote recruitment of transcriptional activating complexes, correlate with permissive gene expression. Histone deacetylation, (which strengthen histone: DNA contacts), or histone methylation, (which recruits repressive complexes to chromatin), promote a state of transcriptional repression. Using animal models, acute cocaine treatment increases H4 acetylation at acutely regulated gene promoters, whereas H3 acetylation appears to predominate at chronically induced promoters. Chronic cocaine and alcohol treatment activate and repress many genes such as FosB, Cdk5, and Bdnf, where their dysregulation, at the chromatin level, contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction. Following drug exposure, it is still unknown, howver, how long these changes in chromatin structure persist in affecting neuronal function, but some do so for life.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Animais , Cocaína/farmacologia , Cocaína/toxicidade , Etanol/farmacologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia
10.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 60(6): 477-86, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22945689

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 are cytokines involved in the balance between cell-mediated and humoral immunity. We investigated whether serum TNF-α and IL-10 levels have any impact on clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). TNF-α and IL-10 levels were determined in the serum of 160 CLL patients at the time of diagnosis. The cytokine low-risk group consisted of patients with either TNF-α and IL-10 levels below their medians or those with only one elevated parameter. Both TNF-α and IL-10 levels greater than or equal to their medians defined the cytokine high-risk group. The high-risk patients presented a shorter 3-year treatment-free survival (TFS) than low-risk subjects (15 vs. 69.6 %; p < 0.0001). The high-risk group (p = 0.0002) along with high leukocyte count (p < 0.0001) and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes (p < 0.0001) independently predict the risk of progression in patients with Rai stage 0-II. Furthermore, the high-risk group had an independent prognostic impact on shorter TFS both in patients with mutated (24.3 vs. 78.2 %; p < 0.0001) and unmutated (8.2 vs. 49 %; p = 0.004) immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes (IGHV) as compared to the low-risk group. The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) of high-risk patients was shorter than those in the low-risk group (83.3 vs. 97.1 %; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis demonstrated the cytokine high-risk group (p = 0.02) followed by Rai stage III-IV (p = 0.048) to be independent factors predicting shorter OS. At diagnosis, TNF-α and IL-10 may predict the outcome of patients with CLL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Interleucina-10/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Mutação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(2): 299-308, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22742806

RESUMO

Patterns of nutritional behaviours shaped in childhood and during the period of adolescents are mostly continued in adult life, and on these patterns, to a great degree, depends the risk of development of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults. The study group covered 14,511 adolescents/young adults: 10,081 children attending high schools and secondary schools, and 4,428 university students. More than 87% of schoolchildren and students admitted that that they snacked between meals everyday, and 1/3 of them mentioned that they consumed meals at night. As many as 41.40% of schoolchildren, and 46.70% of students experienced the feeling of overeating at least several times a week. Analysis of the respondents BMI showed that in the group of students there were considerably more respondents obese or overweight, compared to the group of schoolchildren. Fear of gaining weight was mentioned by 9.90% of respondents, including 6.90% of those with normal body structure, 1.40% with underweight or overweight, and 0.40% of those obese. As many as 54.60% of the total number of respondents described their body structure as remaining within the normal, 23.7% - as slim, 13.9% reported that they were overweight, 6% - thin, while 1.7% considered themselves as obese. A comprehensive analysis of the data available, including attempts at dieting or gaining weight, indicated that approximately ¾ of obese respondents had undertaken attempts in the past to reduce their body weight. The importance of physical activity and healthy eating habits should be given due attention not only to prevent obesity but also other eating disorder.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/etiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(2): 309-14, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22742807

RESUMO

"Legal highs" known also as "smarts", "legal drugs" or "boosters" contain in their composition psychoactive substances the production, sale and possession of which are not prohibited in legislation. They are offered for sale under the cover of collectors' items, a salt bath, aroma sticks, or plant fertilizer. Marketing was the reason for such high sales of these "highs" in Poland. The phenomenon became of concern when information became available about the first cases of tragic health consequences. Raising the awareness of youth about the level of imminent danger and serious consequences associated with the use of legal highs may be a very effective way to develop appropriate attitudes of young people, and in the light of their own health can help them take proper life decisions."Legal highs" are substances of natural or synthetic origin having psychostimulating properties. These compounds may differ in chemical structure, potency, half-life, metabolism and severity of side effects. Their pharmacological activity is associated with changes in the neurotransmitter system. After higher doses of "legal highs" psychotic symptoms may occur: visual and auditory hallucinations resembling schizophrenic endogenous psychoses. An alarming fact is the underestimation of the adverse effect of these substances on human health. Any actions aimed at improving this situation are extremely important; therefore, in one of the key projects undertaken at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, in cooperation with other scientific institutes, concerned the analysis of a selected series of "legal highs". This research was meant top serve as a source of information for science and medicine, and for popularizing knowledge about legal highs.


