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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 83, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rwanda has made substantial economic progress over the past two decades. However, evidence suggests that malnutrition among children remains high in spite of this progress. This study aims to examine trends and potential risk factors associated with childhood stunting from 2000 to 2015 in Rwanda. METHODS: Data for this study come from the 2000 to 2015 Rwanda's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a cross-sectional, population-based survey that is conducted every 5 years. Following prior work, we define stunting based on age and weight as reported in the DHS. We assess the overall prevalence of stunting among children under the age of 5 in Rwanda and then conduct bivariate analyses across a range of policy-relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables. We then incorporate key variables in a multivariable analysis to identify those factors that are independently associated with stunting. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting among children under the age of 5 in Rwanda declined from 2000 (47.4%) to 2015 (38.3%), though rates were relatively stagnant between 2000 and 2010. Factors associated with higher rates of stunting included living in the lowest wealth quintile, having a mother with limited education, having a mother that smoked, being of the male sex, and being of low-birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Though overall stunting rates have improved nationally, these gains have been uneven. Furthering ongoing national policies to address these disparities while also working to reduce the overall risk of malnutrition will be necessary for Rwanda to reach its overall economic and health equity goals.

2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 8(4): e000532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799443

RESUMO

Improving the quality of healthcare delivery is increasingly a global health priority. However, quality improvement training opportunities that provide theoretical foundations and basic skills for patient safety and other quality initiatives have been limited or historically out of reach, especially in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). To address this gap, the Harvard Initiative on Global Health Quality (HIGHQ) created and launched a massive open online course (MOOC) in 2014 focused on patient safety and quality of care using the edX platform. More than 30 000 students from across 195 countries registered for the online course. This paper summarises an innovative educational partnership between the course team and one of these countries, Rwanda, to develop a blended-learning model to bolster participation in this new course among Rwandan healthcare professionals. Although a small country, Rwanda was among the top performing countries for attracting course registrants and was the leading country for the proportion of enrollees who ultimately completed the course. Further, half (21 of 42) of Rwanda's district hospitals opted to appoint a PH555x course facilitator at their site to help lead regular meetings and discussions about the course content at their facility. The majority of Rwandan enrollees were health professionals (63%) and 81% reported that PH555x was their first experience taking an online course. Among those participating in the 'flipped' component at hospital sites, 94% reported that the course helped them to think of specific ways to improve healthcare quality at their facility. In this paper, we describe this innovative public-private educational model, challenges to implementation and lessons learned that may be helpful for future MOOC developers who wish to augment learning opportunities among healthcare professionals in LMICs.

4.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-7, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774712

RESUMO

This is a summary of the presentations addressing approaches and achievements to reach the goal of eliminating cervical cancer as a global public health problem that were delivered at the 7th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research at the 10th Annual Consortium of Universities for Global Health Meeting in March 2019. Dr Princess Nothemba Simelela, Assistant Director-General for Family, Women, Children and Adolescents, World Health Organization, gave an introduction to the World Health Organization-led Cervical Cancer Elimination Initiative and the emerging conceptual framework and targets that will shape the global 2020 to 2030 strategy. Subsequent presentations shared experiences from national programs in Rwanda (Agnes Binagwaho), Latin America (Patricia J. Garcia), and Senegal (Babacar Gueye and J. Andrew Dykens. Successes in intensified human papillomavirus vaccination and screening with follow-up treatment of early and advanced lesions detected are highlighted as well as the challenges and obstacles in achieving and maintaining high coverage in Africa and Latin America. With strong political leadership, commitment of national stakeholders, and the use of proven and cost-effective approaches to human papillomavirus vaccination, screening, and treatment, the vision of a world free of cervical cancer and saving women's lives every year by preventing deaths from cervical cancer will be achievable in the next generation in all countries.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322671

