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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452433

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder and response to antidepressants limits clinicians' ability to accurately predict a specific patient's eventual response to therapy. Validated depressive symptom profiles may be an important tool for identifying poor outcomes early in the course of treatment. To derive these symptom profiles, we first examined data from 947 depressed subjects treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to delineate the heterogeneity of antidepressant response using probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). We then used unsupervised machine learning to identify specific depressive symptoms and thresholds of improvement that were predictive of antidepressant response by 4 weeks for a patient to achieve remission, response, or nonresponse by 8 weeks. Four depressive symptoms (depressed mood, guilt feelings and delusion, work and activities and psychic anxiety) and specific thresholds of change in each at 4 weeks predicted eventual outcome at 8 weeks to SSRI therapy with an average accuracy of 77% (p = 5.5E-08). The same four symptoms and prognostic thresholds derived from patients treated with SSRIs correctly predicted outcomes in 72% (p = 1.25E-05) of 1996 patients treated with other antidepressants in both inpatient and outpatient settings in independent publicly-available datasets. These predictive accuracies were higher than the accuracy of 53% for predicting SSRI response achieved using approaches that (i) incorporated only baseline clinical and sociodemographic factors, or (ii) used 4-week nonresponse status to predict likely outcomes at 8 weeks. The present findings suggest that PGMs providing interpretable predictions have the potential to enhance clinical treatment of depression and reduce the time burden associated with trials of ineffective antidepressants. Prospective trials examining this approach are forthcoming.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(1): 11-12, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384006
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173192

RESUMO

Offspring of trauma survivors are more likely to develop PTSD, mood, and anxiety disorders and demonstrate endocrine and molecular alterations compared to controls. This study reports the association between parental Holocaust exposure and genome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 77 Holocaust survivor offspring and 15 comparison subjects. Forty-two differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in association with parental Holocaust exposure (FDR-adjusted p < 0.05); most of these genes were downregulated and co-expressed in a gene network related to immune cell functions. When both parental Holocaust exposure and maternal age at Holocaust exposure shared DEGs, fold changes were in the opposite direction. Similarly, fold changes of shared DEGs associated with maternal PTSD and paternal PTSD were in opposite directions, while fold changes of shared DEGs associated with both maternal and paternal Holocaust exposure or associated with both maternal and paternal age at Holocaust exposure were in the same direction. Moreover, the DEGs associated with parental Holocaust exposure were enriched for glucocorticoid-regulated genes and immune pathways with some of these genes mediating the effects of parental Holocaust exposure on C-reactive protein. The top gene across all analyses was MMP8, encoding the matrix metalloproteinase 8, which is a regulator of innate immunity. To conclude, this study identified a set of glucocorticoid and immune-related genes in association with parental Holocaust exposure with differential effects based on parental exposure-related factors.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230203

RESUMO

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are standard of care for major depressive disorder (MDD) pharmacotherapy, but only approximately half of these patients remit on SSRI therapy. Our previous genome-wide association study identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signal across the glutamate-rich 3 (ERICH3) gene that was nearly genome-wide significantly associated with plasma serotonin (5-HT) concentrations, which were themselves associated with SSRI response for MDD patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic PGRN-AMPS SSRI trial. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis which demonstrated that those SNPs were significantly associated with SSRI treatment outcomes in four independent MDD trials. However, the function of ERICH3 and molecular mechanism(s) by which it might be associated with plasma 5-HT concentrations and SSRI clinical response remained unclear. Therefore, we characterized the human ERICH3 gene functionally and identified ERICH3 mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms that are highly expressed in central nervous system cells. Coimmunoprecipitation identified a series of ERICH3 interacting proteins including clathrin heavy chain which are known to play a role in vesicular function. Immunofluorescence showed ERICH3 colocalization with 5-HT in vesicle-like structures, and ERICH3 knock-out dramatically decreased 5-HT staining in SK-N-SH cells as well as 5-HT concentrations in the culture media and cell lysates without changing the expression of 5-HT synthesizing or metabolizing enzymes. Finally, immunofluorescence also showed ERICH3 colocalization with dopamine in human iPSC-derived neurons. These results suggest that ERICH3 may play a significant role in vesicular function in serotonergic and other neuronal cell types, which might help explain its association with antidepressant treatment response.