Assuntos
Drogas Desenhadas/análise , Legislação de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Psicotrópicos/análise , Cromatografia , Comércio , Drogas Desenhadas/classificação , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacologia , Drogas Desenhadas/provisão & distribução , Usuários de Drogas , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/classificação , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Polônia , Psicotrópicos/classificação , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/provisão & distribução , Saúde Pública
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(2): 315-26, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22742808

RESUMO

It is recognized that the levels of women's physical activity during pregnancy has a direct bearing on the method of delivery and health of the newborn. The main objective of the study was investigation of the level of physical activity of women during pregnancy according to the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). The subjects of this study were n=2852 post-partum women surveyed together with their newborns, representing all obstetric hospital departments throughout Poland. The questionnaires were completed on a single day during the second week of November 2011. The women were also asked about the amount, range and type of physical activity they performed before becoming pregnant. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for precisely measuring physical activity according to the standard metabolically equivalent (MET). In addition, comparisons were made between the weight of the infant and newborn status using the APGAR scale with the amount of physical activity performed by the mothers. There were decidedly low physical activity levels observed in pregnant women compared to those before becoming pregnant. Appropriate interventions can therefore now be targeted through remedial action in Poland. It is important to perform intervention studies intended to test this hypothesis and attempt to identify the most appropriate levels for intensity, duration and frequency of physical exercise during pregnancy. The studies should consider the four domains of daily physical activity and utilize tools that reliably measure exposure variables. Such studies would provide valuable information for recommendations about physical activity during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Reprodução , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Análise de Variância , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(1): 3-10, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22462438

RESUMO

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most virulent diarrhoeagenic E. coli known to date. They can spread with alarming ease via the food chain, as recently demonstrated by the large outbreak of STEC O104:H4 borne by sprouted seeds in 2011, clustered in northern Germany, and subsequently affecting other countries. Indeed, a significant number of infections to verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 have been reported from the WHO European Region resulting in many cases of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 15 other European countries and North America. Eventually, the European Food Standards Agency, (EFSA), identified the likely source to a single consignment of fenugreek seeds from an Egyptian exporter as being linked to the two outbreaks in Germany and France. The situation was closely monitored by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate public health authority in Poland where actions undertaken ensured that the public was well informed about the dangers of STEC contamination of food, how to avoid infection, and what to do if infected. Tracing the fenugreek distributors also enabled the identification of suspected batches and their isolation. As a result, there were very few reported cases of STEC infection in Poland. Effective control over such outbreaks is therefore a vital public health task. This should include early detection and rapid identification of the contagion mode, followed by removing the foodstuff(s) from the market, providing consumer advice, and preventing secondary spreading. As a mitigation measure, screening/monitoring those involved in food handling is also warranted to exclude carriers who can be asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/classificação , Trigonella/microbiologia
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(1): 109-15, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22462455

RESUMO

The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to promote various forms of physical activity among students and schoolchildren. A constant decrease in physical activity observed among children and adolescents suggests that it is necessary to pay greater attention to this social group while developing health programmes.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Estudantes , Adolescente , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(1): 117-28, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22462456

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies in Poland show that tobacco smoking by adolescents at reproductive age is still frequently observed. This concerns both boys and girls. The study was based on all-Polish population studies of health behaviours of adolescents aged 14-24 (Youth Behavioural Polish Survey--YBPS) conducted in 2011, and the Pregnancy-related Assessment Monitoring Survey (PrAMS). More than 12% of pregnant women do not discontinue smoking in association with becoming pregnant and expose the foetus to tobacco smoke, despite being aware of the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the mother and child. Smoking in pregnancy is mainly observed among mothers with a low education level and those aged under 23. According to the Baker's Foetal Origins of Adult Health and Diseases Hypothesis, exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke results in many perturbations in the form of a lower birth weight, prematurity, worse state of neonates after birth, and higher susceptibility to contacting civilization diseases at the age of adulthood. The results of studies confirm some observations. Polish studies clearly confirmed a lower birth weight of babies delivered by mothers who smoke; however, earlier termination of pregnancy and worse status of neonates after birth were not observed. According to the Baker's hypothesis, a lower birth weight of babies delivered by smoking mothers during the further life cycle exposes the offspring to the risk of contracting civilization diseases. The efforts undertaken by public health authorities should be biased towards education of the population at reproductive age about the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the foetus and the offspring born. Women at reproductive age should be encouraged to discontinue smoking in association with the planning of pregnancy and in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(4): 619-24, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23311777