RESUMO

QUALITY PROBLEM: Weaknesses in the quality of care delivered at hospitals translates into patient safety challenges and causes unnecessary harm. Low-and-middle-income countries disproportionately shoulder the burden of poor quality of hospital care. INITIAL ASSESSMENT: In the early 2000s, Rwanda implemented a performance-based financing (PBF) system to improve quality and increase the quantity of care delivered at its public hospitals. PBF evaluations identified quality gaps that prompted a movement to pursue an accreditation process for public hospitals. CHOICE OF SOLUTION: Since it was prohibitively costly to implement an accreditation program overseen by an external entity to all of Rwanda's public hospitals, the Ministry of Health developed a set of standards for a national 3-Level accreditation program. IMPLEMENTATION: In 2012, Rwanda launched the first phase of the national accreditation system at five public hospitals. The program was then expected to expand across the remainder of the public hospitals throughout the country. EVALUATION: Out of Rwanda's 43 public hospitals, a total of 24 hospitals have achieved Level 1 status of the accreditation process and 4 have achieved Level 2 status of the accreditation process. LESSONS LEARNED: Linking the program to the country's existing PBF program increased compliance and motivation for participation, especially for those who were unfamiliar with accreditation principles. Furthermore, identifying dedicated quality improvement officers at each hospital has been important for improving engagement in the program. Lastly, to improve upon this process, there are ongoing efforts to develop a non-governmental accreditation entity to oversee this process for Rwanda's health system moving forward.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002749, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-risk pregnancies, such as twin pregnancies, deserve particular attention as mortality is very high in this group. With a view to inform policy and national guidelines development for the Sustainable Development Goals, we reviewed national training materials, guidelines, and policies underpinning the provision of care in relation to twin pregnancies and assessed care provided to twins in 8 Eastern and Southern African countries: Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We located policies and guidelines by reviewing national repositories and by contacting experts to systematically map country-level maternal and newborn training materials, guidelines, and policies. We extracted recommendations for care for twins spanning ante-, intra-, and postpartum care that typically should be offered during twin pregnancies and childbirth. We compared care provided for mothers of twins to that provided for mothers of singletons during the ante-, intra-, and postpartum period and computed neonatal mortality rates using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data for each country. There was a paucity of guidance on care specifically for twin or multiple pregnancies: None of the countries provided clear guidance on additional number of antenatal care visits or specific antenatal content, while 7 of the 8 countries recommended twins to be delivered in a comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care facility. These results were mirrored by DHS results of 73,462 live births (of which 1,360 were twin) indicating that twin pregnancies did not receive more frequent or intensified antenatal care. The percentage of twin deliveries in hospitals varied from 25.3% in Mozambique to 63.0% in Kenya, and women with twin deliveries were between 5 and 27 percentage points more likely to deliver in hospitals compared to women with singleton live births; this difference was significant in 5 of the 8 countries (t test p < 0.05). The percentage of twin deliveries by cesarean section varied from 9% in Mozambique to 36% in Rwanda. The newborn mortality rate among twins, adjusted for maternal age and parity, was 4.6 to 7.2 times higher for twins compared to singletons in all 8 countries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited sample size and the limited number of clinically relevant services evaluated, our study provided evidence that mothers of twins receive insufficient care and that mortality in twin newborns is very high in Eastern and Southern Africa. Most countries have insufficient guidelines for the care of twins. While our data do not allow us to make a causal link between insufficient guidelines and insufficient care, they call for an assessment and reconceptualisation of policies to reduce the unacceptably high mortality in twins in Eastern and Southern Africa.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Política de Saúde , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos/fisiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet ; 393(10169): 319-320, 2019 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803716
12.
J Glob Oncol ; 4: 1-14, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085895

RESUMO

Purpose The global burden of cancer is slated to reach 21.4 million new cases in 2030 alone, and the majority of those cases occur in under-resourced settings. Formidable changes to health care delivery systems must occur to meet this demand. Although significant policy advances have been made and documented at the international level, less is known about the efforts to create national systems to combat cancer in such settings. Methods With case reports and data from authors who are clinicians and policymakers in three financially constrained countries in different regions of the world-Guatemala, Rwanda, and Vietnam, we examined cancer care programs to identify principles that lead to robust care delivery platforms as well as challenges faced in each setting. Results The findings demonstrate that successful programs derive from equitably constructed and durable interventions focused on advancement of local clinical capacity and the prioritization of geographic and financial accessibility. In addition, a committed local response to the increasing cancer burden facilitates engagement of partners who become vital catalysts for launching treatment cascades. Also, clinical education in each setting was buttressed by international expertise, which aided both professional development and retention of staff. Conclusion All three countries demonstrate that excellent cancer care can and should be provided to all, including those who are impoverished or marginalized, without acceptance of a double standard. In this article, we call on governments and program leaders to report on successes and challenges in their own settings to allow for informed progression toward the 2025 global policy goals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruanda , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(2): e000674, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662695

