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2.
Burns Trauma ; 9: tkab034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether lung-protective ventilation is applied in burn patients and whether they benefit from it. This study aimed to determine ventilation practices in burn intensive care units (ICUs) and investigate the association between lung-protective ventilation and the number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28 (VFD-28). METHODS: This is an international prospective observational cohort study including adult burn patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Low tidal volume (V T) was defined as V T ≤ 8 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW). Levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and maximum airway pressures were collected. The association between V T and VFD-28 was analyzed using a competing risk model. Ventilation settings were presented for all patients, focusing on the first day of ventilation. We also compared ventilation settings between patients with and without inhalation trauma. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients from 28 ICUs in 16 countries were included. Low V T was used in 74% of patients, median V T size was 7.3 [interquartile range (IQR) 6.2-8.3] mL/kg PBW and did not differ between patients with and without inhalation trauma (p = 0.58). Median VFD-28 was 17 (IQR 0-26), without a difference between ventilation with low or high V T (p = 0.98). All patients were ventilated with PEEP levels ≥5 cmH2O; 80% of patients had maximum airway pressures <30 cmH2O. CONCLUSION: In this international cohort study we found that lung-protective ventilation is used in the majority of burn patients, irrespective of the presence of inhalation trauma. Use of low V T was not associated with a reduction in VFD-28. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02312869. Date of registration: 9 December 2014.

3.
J Crit Care ; 64: 245-254, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine whether venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) improves survival of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search was conducted up to August 2019 of the databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane. All studies reporting the survival of adult patients with acute PE treated with VA-ECMO and including four patients or more were included. Exclusion criteria were: correspondences, reviews and studies in absence of a full text, written in other languages than English or Dutch, or dating before 1980. Short-term (hospital or 30-day) survival data were pooled and presented with relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Also, the following pre-defined factors were evaluated for their association with survival in VA-ECMO treated patients: age > 60 years, male sex, pre-ECMO cardiac arrest, surgical embolectomy, catheter directed therapy, systemic thrombolysis, and VA-ECMO as single therapy. RESULTS: A total of 29 observational studies were included (N = 1947 patients: VA-ECMO N = 1138 and control N = 809). There was no difference in short-term survival between VA-ECMO treated patients and control patients (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.71-1.16). In acute PE patients undergoing VA-ECMO, age > 60 years was associated with lower survival (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.99), surgical embolectomy was associated with higher survival (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.39-2.76) and pre-ECMO cardiac arrest showed a trend toward lower survival (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.01). The other evaluated factors were not associated with a difference in survival. CONCLUSIONS: At present, there is insufficient evidence that VA-ECMO treatment improves short-term survival of acute PE patients. Low quality evidence suggest that VA-ECMO patients aged ≤60 years or who received SE have higher survival rates. Considering the limited evidence derived from the present data, this study emphasizes the need for prospective studies. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019120370.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca , Embolia Pulmonar , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(10): 1034-1041, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One key element of lung-protective ventilation is the use of a low tidal volume (VT). A sex difference in use of low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) has been described in critically ill ICU patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether a sex difference in use of LTVV also exists in operating room patients, and if present what factors drive this difference. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND SETTING: This is a posthoc analysis of LAS VEGAS, a 1-week worldwide observational study in adults requiring intra-operative ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery in 146 hospitals in 29 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women and men were compared with respect to use of LTVV, defined as VT of 8 ml kg-1 or less predicted bodyweight (PBW). A VT was deemed 'default' if the set VT was a round number. A mediation analysis assessed which factors may explain the sex difference in use of LTVV during intra-operative ventilation. RESULTS: This analysis includes 9864 patients, of whom 5425 (55%) were women. A default VT was often set, both in women and men; mode VT was 500 ml. Median [IQR] VT was higher in women than in men (8.6 [7.7 to 9.6] vs. 7.6 [6.8 to 8.4] ml kg-1 PBW, P < 0.001). Compared with men, women were twice as likely not to receive LTVV [68.8 vs. 36.0%; relative risk ratio 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.1), P < 0.001]. In the mediation analysis, patients' height and actual body weight (ABW) explained 81 and 18% of the sex difference in use of LTVV, respectively; it was not explained by the use of a default VT. CONCLUSION: In this worldwide cohort of patients receiving intra-operative ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery, women received a higher VT than men during intra-operative ventilation. The risk for a female not to receive LTVV during surgery was double that of males. Height and ABW were the two mediators of the sex difference in use of LTVV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01601223.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
5.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(6): 571-581, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is frequently recorded during preoperative screening and has been suggested to affect outcomes after surgery negatively. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess the frequency of moderate to severe anaemia and its association with length of hospital stay. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the international observational prospective 'Local ASsessment of VEntilatory management during General Anaesthesia for Surgery' (LAS VEGAS) study. PATIENTS AND SETTING: The current analysis included adult patients requiring general anaesthesia for non-cardiac surgery. Preoperative anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration of 11 g dl-1 or lower, thus including moderate and severe anaemia according to World Health Organisation criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, intra-operative adverse events and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). RESULTS: Haemoglobin concentrations were available for 8264 of 9864 patients. Preoperative moderate to severe anaemia was present in 7.7% of patients. Multivariable analysis showed that preoperative moderate to severe anaemia was associated with an increased length of hospital stay with a mean difference of 1.3 ((95% CI 0.8 to 1.8) days; P < .001). In the propensity-matched analysis, this association remained present, median 4.0 [IQR 1.0 to 5.0] vs. 2.0 [IQR 0.0 to 5.0] days, P = .001. Multivariable analysis showed an increased in-hospital mortality (OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.5); P  = .029), and higher incidences of intra-operative hypotension (36.3 vs. 25.3%; P < .001) and PPCs (17.1 vs. 10.5%; P = .001) in moderately to severely anaemic patients. However, this was not confirmed in the propensity score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this international cohort of non-cardiac surgical patients, preoperative moderate to severe anaemia was associated with a longer duration of hospital stay but not increased intra-operative complications, PPCs or in-hospital mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The LAS VEGAS study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01601223.


