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2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 705927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804915

RESUMO

The role of a healthy diet in cancer prevention is well recognized. Recent data indicate that following the same advices can also improve cancer survivors' quality of life. Breast cancer (BC) patients are commonly concerned about diet and nutrition and frequently express the need to obtain health-related information and the will to change their diet and lifestyle. Hence, be aware of survivors' dietary changes and information needs is crucial for healthcare professionals to guide them toward optimal lifestyle choices. In order to investigate eating habits changes in a BC survivors' population, we conceived the cross-sectional multicentric study ECHO (Eating habits CHanges in Oncologic patients) Survey. Data were collected from 684 patients, diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, in order to investigate their changes in food consumption, use of supplements, or the beginning of a specific diet, after BC diagnosis. We also examined the sources of information used and if any modification in their diets was reported to the oncologist. We primarily observed that patients increased their consumption of vegetables, pulses, nuts, fruits, wholemeal bread/pasta, grains and fish; while decreasing red and processed meat, refined bread/pasta, baked good and animal fat consumption. Survivors also reported the use of dietary supplements, mainly vitamins, aimed at counteracting therapies' side effects. Changes in nutritional habits were often adopted without asking or informing the oncologist. Despite BC survivors made some positive changes in their nutritional habits, those modifications were mostly pursued by less than half of them, while the majority of patients consumed nutritional supplements after diagnosis. These results, as well as the failure to communicate with the physicians, reinforce the need to both improve the patient-healthcare professional relationship and to develop tailored nutrition counselling and intervention programs for cancer survivors.

3.
Oncologist ; 26(4): e694-e703, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triage procedures have been implemented to limit hospital access and minimize infection risk among patients with cancer during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. In the absence of prospective evidence, we aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of a triage system in the oncological setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzes hospital admissions to the oncology and hematology department of Udine, Italy, during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 30 to April 30, 2020). A total of 3,923 triage procedures were performed, and data of 1,363 individual patients were reviewed. RESULTS: A self-report triage questionnaire identified 6% of triage-positive procedures, with a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.0%-85.4%), a specificity of 94.3% (95% CI, 93.5%-95.0%), and a positive predictive value of 5.9% (95% CI, 4.3%-8.0%) for the identification of patients who were not admitted to the hospital after medical review. Patients with thoracic cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13-2.53, p = .01), younger age (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.01, p < .01), and body temperature at admission ≥37°C (OR, 9.52; 95% CI, 5.44-16.6, p < .0001) had increased risk of positive triage. Direct hospital access was warranted to 93.5% of cases, a further 6% was accepted after medical evaluation, whereas 0.5% was refused at admission. CONCLUSION: A self-report questionnaire has a low positive predictive value to triage patients with cancer and suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) symptoms. Differential diagnosis with tumor- or treatment-related symptoms is always required to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Body temperature measurement improves the triage process's overall sensitivity, and widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing should be implemented to identify asymptomatic carriers. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This is the first study to provide data on the predictive performance of a triage system in the oncological setting during the coronavirus disease outbreak. A questionnaire-based triage has a low positive predictive value to triage patients with cancer and suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) symptoms, and a differential diagnosis with tumor- or treatment-related symptoms is mandatory to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Consequently, adequate recourses should be reallocated for a triage implementation in the oncological setting. Of note, body temperature measurement improves the overall sensitivity of the triage process, and widespread testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection should be implemented to identify asymptomatic carriers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Triagem/métodos , Idoso , Infecções Assintomáticas , Temperatura Corporal , Teste para COVID-19 , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 49: 101856, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Defining patients as 'terminally-ill' may be difficult. Therefore, determining when to shift the goal of care from curative to comfort care may be extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to merge when and how Registered Nurses (RNs) and Nurses' Assistants (NAs) adjust end-of-life care to pursue patient comfort at the end of their lives. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study based on multiple focus groups was performed in 2017 according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guidelines. In all, 25 RNs and 16 NAs across seven north-east Italian facilities that provide end-of-life care, voluntarily participated in the study. Each focus group was conducted following the same interview guide with open-ended questions, and was audiotaped. A thematic analysis was applied to interview transcripts. RESULTS: The process of nursing care plan adjustment is based upon two main themes, around 'when' and 'how' to adjust it. Regarding when, 'Detecting the turning point', and 'Being ready to change continuously until the end' emerged as the main sub-themes. Regarding how, 'Weighing harms and benefits of nursing care interventions'; 'Advocating for patients' wishes', 'Sharing the adjustments inside the team at different levels', 'Involving family in the adjustments of nursing care'; and 'Allowing care to move away from evidence-based practice' were the sub-themes emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Shedding light on the implicit decisional processes that inform care adjustments and the implementation of related strategies is essential to improve the quality of end-of-life care given that an early detection of the terminal phase has been reported to result in changes of care improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Neoplasias/enfermagem , Neoplasias/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(12): 4607-4613, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taste disorders are one of the most common side effects of treatment in oncology patients and often occur after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Dysgeusia does not receive close medical attention, and information about this disorder is largely based on the clinician's own experience. However, taste disorders can have an impact on the quality of life and nutritional status of survivors of allo-HCT. The number of performed annual transplantations is growing, as the number of older long-term survivors increases, but only few research studies examine survivors of allo-HCT with taste disorders. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study to explore experiences of dysgeusia in patients undergoing allo-HCT and to examine what strategies they used to mitigate it. METHODS: Using purposeful sampling, survivors of allo-HCT were recruited. Audiotape interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and content analyses were performed to extract significant themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Three major themes embracing various aspects of allo-HCT survivors' experiences were identified: (1) the shape of taste; (2) everything is irritating and it is arduous to eat; (3) finding new strategies to overcome the problems. Together, they highlight the experiences of survivors showing how the taste disorders can affect the physical, psychological and social dimensions of a person. CONCLUSION: A cumulative burden is the result of dysgeusia and its clinical course reinforced also by related symptoms. Healthcare professionals must focus their attention on the management of these symptoms and offer interventions to safeguard the patient's social, physical and psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/psicologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Disgeusia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Paladar/fisiologia
6.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 20: 58-63, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163026