RESUMO

Introduction: Although Rwanda's health system underwent major reforms and improvements after the 1994 Genocide, the health system and population health in the southeast lagged behind other areas. In 2005, Partners In Health and the Rwandan Ministry of Health began a health system strengthening intervention in this region. We evaluate potential impacts of the intervention on maternal and child health indicators. Methods: Combining results from the 2005 and 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys with those from a supplemental 2010 survey, we compared changes in health system output indicators and population health outcomes between 2005 and 2010 as reported by women living in the intervention area with those reported by the pooled population of women from all other rural areas of the country, controlling for potential confounding by economic and demographic variables. Results: Overall health system coverage improved similarly in the comparison groups between 2005 and 2010, with an indicator of composite coverage of child health interventions increasing from 57.9% to 75.0% in the intervention area and from 58.7% to 73.8% in the other rural areas. Under-five mortality declined by an annual rate of 12.8% in the intervention area, from 229.8 to 83.2 deaths per 1000 live births, and by 8.9% in other rural areas, from 157.7 to 75.8 deaths per 1000 live births. Improvements were most marked among the poorest households. Conclusion: We observed dramatic improvements in population health outcomes including under-five mortality between 2005 and 2010 in rural Rwanda generally and in the intervention area specifically.

14.
Acta Trop ; 182: 149-157, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476726

RESUMO

To date, the Republic of Rwanda has not systematically reported on distribution, diversity and malaria infectivity rate of mosquito species throughout the country. Therefore, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as the nocturnal biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. For this purpose, mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological characteristics and PCR. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rates were determined using ELISA. A total of 340,684 mosquitoes was collected by HLC and 73.8% were morphologically identified as culicines and 26.2% as anophelines. Of the latter, 94.3% were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 0.4% Anopheles funestus and 5.3% other Anopheles species. Of An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. represented 84.4% and 15.6%, respectively. Of all An. gambiae s.l. collected indoor and outdoor, the proportion collected indoors was 51.3% in 2010 and 44.9% in 2013. A total of 17,022 mosquitoes was collected by PSC of which 20.5% were An. gambiae s.l. and 79.5% were culicines. For the seven sentinel sites, the mean indoor density for An. gambiae s.l. varied from 0.0 to 1.0 mosquitoes/house/night. P. falciparum infection rates in mosquitoes varied from 0.87 to 4.06%. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 1.0 to 329.8 with an annual average of 99.5 infective bites/person/year. This longitudinal study shows, for the first time, the abundance, species composition, and entomological inoculation rate of malaria mosquitoes collected throughout Rwanda.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Monitoramento Ambiental , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ruanda
16.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 55(2S): S77-S80, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803090

RESUMO

In 2011, Rwanda's Ministry of Health set a goal of universal access to palliative care by 2020. Toward this audacious egalitarian and humanitarian goal, the Ministry of Health worked with partners to develop palliative care policies and a strategic plan, secure adequate supplies of opioid for the country, initiate palliative care training programs, and begin studying a model for integrating coordinated palliative care into the public health care system at all levels. It also initiated training of a new cadre of home-based care practitioners to provide palliative care in the home. Based on these developments, the goal appears within reach.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Ruanda , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
18.
Ann Glob Health ; 84(4): 743-752, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women comprise 75% of the health workforce in many countries and the majority of students in academic global health tracks but are underrepresented in global health leadership. This study aimed to elucidate prevailing attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of women and men regarding opportunities and barriers for women's career advancement, as well as what can be done to address barriers going forward. METHODS: This was a convergent mixed-methods, cross-sectional, anonymous, online study of participants, applicants, and those who expressed an interest in the Women Leaders in Global Health Conference at Stanford University October 11-12, 2017. Respondents completed a 26-question survey regarding beliefs about barriers and solutions to addressing advancement for women in global health. FINDINGS: 405 participants responded: 96.7% were female, 61.6% were aged 40 or under, 64.0% were originally from high-income countries. Regardless of age or country of origin, leading barriers were: lack of mentorship, challenges of balancing work and home, gender bias, and lack of assertiveness/confidence. Proposed solutions were categorized as individual or meta-level solutions and included senior women seeking junior women for mentorship and sponsorship, junior women pro-actively making their desire for leadership known, and institutions incentivizing mentorship and implementing targeted recruitment to improve diversity of leadership. INTERPRETATION: This study is the first of its kind to attempt to quantify both the barriers to advancement for women leaders in global health as well as the potential solutions. While there is no shortage of barriers, we believe there is room for optimism. A new leadership paradigm that values diversity of thought and diversity of experience will benefit not only the marginalized groups that need to gain representation at the table, but ultimately the broader population who may benefit from new ways of approaching long-standing, intractable problems.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Liderança , Mentores , Médicas , Sexismo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Lancet ; 391(10125): 1108-1120, 2018 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179954