Assuntos
Anemia , Adulto , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0219, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies demonstrated that extensive fluid loading and consequently positive fluid balances during sepsis resuscitation are associated with adverse outcome. Yet, the association between fluid balance and mortality after reversal of shock, that is, during deresuscitation, is largely unappreciated. Our objective was to investigate the effects of fluid balance on mortality in the days after septic shock reversal. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: ICUs of two university-affiliated hospitals in The Netherlands. PATIENTS: Adult patients admitted with septic shock followed by shock reversal. Reversal of septic shock was defined based on Sepsis-3 criteria as the first day that serum lactate was less than or equal to 2 mmol/L without vasopressor requirement. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Reversal of septic shock occurred in 636 patients, of whom 20% died in the ICU. Mixed-effects logistic regression modeling, adjusted for possible confounders, showed that fluid balance in the days after reversal of septic shock (until discharge or death) was an independent predictor of ICU mortality: odds ratio 3.18 (1.90-5.32) per 10 mL/kg increase in daily fluid balance. Similar results were found for 30-day, 90-day, hospital, and 1-year mortality: odds ratios 2.09 (1.64-2.67); 1.79 (1.38-2.32); 1.70 (1.40-2.07); and 1.53 (1.17-2.01), respectively. Positive cumulative fluid balances vs. neutral or negative fluid balances on the final day in the ICU were associated with increased ICU, hospital, 30-day, and 90-day mortality: odds ratios 3.46 (2.29-5.23); 3.39 (2.35-4.9); 5.33 (3.51-8.08); and 3.57 (2.49-5.12), respectively. Using restricted cubic splines, we found a dose-response relationship between cumulative fluid balance after shock reversal and ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A higher fluid balance in the days after septic shock reversal was associated with increased mortality. This stresses the importance of implementing restrictive and deresuscitative fluid management strategies after initial hemodynamic resuscitation. Prospective interventional studies are needed to confirm our results.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2457-2467, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638483

