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1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 120: 154-162, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683097

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) is associated with an increased risk of depression and this association may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. A previous epigenome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) study investigating human newborns and two animal models of ELS suggested that the epigenetic regulator MORC1 is differentially methylated following ELS. The ELS-induced DNAm alterations were long-lasting in the animal models. However, whether this finding is also transferable to humans experiencing ELS in childhood was not investigated. Further, MORC1 may provide a link between ELS and adult depression, as MORC1 DNAm and genetic variants were found to be associated with depressive symptoms in humans. In the present study, we investigated the validity of MORC1 DNAm as a biomarker of ELS in humans and its role in linking ELS to depression later in life by studying childhood maltreatment. We analyzed whole blood MORC1 DNAm in an adult cohort (N = 151) that was characterized for both the presence of depressive symptoms and childhood maltreatment. Further, we investigated the association between MORC1 DNAm, depressive symptoms and childhood maltreatment in two additional cohorts (N = 299, N = 310). Overall, our data do not indicate an association of MORC1 DNAm with childhood maltreatment. An association of MORC1 DNAm with depressive symptoms was present in all cohorts, but was inconsistent in the specific CpG sites associated and the direction of effect (Tuebingen cohort: standardized ß = 0.16, unstandardized ß = 0.01, 95% CI [-0.0004, -0.0179], p = 0.061, PReDICT cohort: standardized ß = -0.12, unstandardized ß = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.0258, -0.0003], p = 0.045), Grady cohort: standardized ß = 0.16, unstandardized ß = 0.008, 95% CI [0.0019, 0.0143], p = 0.01). Our study thus suggests that peripheral MORC1 DNAm cannot serve as biomarker of childhood maltreatment in adults, but does provide further indication for the association of MORC1 DNAm with depressive symptoms.

2.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 40: 100720, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678692

RESUMO

Despite common notion that the correlation of socioeconomic status with child cognitive performance may be driven by both environmentally- and genetically-mediated transactional pathways, there is a lack of longitudinal and genetically informed research that examines these postulated associations. The present study addresses whether family income predicts associative memory growth and hippocampal development in middle childhood and tests whether these associations persist when controlling for DNA-based polygenic scores of educational attainment. Participants were 142 6-to-7-year-old children, of which 127 returned when they were 8-to-9 years old. Longitudinal analyses indicated that the association of family income with children's memory performance and hippocampal volume remained stable over this age range and did not predict change. On average, children from economically disadvantaged background showed lower memory performance and had a smaller hippocampal volume. There was no evidence to suggest that differences in memory performance were mediated by differences in hippocampal volume. Further exploratory results suggested that the relationship of income with hippocampal volume and memory in middle childhood is not primarily driven by genetic variance captured by polygenic scores of educational attainment, despite the fact that polygenic scores significantly predicted family income.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624126

RESUMO

Biological embedding occurs when life experience alters biological processes to affect later life health and well-being. Although extensive correlative data exist supporting the notion that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation underlie biological embedding, causal data are lacking. We describe specific epigenetic mechanisms and their potential roles in the biological embedding of experience. We also consider the nuanced relationships between the genome, the epigenome, and gene expression. Our ability to connect biological embedding to the epigenetic landscape in its complexity is challenging and complicated by the influence of multiple factors. These include cell type, age, the timing of experience, sex, and DNA sequence. Recent advances in molecular profiling and epigenome editing, combined with the use of comparative animal and human longitudinal studies, should enable this field to transition from correlative to causal analyses.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611402