RESUMO

The World Bank is publishing nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition (DCP3) between 2015 and 2018. Volume 9, Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, summarises the main messages from all the volumes and contains cross-cutting analyses. This Review draws on all nine volumes to convey conclusions. The analysis in DCP3 is built around 21 essential packages that were developed in the nine volumes. Each essential package addresses the concerns of a major professional community (eg, child health or surgery) and contains a mix of intersectoral policies and health-sector interventions. 71 intersectoral prevention policies were identified in total, 29 of which are priorities for early introduction. Interventions within the health sector were grouped onto five platforms (population based, community level, health centre, first-level hospital, and referral hospital). DCP3 defines a model concept of essential universal health coverage (EUHC) with 218 interventions that provides a starting point for country-specific analysis of priorities. Assuming steady-state implementation by 2030, EUHC in lower-middle-income countries would reduce premature deaths by an estimated 4·2 million per year. Estimated total costs prove substantial: about 9·1% of (current) gross national income (GNI) in low-income countries and 5·2% of GNI in lower-middle-income countries. Financing provision of continuing intervention against chronic conditions accounts for about half of estimated incremental costs. For lower-middle-income countries, the mortality reduction from implementing the EUHC can only reach about half the mortality reduction in non-communicable diseases called for by the Sustainable Development Goals. Full achievement will require increased investment or sustained intersectoral action, and actions by finance ministries to tax smoking and polluting emissions and to reduce or eliminate (often large) subsidies on fossil fuels appear of central importance. DCP3 is intended to be a model starting point for analyses at the country level, but country-specific cost structures, epidemiological needs, and national priorities will generally lead to definitions of EUHC that differ from country to country and from the model in this Review. DCP3 is particularly relevant as achievement of EUHC relies increasingly on greater domestic finance, with global developmental assistance in health focusing more on global public goods. In addition to assessing effects on mortality, DCP3 looked at outcomes of EUHC not encompassed by the disability-adjusted life-year metric and related cost-effectiveness analyses. The other objectives included financial protection (potentially better provided upstream by keeping people out of the hospital rather than downstream by paying their hospital bills for them), stillbirths averted, palliative care, contraception, and child physical and intellectual growth. The first 1000 days after conception are highly important for child development, but the next 7000 days are likewise important and often neglected.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Prioridades em Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos
20.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 130, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to make contraceptive services more "youth friendly," unmet need for contraception among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. For health systems to effectively respond to the reproductive health needs of a growing youth population, it is imperative to understand their contraceptive needs and service seeking practices. This paper describes changes over time in contraceptive need, use, and sources of care among young women in four East African countries. METHODS: We used three rounds of DHS data from Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda to examine time trends from 1999 to 2015 in met need for modern contraception, method mix, and source of care by sector (public or private) and type of provider among young women aged 15-24 years. We assessed disparities in contraceptive coverage improvements over time between younger (15-24 years) and older women (25-49 years) using a difference-in-differences approach. RESULTS: Met need for contraception among women aged 15-24 years increased over time, ranging from a 20% increase in Tanzania to more than a 5-fold increase in Rwanda. Improvements in met need were greater among older women compared to younger women in Rwanda and Uganda, and higher among younger women in Kenya. Injectables have become the most popular contraceptive choice among young women, with more than 50% of modern contraceptive users aged 15-24 years currently using the method in all countries except for Tanzania, where condoms and injectables are used by 38% and 35% of young users, respectively. More than half of young women in Tanzania and Uganda receive contraceptives from the private sector; however, while the private sector played an important role in meeting the growing contraceptive needs among young women in Tanzania, increased use of public sector services drove expanded access in Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that contraceptive use increased among young East African women, yet, unmet need remains high. As youth populations continue to grow, governments must develop more targeted strategies for expanding access to reproductive health services for young women. Engaging the private sector and task-shifting to lower-level providers offer promising approaches; however, additional research is needed to identify the key facilitators and barriers to the success of these strategies in different contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/tendências , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruanda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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