5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079133

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies highlight associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a general marker of inflammation, and interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine-stimulating CRP production, with individual depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether inflammatory activity is associated with individual depressive symptoms and to what extent metabolic dysregulation underlies the reported associations. Objective: To explore the genetic overlap and associations between inflammatory activity, metabolic dysregulation, and individual depressive symptoms. GWAS Data Sources: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of European individuals, including the following: CRP levels (204 402 individuals); 9 individual depressive symptoms (3 of which did not differentiate between underlying diametrically opposite symptoms [eg, insomnia and hypersomnia]) as measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (up to 117 907 individuals); summary statistics for major depression, including and excluding UK Biobank participants, resulting in sample sizes of 500 199 and up to 230 214 individuals, respectively; insomnia (up to 386 533 individuals); body mass index (BMI) (up to 322 154 individuals); and height (up to 253 280 individuals). Design: In this genetic correlation and 2-sample mendelian randomization (MR) study, linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression was applied to infer single-nucleotide variant-based heritability and genetic correlation estimates. Two-sample MR tested potential causal associations of genetic variants associated with CRP levels, IL-6 signaling, and BMI with depressive symptoms. The study dates were November 2019 to April 2020. Results: Based on large GWAS data sources, genetic correlation analyses revealed consistent false discovery rate (FDR)-controlled associations (genetic correlation range, 0.152-0.362; FDR P = .006 to P < .001) between CRP levels and depressive symptoms that were similar in size to genetic correlations of BMI with depressive symptoms. Two-sample MR analyses suggested that genetic upregulation of IL-6 signaling was associated with suicidality (estimate [SE], 0.035 [0.010]; FDR plus Bonferroni correction P = .01), a finding that remained stable across statistical models and sensitivity analyses using alternative instrument selection strategies. Mendelian randomization analyses did not consistently show associations of higher CRP levels or IL-6 signaling with other depressive symptoms, but higher BMI was associated with anhedonia, tiredness, changes in appetite, and feelings of inadequacy. Conclusions and Relevance: This study reports coheritability between CRP levels and individual depressive symptoms, which may result from the potentially causal association of metabolic dysregulation with anhedonia, tiredness, changes in appetite, and feelings of inadequacy. The study also found that IL-6 signaling is associated with suicidality. These findings may have clinical implications, highlighting the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches, especially IL-6 blockade, as a putative strategy for suicide prevention.

7.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

8.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(9): 862-875, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression carries adverse effects on maternal health and child development, but genetic underpinnings remain unclear. We investigated the polygenic risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. METHODS: About 742 women from the prospective Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction cohort were genotyped and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale 14 times during the prenatal period and twice up to 12 months postpartum. Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder were calculated using multiple p-value thresholds. RESULTS: Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder, but not bipolar disorder, were associated with higher prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms (0.8%-1% increase per one standard deviation increase in polygenic risk scores). Prenatal depressive symptoms accounted for and mediated the associations between the polygenic risk scores and postpartum depressive symptoms (effect size proportions-mediated: 52.2%-88.0%). Further, the polygenic risk scores were associated with 1.24-1.45-fold odds to belong to the group displaying consistently high compared with consistently low depressive symptoms through out the prenatal and postpartum periods. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder in non-perinatal populations generalize to perinatal depressive symptoms and may afford to identify women for timely preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Depressão Pós-Parto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Complicações na Gravidez , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Criança , Depressão , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(14): 4010-4023, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597537