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to develop a tool for measuring the difficulty of intravenous line insertion in cancer patients (DIVA-CP) receiving peripheral chemotherapy. METHODS: a pilot-validation study divided into two phases was performed in a north-eastern Italian outpatient chemotherapy centre. In the first phase, a review of the literature and brainstorming sessions/direct discussions among expert oncology nurses were used to develop items on the DIVA-CP tool, and a panel of expert oncology nurses assessed the tool face and content validity. In the second phase, 260 adult patients undergoing single chemotherapy cycles were consecutively enrolled. Data was analysed for construct validity (explorative factor analysis) and inter-rater reliability (Cohen's Kappa). RESULTS: a 10-item tool was developed with four factors that were identified through factor analysis, explaining a total variance of 61.578%: accessibility to first choice veins (23.057%), venous fragility (15.197%), probable difficulties during the procedure (12.642%), and repeated exposure (10.691%). The tool demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability (κ > 0.61 for 7 out of 10 items). CONCLUSIONS: the DIVA-CP tool is still a pilot instrument that needs to be improved through future studies. The tool has great potential and may perform an important role in oncological settings, allowing for easier venous assessment of patients receiving peripheral chemotherapy who are at risk of difficult intravenous access insertion. In addition, this instrument may help nurses to identify patients that may benefit from a central catheter promptly.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/normas , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Infusões Intravenosas/normas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 21(1): 17-21, 2002.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11998340

RESUMO

A retrospective study of the incidence of pressure sores was one of the principal component of the ad hoc program of surveillance, prevention and treatment of pressure sores started in 1996 at University Hospital of Udine. Data were collected from the nursing records of patients defined at risk according to the Waterlow scale and admitted during 1998-99. Aims of the study were to quantify the number of patients who developed a pressure sore while in hospital and their risk level; stage of the lesions; to qualify the main risk factors and the management strategies adopted (i.e. mattresses, medications). Overall, 151 subjects (20.7% of those recruited) developed a pressure sore the greatest majority (96%) were classified as transient and reactive redness or superficial sore, while 14 patients (4%) developed a severe sore. For 50.4% of the lesions a regression to a lower risk level or healing were documented.


Assuntos
Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
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