RESUMO

Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is increasingly being used as a treatment for major bleeding in patients who are not taking anticoagulants. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of PCC administration for the treatment of bleeding in patients not taking anticoagulants. Studies investigating the effectivity of PCC to treat bleeding in adult patients and providing data on either mortality or blood loss were eligible. Data were pooled using Mantel-Haenszel random effects meta-analysis or inverse variance random effects meta-analysis. From 4668 identified studies, 17 observational studies were included. In all patient groups combined, PCC administration was not associated with mortality (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-1.06; P = .13; I2  = 0%). However, in trauma patients, PCC administration, in addition to fresh frozen plasma, was associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio = 0.64; CI, 0.46-0.88; P = .007; I2  = 0%). PCC administration was associated with a reduction in blood loss in cardiac surgery patients (mean difference: -384; CI, -640 to -128, P = .003, I2  = 81%) and a decreased need for red blood cell transfusions when compared with standard care across a wide range of bleeding patients not taking anticoagulants (mean difference: -1.80; CI, -3.22 to -0.38; P = .01; I2  = 92%). In conclusion, PCC administration was not associated with reduced mortality in the whole cohort but did reduce mortality in trauma patients. In bleeding patients, PCC reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions when compared with treatment strategies not involving PCC. In bleeding cardiac surgery patients, PCC administration reduced blood loss.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea , Hemorragia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Fator IX , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypercoagulopathy is intrinsic to inhalation trauma. Nebulized heparin could theoretically be beneficial in patients with inhalation injury, but current data are conflicting. We aimed to investigate the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of nebulized heparin. METHODS: International multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in specialized burn care centers. Adult patients with inhalation trauma received nebulizations of unfractionated heparin (25,000 international unit (IU), 5 mL) or placebo (0.9% NaCl, 5 mL) every four hours for 14 days or until extubation. The primary outcome was the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 post-admission. Here, we report on the secondary outcomes related to safety and feasibility. RESULTS: The study was prematurely stopped after inclusion of 13 patients (heparin N = 7, placebo N = 6) due to low recruitment and high costs associated with the trial medication. Therefore, no analyses on effectiveness were performed. In the heparin group, serious respiratory problems occurred due to saturation of the expiratory filter following nebulizations. In total, 129 out of 427 scheduled nebulizations were withheld in the heparin group (in 3 patients) and 45 out of 299 scheduled nebulizations were withheld in the placebo group (in 2 patients). Blood-stained sputum or expected increased bleeding risks were the most frequent reasons to withhold nebulizations. CONCLUSION: In this prematurely stopped trial, we encountered important safety and feasibility issues related to frequent heparin nebulizations in burn patients with inhalation trauma. This should be taken into account when heparin nebulizations are considered in these patients.

9.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 47(1): 61-67, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia of inflammation (AI) is the most common cause of anemia in the critically ill, but its diagnosis is a challenge. New therapies specific to AI are in development, and they require accurate detection of AI. This study explores the potential of parameters of iron metabolism for the diagnosis of AI during an ICU stay. METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 30 patients developing AI were matched to 60 controls. The iron parameters were determined in plasma samples during an ICU stay. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the iron parameter threshold with the highest sensitivity and specificity to predict AI. Likelihood ratios as well as positive and negative predictive values were calculated as well. RESULTS: The sensitivity of iron parameters for diagnosing AI ranges between 62 and 76%, and the specificity between 57 and 72%. Iron and transferrin show the greatest area under the curve. Iron shows the highest sensitivity, and transferrin and transferrin saturation display the highest specificity. Hepcidin and ferritin show the lowest specificity. At an actual anemia prevalence of 53%, the diagnostic accuracy of iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation was fair, with a positive predictive value between 71 and 73%. Combining iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, hepcidin, and/or ferritin levels did not increase the accuracy of the AI diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this explorative study on the use of different parameters of iron metabolism for diagnosing AI during an ICU stay, low levels of commonly measured markers such as plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation have the highest sensitivity and specificity and outperform ferritin and hepcidin.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665179