RESUMO

Acute and chronic stress are important factors in the development of mental disorders. Reliable measurement of stress reactivity is therefore pivotal. Critically, experimental induction of stress often involves multiple "hits" and it is an open question whether individual differences in responses to an earlier stressor lead to habituation, sensitization, or simple additive effects on following events. Here, we investigated the effect of the individual cortisol response to intravenous catheter placement (IVP) on subsequent neural, psychological, endocrine, and autonomous stress reactivity. We used an established psychosocial stress paradigm to measure the acute stress response (Stress) and recovery (PostStress) in 65 participants. Higher IVP-induced cortisol responses were associated with lower pulse rate increases during stress recovery (b = -4.8 bpm, p = .0008) and lower increases in negative affect after the task (b = -4.2, p = .040). While the cortisol response to IVP was not associated with subsequent specific stress-induced neural activation patterns, the similarity of brain responses Pre- and PostStress was higher IVP-cortisol responders (t[64] = 2.35, p = .022) indicating faster recovery. In conclusion, preparatory stress induced by IVP reduced reactivity in a subsequent stress task by modulating the latency of stress recovery. Thus, an individually stronger preceding release of cortisol may attenuate a second physiological response and perceived stress suggesting that relative changes, not absolute levels are crucial for stress attribution. Our study highlights that considering the entire trajectory of stress induction during an experiment is important to develop reliable individual biomarkers.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 60, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal inflammation has been proposed as an important mediating factor in several adverse pregnancy outcomes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory cytokine easily measured in blood. It has clinical value due to its reliability as a biomarker for systemic inflammation and can indicate cellular injury and disease severity. Elevated levels of CRP in adulthood are associated with alterations in DNA methylation. However, no studies have prospectively investigated the relationship between maternal CRP levels and newborn DNA methylation measured by microarray in cord blood with reasonable epigenome-wide coverage. Importantly, the timing of inflammation exposure during pregnancy may also result in different effects. Thus, our objective was to evaluate this prospective association of CRP levels measured during multiple periods of pregnancy and in cord blood at delivery which was available in one cohort (i.e., Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial), and also to conduct a meta-analysis with available data at one point in pregnancy from three other cohorts from the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium (PACE). Secondarily, the impact of maternal randomization to low dose aspirin prior to pregnancy on methylation was assessed. RESULTS: Maternal CRP levels were not associated with newborn DNA methylation regardless of gestational age of measurement (i.e., CRP at approximately 8, 20, and 36 weeks among 358 newborns in EAGeR). There also was no association in the meta-analyses (all p > 0.5) with a larger sample size (n = 1603) from all participating PACE cohorts with available CRP data from first trimester (< 18 weeks gestation). Randomization to aspirin was not associated with DNA methylation. On the other hand, newborn CRP levels were significantly associated with DNA methylation in the EAGeR trial, with 33 CpGs identified (FDR corrected p < 0.05) when both CRP and methylation were measured at the same time point in cord blood. The top 7 CpGs most strongly associated with CRP resided in inflammation and vascular-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal CRP levels measured during each trimester were not associated with cord blood DNA methylation. Rather, DNA methylation was associated with CRP levels measured in cord blood, particularly in gene regions predominately associated with angiogenic and inflammatory pathways. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00467363, Registered April 30, 2007, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00467363.

11.
Trends Neurosci ; 43(6): 394-405, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459992

RESUMO

A number of prenatal experiences are associated with adverse outcomes after birth, ranging from cardiovascular problems to psychiatric disease. Prenatal stress is associated with neurodevelopmental alterations that persist after birth and manifest at the behavioral level, for example, increased fearfulness, and at the physiological one, that is, brain structural and functional changes. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these lasting effects may help in preventing long-term negative outcomes of prenatal stress. Elevated glucocorticoid signaling in utero may be one of the key mediators of prenatal stress effects on the offspring. In this review, we summarize how prenatal glucocorticoids may impact the activity of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, disrupt neurodevelopmental processes and alter the epigenetic landscape of the fetus. We also discuss the need to take into consideration the interaction of these processes with the offspring's genetic landscape.

12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 213, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. Many of the identified (neuro) biological dysfunctions are "transdiagnostic", meaning that they do not reflect diagnostic boundaries but are shared by different ICD/DSM diagnoses. The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The Biological Classification of Mental Disorders (BeCOME) study aims to identify biology-based classes of mental disorders that improve the translation of novel biomedical findings into tailored clinical applications. METHODS: BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. After a screening visit, all participants undergo in-depth phenotyping procedures and omics assessments on two consecutive days. Several validated paradigms (e.g., fear conditioning, reward anticipation, imaging stress test, social reward learning task) are applied to stimulate a response in a basic system of human functioning (e.g., acute threat response, reward processing, stress response or social reward learning) that plays a key role in the development of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders. The response to this stimulation is then read out across multiple levels. Assessments comprise genetic, molecular, cellular, physiological, neuroimaging, neurocognitive, psychophysiological and psychometric measurements. The multilevel information collected in BeCOME will be used to identify data-driven biologically-informed categories of mental disorders using cluster analytical techniques. DISCUSSION: The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. BeCOME has the potential to contribute to a novel taxonomy of mental disorders that integrates the underlying pathomechanisms into diagnoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on June 12, 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (TRN: NCT03984084).