RESUMO

These summaries form the second part of presentations made at a recent conference held at the Royal Society for Public Health in London, 16-17 May 2012, on the latest developments in combating waterborne hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial). The first part (Ann Agric Environ Med 2012; 19(3): 395-402) has focused more on the adopted strategies/approaches from the UK perspective, (some also from continental Europe), whereas the presented second part (sections 1-7 below), is dedicated more to practical solutions, and examples of features used in water systems that are or have been considered effective.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos
18.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(4): 717-22, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23311796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A tobacco surveillance system is crucial for improving the planning and implementation of effective tobacco control policies. The purpose of the presented study was to describe a review of the process of implementation and methodological assumption of a Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Poland. The study strengths and limitations are evaluated, as well as some recommendations given for further tobacco surveillance activities in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was implemented in Poland between 2008-2010. The survey population selection process was based on a three-stage stratified geographically-clustered sample of a non-institutional population aged 15 years and over. Those who lived in institutions were not surveyed. The GATS questionnaire was very detailed and provides a significant amount of data. The filed work was preceded by several training sessions for all survey staff and the pretest. Questionnaires were administered in respondents' homes during the face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: Of the 14,000 households selected for the survey, 8,948 (63.9%) households and 7,840 (93.9%) sampled individuals completed the interviews. The total survey response rate was 65.1%. CONCLUSIONS: GATS was an important step towards obtaining representative, current data on the tobacco epidemic in Poland. Basic results of the study are currently available. More in-depth analysis will provide useful data for public health experts and policymakers to assign resources and establish health priorities. Unfortunately, competing targets and lack of awareness on the part of stakeholders still constrains the financial resources available to those undertaking tobacco control research in Poland. The circumscribed capacity to undertake multidisciplinary policy research limits both the quality and quantity of such studies. There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles for each of these functions and the funds dedicated to the research.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(4): 836-41, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23311816

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is a global public health problem. According to the current estimations, more than one billion people worldwide smoke tobacco. The highest prevalence of smoking is observed in Europe and Central Asia. In Poland, nearly a half of males and 1/3 of females are smokers. Information concerning an increase in the prevalence of tobacco smoking among women is alarming. It is estimated that tobacco smoking is the cause of approximately 10% of deaths worldwide. If the present trend maintains itself, in the present 21(st) century nearly one billion people will prematurely loose their lives due to tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoking by pregnant women additionally exerts a negative effect on the developing foetus. The objective of the study was analysis of haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system in pregnant women and their newborn babies after delivery according to the number of cigarettes smoked daily by the mothers in pregnancy. The studies were based on the questionnaire forms. The studies were carried out in all hospitals in Poland where pregnant women were hospitalized with their newborns on one day in 2010 and 2011. The material for the study were replies to the questions concerning the results of blood tests of mothers and newborns. No significant changes concerning haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system were observed in women after delivery. With respect to newborns, an increase was noted in the level of haemoglobin in the babies of women who, in the third trimester of pregnancy, smoked more than 6 cigarettes daily. The hematocrit value and amount of erythrocytes did not change. The results of the studies showed that tobacco smoking in pregnancy exerts a negative effect on the environment in which the foetus develops, and consequently, on the health of newborn babies.


Assuntos
Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fumar/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 19(4): 857-70, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23311820

RESUMO

Faced with the rapidly growing increase of designer drug abuse, particularly amongst the younger generation, various legislative strategies are currently employed world-wide for tackling this problem - however with mixed results. The key issue is that the producers of DDs are able to either exploit existing legal substances intended for other uses, but which have been found to possess psychoactive properties, or to synthesise new psychoactive substances by introducing chemical modifications, often very minor ones, thereby avoiding the prohibited use of chemicals included on any banned lists. Some countries opt to ban new drugs as and when shown or considered to be harmful, while others introduce sweeping bans based on chemical structure. Nevertheless, an ever increasing diversity of new DDs are constantly appearing on domestic and Internet markets. Poland, together with the UK and Eire, has placed temporary bans on all DDs whenever they have been identified, thus enabling sufficient time for assessing their potential hazards to health. Part of this 'holding' strategy entails a thorough review of the scientific literature, including expert opinion when direct evidence is lacking, as well as information received from EU support organisations Europol and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). This paper, in two parts, therefore aims to provide an up-to-date summary review of available scientific evidence on the harm caused by the six main chemical groupings of DDs found in drug seizures of illegal products recently made in Poland. The first part is devoted to Cannabinoids and Cathinones derivatives. Ensuing legislation can therefore be rapidly formulated to make the bans permanent as appropriate.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Drogas Desenhadas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Polônia , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
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