RESUMO

The development of biological markers of aging has primarily focused on adult samples. Epigenetic clocks are a promising tool for measuring biological age that show impressive accuracy across most tissues and age ranges. In adults, deviations from the DNA methylation (DNAm) age prediction are correlated with several age-related phenotypes, such as mortality and frailty. In children, however, fewer such associations have been made, possibly because DNAm changes are more dynamic in pediatric populations as compared to adults. To address this gap, we aimed to develop a highly accurate, noninvasive, biological measure of age specific to pediatric samples using buccal epithelial cell DNAm. We gathered 1,721 genome-wide DNAm profiles from 11 different cohorts of typically developing individuals aged 0 to 20 y old. Elastic net penalized regression was used to select 94 CpG sites from a training dataset (n = 1,032), with performance assessed in a separate test dataset (n = 689). DNAm at these 94 CpG sites was highly predictive of age in the test cohort (median absolute error = 0.35 y). The Pediatric-Buccal-Epigenetic (PedBE) clock was characterized in additional cohorts, showcasing the accuracy in longitudinal data, the performance in nonbuccal tissues and adult age ranges, and the association with obstetric outcomes. The PedBE tool for measuring biological age in children might help in understanding the environmental and contextual factors that shape the DNA methylome during child development, and how it, in turn, might relate to child health and disease.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(10): 783-784, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569989
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399550

RESUMO

Prenatal stress exposure is associated with risk for psychiatric disorders later in life. This may be mediated in part via enhanced exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs), which are known to impact neurogenesis. We aimed to identify molecular mediators of these effects, focusing on long-lasting epigenetic changes. In a human hippocampal progenitor cell (HPC) line, we assessed the short- and long-term effects of GC exposure during neurogenesis on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. GC exposure induced changes in DNAm at 27,812 CpG dinucleotides and in the expression of 3,857 transcripts (false discovery rate [FDR] ≤ 0.1 and absolute fold change [FC] expression ≥ 1.15). HPC expression and GC-affected DNAm profiles were enriched for changes observed during human fetal brain development. Differentially methylated sites (DMSs) with GC exposure clustered into 4 trajectories over HPC differentiation, with transient as well as long-lasting DNAm changes. Lasting DMSs mapped to distinct functional pathways and were selectively enriched for poised and bivalent enhancer marks. Lasting DMSs had little correlation with lasting expression changes but were associated with a significantly enhanced transcriptional response to a second acute GC challenge. A significant subset of lasting DMSs was also responsive to an acute GC challenge in peripheral blood. These tissue-overlapping DMSs were used to compute a polyepigenetic score that predicted exposure to conditions associated with altered prenatal GCs in newborn's cord blood DNA. Overall, our data suggest that early exposure to GCs can change the set point of future transcriptional responses to stress by inducing lasting DNAm changes. Such altered set points may relate to differential vulnerability to stress exposure later in life.

9.
Depress Anxiety ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders including panic disorder (PD) are the most prevalent psychiatric diseases leading to high disability and burden in the general population. Acute panic attacks are distinctive for PD but also frequent in other anxiety disorders. The neurobiology or specific molecular changes leading to and present during panic attacks are insufficiently known so far. METHODS: In the present pilot study, we investigated dynamic metabolomic and gene expression changes in peripheral blood of patients with PD (n = 25) during two exposure-induced acute panic attacks. RESULTS: The results show that the metabolite glyoxylate was dynamically regulated in peripheral blood. Additionally, glyoxylate levels were associated with basal anxiety levels and showed gender-related differences at baseline. As glyoxylate is part of the degradation circuit of cholecystokinin, this suggests that this neuropeptide might be directly involved in exposure-induced panic attacks. Only gene expression changes of very small magnitude were observed in this experimental setting. CONCLUSIONS: From this first metabolome and gene expression study in exposure-induced acute panic attacks in PD we conclude that metabolites can potentially serve as dynamic markers for different anxiety states. However, these findings have to be replicated in cohorts with greater sample sizes.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 178, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346158

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) selectively develops in some individuals exposed to a traumatic event. Genetic and epigenetic changes in glucocorticoid pathway sensitivity may be essential for understanding individual susceptibility to PTSD. This study focuses on PTSD markers in the glucocorticoid pathway, spotlighting glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a transcription factor encoded by the gene Tsc22d3 on the X chromosome. We propose that GILZ uniquely "quantifies" exposure to stressors experienced from late gestation to adulthood and that low levels of GILZ predispose individuals to PTSD in males only. GILZ mRNA and methylation were measured in 396 male and female human blood samples from the Grady Trauma Project cohort (exposed to multiple traumatic events). In mice, changes in glucocorticoid pathway genes were assessed following exposure to stressors at distinct time points: (i) CRF-induced prenatal stress (CRF-inducedPNS) with, or without, additional exposure to (ii) PTSD induction protocol in adulthood, which induces PTSD-like behaviors in a subset of mice. In humans, the number of traumatic events correlated negatively with GILZ mRNA levels and positively with % methylation of GILZ in males only. In male mice, we observed a threefold increase in the number of offspring exhibiting PTSD-like behaviors in those exposed to both CRF-inducedPNS and PTSD induction. This susceptibility was associated with reduced GILZ mRNA levels and epigenetic changes, not found in females. Furthermore, virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of amygdalar GILZ increased susceptibility to PTSD. Mouse and human data confirm that dramatic alterations in GILZ occur in those exposed to a stressor in early life, adulthood or both. Therefore, GILZ levels may help identify at-risk populations for PTSD prior to additional traumatic exposures.