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Medo , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Recompensa
13.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(8): 744-753, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that exposure to trauma prior to conception can affect offspring. The authors have reported that adult offspring of Holocaust survivors showed lower methylation of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) intron 7, site 6 compared with Jewish comparison volunteers. The present study sought to replicate this finding in a larger sample and to examine parental and offspring correlates of observed effects. METHODS: Cytosine methylation was measured in blood using pyrosequencing. The independent replication sample consisted of 125 Holocaust offspring and 31 control subjects. Additional analyses, performed in a larger sample of 147 offspring and 40 control subjects that included the 31 previously studied participants, examined associations of parental trauma-related variables (i.e., sex of the exposed parent, parental posttraumatic stress disorder, age at Holocaust exposure) and offspring characteristics (i.e., childhood trauma exposure, lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, psychotropic medication use, FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype, FKBP5 gene expression, and neuroendocrine measures) with offspring FKBP5 methylation. RESULTS: FKBP5 site 6 methylation was significantly lower in Holocaust offspring than in control subjects, an effect associated with maternal Holocaust exposure in childhood and with lower offspring self-reported anxiety symptoms. FKBP5 gene expression was elevated in Holocaust offspring. FKBP5 methylation was associated with indices of glucocorticoid sensitivity but not with basal FKBP5 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates and extends the previously observed decrement in FKBP5 intron 7, site 6 methylation in Holocaust offspring. The predominance of this effect in offspring of mothers exposed during childhood implicates maternal developmental programming as a putative mechanism.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Trauma Histórico , Holocausto/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Trauma Histórico/genética , Trauma Histórico/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9942-9951, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321835

RESUMO

Genetic variants within complement factor H (CFH), a major alternative complement pathway regulator, are associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other complementopathies. This is explained with the reduced binding of CFH or its splice variant factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) to self-ligands or altered self-ligands (e.g., malondialdehyde [MDA]-modified molecules) involved in homeostasis, thereby causing impaired complement regulation. Considering the critical role of CFH in inhibiting alternative pathway activation on MDA-modified surfaces, we performed an unbiased genome-wide search for genetic variants that modify the ability of plasma CFH to bind MDA in 1,830 individuals and characterized the mechanistic basis and the functional consequences of this. In a cohort of healthy individuals, we identified rs1061170 in CFH and the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 as dominant genetic variants that modify CFH/FHL-1 binding to MDA. We further demonstrated that FHR1 and FHR3 compete with CFH for binding to MDA-epitopes and that FHR1 displays the highest affinity toward MDA-epitopes compared to CFH and FHR3. Moreover, FHR1 bound to MDA-rich areas on necrotic cells and prevented CFH from mediating its cofactor activity on MDA-modified surfaces, resulting in enhanced complement activation. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation as to why the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 is protective in AMD and highlight the importance of genetic variants within the CFH/CFHR3/CFHR1 locus in the recognition of altered-self in tissue homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Idoso , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Epitopos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ligação Proteica
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007616, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012148

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify genetic variants associated with traits or diseases. GWAS never directly link variants to regulatory mechanisms. Instead, the functional annotation of variants is typically inferred by post hoc analyses. A specific class of deep learning-based methods allows for the prediction of regulatory effects per variant on several cell type-specific chromatin features. We here describe "DeepWAS", a new approach that integrates these regulatory effect predictions of single variants into a multivariate GWAS setting. Thereby, single variants associated with a trait or disease are directly coupled to their impact on a chromatin feature in a cell type. Up to 61 regulatory SNPs, called dSNPs, were associated with multiple sclerosis (MS, 4,888 cases and 10,395 controls), major depressive disorder (MDD, 1,475 cases and 2,144 controls), and height (5,974 individuals). These variants were mainly non-coding and reached at least nominal significance in classical GWAS. The prediction accuracy was higher for DeepWAS than for classical GWAS models for 91% of the genome-wide significant, MS-specific dSNPs. DSNPs were enriched in public or cohort-matched expression and methylation quantitative trait loci and we demonstrated the potential of DeepWAS to generate testable functional hypotheses based on genotype data alone. DeepWAS is available at https://github.com/cellmapslab/DeepWAS.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Análise Multivariada , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 98-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 419-430, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 120: 154-162, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683097