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute, diffuse, inflammatory lung injury leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary oedema and loss of aerated tissue. Previous literature showed that restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS shortens time on mechanical ventilation and length of ICU-stay. However, the effect of intravenous fluid use on mortality remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between cumulative fluid balance (FB), time on mechanical ventilation and mortality in ARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study. Patients were divided in four cohorts based on cumulative FB on day 7 of ICU-admission: ≤0 L (Group I); 0-3.5 L (Group II); 3.5-8 L (Group III) and ≥8 L (Group IV). In addition, we used cumulative FB on day 7 as continuum as a predictor of mortality. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and ventilator-free days. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality and ICU length of stay. RESULTS: Six hundred ARDS patients were included, of whom 156 (26%) died within 28 days. Patients with a higher cumulative FB on day 7 had a longer length of ICU-stay and fewer ventilator-free days on day 28. Furthermore, after adjusting for severity of illness, a higher cumulative FB was associated with 28-day mortality (Group II, adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1 [1.0-4.6], p = 0.045; Group III, aOR 3.3 [1.7-7.2], p = 0.001; Group IV, aOR 7.9 [4.0-16.8], p<0.001). Using restricted cubic splines, a non-linear dose-response relationship between cumulative FB and probability of death at day 28 was found; where a more positive FB predicted mortality and a negative FB showed a trend towards survival. CONCLUSIONS: A higher cumulative fluid balance is independently associated with increased risk of death, longer time on mechanical ventilation and longer length of ICU-stay in patients with ARDS. This underlines the importance of implementing restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS patients.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo
11.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(9): 1062-1074, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) can improve surgical conditions and possibly pain after low-risk laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesized that targeting a deep level of NMB by a continuous compared with an on-demand infusion of rocuronium could improve surgical conditions in patients undergoing thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomized-controlled, double-blind trial, patients received either a continuous infusion of rocuronium 0.6 mg·kg-1·hr-1 (intervention) or NaCl 0.9% (control). Both surgeon and anesthesiologist were blinded to group assignment and the train-of-four measurements. Open-label rocuronium was given if requested (i.e., on-demand) by the surgeon. At the end of surgery, sugammadex was given if necessary to reverse the NMB. The primary outcome was the quality of surgical conditions during the abdominal phase of the operation as measured by the surgical rating scale (SRS). Secondary outcomes included the thoracic SRS, number of on-demand boluses, intraoperative surgical events, pain scores (up to 12 hr postoperatively), and duration of surgery. RESULTS: The median [interquartile range] abdominal SRS was not different between the intervention (4 [4-5]) and control (4 [4-5]) groups (median difference, 0; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 0; P = 0.45). The thoracic SRS was 4 [4-4] in both groups (P = 0.23). The median number of rocuronium bolus requests was higher in the control group compared with the intervention group (3 [3-6] vs 1 [0-2], respectively; P < 0.01). There were no between-group differences in intraoperative surgical events (P = 0.05), pain scores (overall P > 0.05), or duration of surgery (P = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous rocuronium infusion did not improve surgical conditions when boluses of rocuronium were available on-demand. No major benefits in other outcomes were seen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EUDRACT (2014-002147-18); registered 19 May, 2014 and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02320734); registered 18 December, 2014.


Assuntos
Esofagectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Rocurônio/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Sugammadex/administração & dosagem , Toracoscopia/métodos
12.
JAMA ; 320(18): 1872-1880, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357256

RESUMO

Importance: It remains uncertain whether invasive ventilation should use low tidal volumes in critically ill patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objective: To determine whether a low tidal volume ventilation strategy is more effective than an intermediate tidal volume strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial, conducted from September 1, 2014, through August 20, 2017, including patients without ARDS expected to not be extubated within 24 hours after start of ventilation from 6 intensive care units in the Netherlands. Interventions: Invasive ventilation using low tidal volumes (n = 477) or intermediate tidal volumes (n = 484). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28. Secondary outcomes included length of ICU and hospital stay; ICU, hospital, and 28- and 90-day mortality; and development of ARDS, pneumonia, severe atelectasis, or pneumothorax. Results: In total, 961 patients (65% male), with a median age of 68 years (interquartile range [IQR], 59-76), were enrolled. At day 28, 475 patients in the low tidal volume group had a median of 21 ventilator-free days (IQR, 0-26), and 480 patients in the intermediate tidal volume group had a median of 21 ventilator-free days (IQR, 0-26) (mean difference, -0.27 [95% CI, -1.74 to 1.19]; P = .71). There was no significant difference in ICU (median, 6 vs 6 days; 0.39 [-1.09 to 1.89]; P = .58) and hospital (median, 14 vs 15 days; -0.60 [-3.52 to 2.31]; P = .68) length of stay or 28-day (34.9% vs 32.1%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.12 [0.90 to 1.40]; P = .30) and 90-day (39.1% vs 37.8%; HR, 1.07 [0.87 to 1.31]; P = .54) mortality. There was no significant difference in the percentage of patients developing the following adverse events: ARDS (3.8% vs 5.0%; risk ratio [RR], 0.86 [0.59 to 1.24]; P = .38), pneumonia (4.2% vs 3.7%; RR, 1.07 [0.78 to 1.47]; P = .67), severe atelectasis (11.4% vs 11.2%; RR, 1.00 [0.81 to 1.23]; P = .94), and pneumothorax (1.8% vs 1.3%; RR, 1.16 [0.73 to 1.84]; P = .55). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients in the ICU without ARDS who were expected not to be extubated within 24 hours of randomization, a low tidal volume strategy did not result in a greater number of ventilator-free days than an intermediate tidal volume strategy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02153294.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Idoso , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Desmame do Respirador , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 56, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia occurring as a result of inflammatory processes (anemia of inflammation, AI) has a high prevalence in critically ill patients. Knowledge on changes in iron metabolism during the course of AI is limited, hampering the development of strategies to counteract AI. This case control study aimed to investigate iron metabolism during the development of AI in critically ill patients. METHODS: Iron metabolism in 30 patients who developed AI during ICU stay was compared with 30 septic patients with a high Hb and 30 non-septic patients with a high Hb. Patients were matched on age and sex. Longitudinally collected plasma samples were analyzed for levels of parameters of iron metabolism. A linear mixed model was used to assess the predictive values of the parameters. RESULTS: In patients with AI, levels of iron, transferrin and transferrin saturation showed an early decrease compared to controls with a high Hb, already prior to the development of anemia. Ferritin, hepcidin and IL-6 levels were increased in AI compared to controls. During AI development, erythroferrone decreased. Differences in iron metabolism between groups were not influenced by APACHE IV score. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that in critically ill patients with AI, iron metabolism is already altered prior to the development of anemia. Levels of iron regulators in AI differ from septic controls with a high Hb, irrespective of disease severity. AI is characterized by high levels of hepcidin, ferritin and IL-6 and low levels of iron, transferrin and erythroferrone.