11.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

13.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(6): 433-442, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202489

RESUMO

The identification and understanding of resilience mechanisms holds potential for the development of mechanistically informed prevention and interventions in psychiatry. However, investigating resilience mechanisms is conceptually and methodologically challenging because resilience does not merely constitute the absence of disease-specific risk but rather reflects active processes that aid in the maintenance of physiological and psychological homeostasis across a broad range of environmental circumstances. In this conceptual review, we argue that the principle used in gene-by-environment interaction studies may help to unravel resilience mechanisms on different investigation levels. We present how this could be achieved by top-down designs that start with gene-by-environment interaction effects on disease phenotypes as well as by bottom-up approaches that start at the molecular level. We also discuss how recent technological advances may improve both top-down and bottom-up strategies.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127037

RESUMO

Our past experiences shape our current and future behavior. These experiences must leave some enduring imprint on our brains, altering neural circuits that mediate behavior and contributing to our individual differences. As a framework for understanding how experiences might produce lasting changes in neural circuits, Clayton [D. F. Clayton, Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 74, 185-216 (2000)] introduced the concept of the genomic action potential (gAP)-a structured genomic response in the brain to acute experience. Similar to the familiar electrophysiological action potential (eAP), the gAP also provides a means for integrating afferent patterns of activity but on a slower timescale and with longer-lasting effects. We revisit this concept in light of contemporary work on experience-dependent modification of neural circuits. We review the "Immediate Early Gene" (IEG) response, the starting point for understanding the gAP. We discuss evidence for its involvement in the encoding of experience to long-term memory across time and biological levels of organization ranging from individual cells to cell ensembles and whole organisms. We explore distinctions between memory encoding and homeostatic functions and consider the potential for perpetuation of the imprint of experience through epigenetic mechanisms. We describe a specific example of a gAP in humans linked to individual differences in the response to stress. Finally, we identify key objectives and new tools for continuing research in this area.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 83, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may play a major role in the biological embedding of early-life stress (ELS). One proposed mechanism is that glucocorticoid (GC) release following ELS exposure induces long-lasting alterations in DNA methylation (DNAm) of important regulatory genes of the stress response. Here, we investigate the dynamics of GC-dependent methylation changes in key regulatory regions of the FKBP5 locus in which ELS-associated DNAm changes have been reported. RESULTS: We repeatedly measured DNAm in human peripheral blood samples from 2 independent cohorts exposed to the GC agonist dexamethasone (DEX) using a targeted bisulfite sequencing approach, complemented by data from Illumina 450K arrays. We detected differentially methylated CpGs in enhancers co-localizing with GC receptor binding sites after acute DEX treatment (1 h, 3 h, 6 h), which returned to baseline levels within 23 h. These changes withstood correction for immune cell count differences. While we observed main effects of sex, age, body mass index, smoking, and depression symptoms on FKBP5 methylation levels, only the functional FKBP5 SNP (rs1360780) moderated the dynamic changes following DEX. This genotype effect was observed in both cohorts and included sites previously shown to be associated with ELS. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that DNAm levels within regulatory regions of the FKBP5 locus show dynamic changes following a GC challenge and suggest that factors influencing the dynamics of this regulation may contribute to the previously reported alterations in DNAm associated with current and past ELS exposure.