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) is associated with an increased risk of depression and this association may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. A previous epigenome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) study investigating human newborns and two animal models of ELS suggested that the epigenetic regulator MORC1 is differentially methylated following ELS. The ELS-induced DNAm alterations were long-lasting in the animal models. However, whether this finding is also transferable to humans experiencing ELS in childhood was not investigated. Further, MORC1 may provide a link between ELS and adult depression, as MORC1 DNAm and genetic variants were found to be associated with depressive symptoms in humans. In the present study, we investigated the validity of MORC1 DNAm as a biomarker of ELS in humans and its role in linking ELS to depression later in life by studying childhood maltreatment. We analyzed whole blood MORC1 DNAm in an adult cohort (N = 151) that was characterized for both the presence of depressive symptoms and childhood maltreatment. Further, we investigated the association between MORC1 DNAm, depressive symptoms and childhood maltreatment in two additional cohorts (N = 299, N = 310). Overall, our data do not indicate an association of MORC1 DNAm with childhood maltreatment. An association of MORC1 DNAm with depressive symptoms was present in all cohorts, but was inconsistent in the specific CpG sites associated and the direction of effect (Tuebingen cohort: standardized ß = 0.16, unstandardized ß = 0.01, 95% CI [-0.0004, -0.0179], p = 0.061, PReDICT cohort: standardized ß = -0.12, unstandardized ß = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.0258, -0.0003], p = 0.045), Grady cohort: standardized ß = 0.16, unstandardized ß = 0.008, 95% CI [0.0019, 0.0143], p = 0.01). Our study thus suggests that peripheral MORC1 DNAm cannot serve as biomarker of childhood maltreatment in adults, but does provide further indication for the association of MORC1 DNAm with depressive symptoms.

19.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(5): 1725-1731, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427162

RESUMO

Exposure to child maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric and physical diseases. Inflammation has been proposed as a mechanism through which early adverse experiences become biologically embedded. However, most studies providing evidence for the link between early adverse exposures and inflammation have been retrospective or cross-sectional in design, or did not assess inflammation immediately after maltreatment in young children. In the present study we investigated the association between childhood maltreatment and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in a population of N = 173 children, 3-5 years of age, who were recruited in the immediate aftermath of maltreatment and followed-up longitudinally every 6 months over a period of 2 years. We found that the association between maltreatment and CRP concentrations was significantly moderated by child sex, such that in girls, CRP concentrations were higher in the maltreated compared to the control group, and this difference was stable across the 2-year follow-up-period, while in boys, there was no association between maltreatment and CRP. Our findings suggest that the effect of maltreatment on inflammation may already emerge right after exposure at a very young age in girls and manifest over time. Our study provides important evidence for the development of personalized, early interventions strategies targeting the early-life period.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Proteína C-Reativa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780969

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may be referred to by other terms (e.g., early life adversity or stress and childhood trauma) and have a lifelong impact on mental and physical health. For example, childhood trauma has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The heritability of ACE-related phenotypes such as PTSD, depression, and resilience is low to moderate, and, moreover, is very variable for a given phenotype, which implies that gene by environment interactions (such as through epigenetic modifications) may be involved in the onset of these phenotypes. Currently, there is increasing interest in the investigation of epigenetic contributions to ACE-induced differential health outcomes. Although there are a number of studies in this field, there are still research gaps. In this review, the basic concepts of epigenetic modifications (such as methylation) and the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the stress response are outlined. Examples of specific genes undergoing methylation in association with ACE-induced differential health outcomes are provided. Limitations in this field, e.g., uncertain clinical diagnosis, conceptual inconsistencies, and technical drawbacks, are reviewed, with suggestions for advances using new technologies and novel research directions. We thereby provide a platform on which the field of ACE-induced phenotypes in mental health may build.

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