14.
Resuscitation ; 129: 29-36, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763713

RESUMO

AIMS: Mechanical ventilation practices in patients with cardiac arrest are not well described. Also, the effect of temperature on mechanical ventilation settings is not known. The aims of this study were 1) to describe practice of mechanical ventilation and its relation with outcome 2) to determine effects of different target temperatures strategies (33 °C versus 36 °C) on mechanical ventilation settings. METHODS: This is a substudy of the TTM-trial in which unconscious survivors of a cardiac arrest due to a cardiac cause were randomized to two TTM strategies, 33 °C (TTM33) and 36 °C (TTM36). Mechanical ventilation data were obtained at three time points: 1) before TTM; 2) at the end of TTM (before rewarming) and 3) after rewarming. Logistic regression was used to determine an association between mechanical ventilation variables and outcome. Repeated-measures mixed modelling was performed to determine the effect of TTM on ventilation settings. RESULTS: Mechanical ventilation data was available for 567 of the 950 TTM patients. Of these, 81% was male with a mean (SD) age of 64 (12) years. At the end of TTM median tidal volume was 7.7 ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW)(6.4-8.7) and 60% of patients were ventilated with a tidal volume ≤ 8 ml/kg PBW. Median PEEP was 7.7cmH2O (6.4-8.7) and mean driving pressure was 14.6 cmH2O (±4.3). The median FiO2 fraction was 0.35 (0.30-0.45). Multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship between increased respiratory rate and 28-day mortality. TTM33 resulted in lower end-tidal CO2 (Pgroup = 0.0003) and higher alveolar dead space fraction (Pgroup = 0.003) compared to TTM36, while PCO2 levels and respiratory minute volume were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the cardiac arrest patients, protective ventilation settings are applied, including low tidal volumes and driving pressures. High respiratory rate was associated with mortality. TTM33 results in lower end-tidal CO2 levels and a higher alveolar dead space fraction compared to TTTM36.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Reaquecimento/métodos , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 41(2): 178-185, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494373

RESUMO

A strategy of defining and checking explicitly formulated patient-specific treatments targets or "daily goals" in the intensive care unit has been associated with improved communication. We investigated the effect of incorporation of daily goals into daily care planning on length of stay in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, the type of daily goals and deviations from daily goals in daily care with or without documented reason were evaluated. Four university hospitals in the Netherlands, of which 2 study "daily goal" hospitals and 2 control hospitals, participated in a prospective before-after study. During the before phase of the study, daily goals were formulated by the attending physician but kept blinded from doctors and nurses caring for the patient. During the after phase of the study, daily goals were integrated in the care plan for patients admitted to the 2 study hospitals but not for patients admitted to the control hospitals. The implementation of daily goals was, after case-mix correction, not associated with a change in intensive care unit length of stay. However, this study showed that an improved administrative discipline, that is, the recording of the reason why a daily goal or standard protocol was not accomplished, is in favor of the daily goal implementation.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Objetivos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração
16.
JAMA ; 319(10): 993-1001, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486489