18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(4): 855-865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012492

RESUMO

We set out to determine whether machine learning-based algorithms that included functionally validated pharmacogenomic biomarkers joined with clinical measures could predict selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) remission/response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We studied 1,030 white outpatients with MDD treated with citalopram/escitalopram in the Mayo Clinic Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS; n = 398), Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D; n = 467), and International SSRI Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ISPC; n = 165) trials. A genomewide association study for PGRN-AMPS plasma metabolites associated with SSRI response (serotonin) and baseline MDD severity (kynurenine) identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DEFB1, ERICH3, AHR, and TSPAN5 that we tested as predictors. Supervised machine-learning methods trained using SNPs and total baseline depression scores predicted remission and response at 8 weeks with area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) > 0.7 (P < 0.04) in PGRN-AMPS patients, with comparable prediction accuracies > 69% (P ≤ 0.07) in STAR*D and ISPC. These results demonstrate that machine learning can achieve accurate and, importantly, replicable prediction of SSRI therapy response using total baseline depression severity combined with pharmacogenomic biomarkers.

19.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 626-634, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-regulation includes the volitional and nonvolitional regulation of emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses to stimulation. It develops from infancy through individual characteristics and the environment, with the stress hormone system as a central player. Accordingly, the authors hypothesized that genes involved in regulating the stress system, such as FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), interact with early-life stress exposure, such as exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), to predict self-regulation indicators and associated outcomes, including behavioral and learning problems in school. METHODS: Study participants were a longitudinal birth cohort of 910 children for whom FKBP5 genotypes were available and who were assessed for exposure to IPV during the first 2 years of life as well as multiple measures of self-regulation: stress-induced cortisol reactivity and fear-elicited emotional reactivity at 7, 15, and 24 months, executive function at 36, 48, and 60 months, and emotional and behavioral difficulties and reading and math achievement in school grades 1, 2, and 5. Data were analyzed using longitudinal clustering and ordinal logistic regression procedures followed by mixed linear modeling. RESULTS: Children with two copies of a risk FKBP5 haplotype and IPV exposure were significantly more likely to have a developmental trajectory characterized by high, prolonged stress-induced cortisol reactivity and emotional reactivity in toddlerhood, followed by low executive function at school entry and high emotional and behavior problems and low reading ability in the primary school grades. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of FKBP5 and IPV affects the physiological response to stress early in life, with consequences for emotional and cognitive self-regulation. Targeting self-regulation may present an early intervention strategy for children facing genetic and environmental risk.

20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 615-625, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying risk factors for major depression and depressive symptoms in youths could have important implications for prevention efforts. This study examined the association of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for a broad depression phenotype derived from a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) in adults, and its interaction with childhood abuse, with clinically relevant depression outcomes in clinical and epidemiological youth cohorts. METHODS: The clinical cohort comprised 279 youths with major depression (mean age=14.76 years [SD=2.00], 68% female) and 187 healthy control subjects (mean age=14.67 years [SD=2.45], 63% female). The first epidemiological cohort included 1,450 youths (mean age=13.99 years [SD=0.92], 63% female). Of those, 694 who were not clinically depressed at baseline underwent follow-ups at 6, 12, and 24 months. The replication epidemiological cohort comprised children assessed at ages 8 (N=184; 49.2% female) and 11 (N=317; 46.7% female) years. All cohorts were genome-wide genotyped and completed measures for major depression, depressive symptoms, and/or childhood abuse. Summary statistics from the largest GWAS to date on depression were used to calculate the depression PRS. RESULTS: In the clinical cohort, the depression PRS predicted case-control status (odds ratio=1.560, 95% CI=1.230-1.980), depression severity (ß=0.177, SE=0.069), and age at onset (ß=-0.375, SE=0.160). In the first epidemiological cohort, the depression PRS predicted baseline depressive symptoms (ß=0.557, SE=0.200) and prospectively predicted onset of moderate to severe depressive symptoms (hazard ratio=1.202, 95% CI=1.045-1.383). The associations with depressive symptoms were replicated in the second epidemiological cohort. Evidence was found for an additive, but not an interactive, effect of the depression PRS and childhood abuse on depression outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Depression PRSs derived from adults generalize to depression outcomes in youths and may serve as an early indicator of clinically significant levels of depression.

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