RESUMO

Importance: It remains uncertain whether nebulization of mucolytics with bronchodilators should be applied for clinical indication or preventively in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving invasive ventilation. Objective: To determine if a strategy that uses nebulization for clinical indication (on-demand) is noninferior to one that uses preventive (routine) nebulization. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial enrolling adult patients expected to need invasive ventilation for more than 24 hours at 7 ICUs in the Netherlands. Interventions: On-demand nebulization of acetylcysteine or salbutamol (based on strict clinical indications, n = 471) or routine nebulization of acetylcysteine with salbutamol (every 6 hours until end of invasive ventilation, n = 473). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of ventilator-free days at day 28, with a noninferiority margin for a difference between groups of -0.5 days. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, mortality rates, occurrence of pulmonary complications, and adverse events. Results: Nine hundred twenty-two patients (34% women; median age, 66 (interquartile range [IQR], 54-75 years) were enrolled and completed follow-up. At 28 days, patients in the on-demand group had a median 21 (IQR, 0-26) ventilator-free days, and patients in the routine group had a median 20 (IQR, 0-26) ventilator-free days (1-sided 95% CI, -0.00003 to ∞). There was no significant difference in length of stay or mortality, or in the proportion of patients developing pulmonary complications, between the 2 groups. Adverse events (13.8% vs 29.3%; difference, -15.5% [95% CI, -20.7% to -10.3%]; P < .001) were more frequent with routine nebulization and mainly related to tachyarrhythmia (12.5% vs 25.9%; difference, -13.4% [95% CI, -18.4% to -8.4%]; P < .001) and agitation (0.2% vs 4.3%; difference, -4.1% [95% CI, -5.9% to -2.2%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among ICU patients receiving invasive ventilation who were expected to not be extubated within 24 hours, on-demand compared with routine nebulization of acetylcysteine with salbutamol did not result in an inferior number of ventilator-free days. On-demand nebulization may be a reasonable alternative to routine nebulization. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02159196.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Críticos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Respiração Artificial , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Desmame do Respirador
17.
Trials ; 19(1): 127, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe thrombocytopenia should be corrected by prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, according to national and international guidelines. Even though correction is thought to prevent bleeding complications, evidence supporting the routine administration of prophylactic platelets is absent. Furthermore, platelet transfusion bears inherent risk. Since the introduction of ultrasound-guided CVC placement, bleeding complication rates have decreased. The objective of the current trial is, therefore, to demonstrate that omitting prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC placement in severely thrombocytopenic patients is non-inferior compared to prophylactic platelet transfusion. METHODS/DESIGN: The PACER trial is an investigator-initiated, national, multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled, non-inferior, two-arm trial in haematologic and/or intensive care patients with a platelet count of between 10 and 50 × 109/L and an indication for CVC placement. Consecutive patients are randomly assigned to either receive 1 unit of platelet concentrate, or receive no prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC insertion. The primary endpoint is WHO grades 2-4 bleeding. Secondary endpoints are any bleeding complication, costs, length of intensive care and hospital stay and transfusion requirements. DISCUSSION: This is the first prospective, randomised controlled trial powered to test the hypothesis of whether omitting forgoing platelet transfusion prior to central venous cannulation leads to an equal occurrence of clinical relevant bleeding complications in critically ill and haematologic patients with thrombocytopenia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Registry, ID: NTR5653 ( http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp ). Registered on 27 January 2016. Currently recruiting. Randomisation commenced on 23 February 2016.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Trombocitopenia/prevenção & controle , Coleta de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Transfusion ; 58(2): 498-506, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) in a cohort of mixed intensive care unit patients and to compare risk factors with those for cardiac overload in the absence of transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, patients who developed TACO were compared using multivariate analysis of two control groups: patients without pulmonary deterioration who received transfusion and patients who developed circulatory overload in the absence of transfusion. RESULTS: TACO was diagnosed in 66 of 1140 patients who received transfusions (5.8%). A total of 585 control transfusion recipients and 76 control patients who developed circulatory overload also were identified. Risk factors were the referring specialties cardiology (odds ratio [OR], 13.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1-35.7; p ≤ 0.001) and cardiothoracic surgery (OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 3.7-20.7; p ≤ 0.001), history of cardiac failure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.6; p = 0.01), continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9; p = 0.03), and degree of positive fluid balance (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24; p ≤ 0.001), which was associated less with the onset of TACO compared with circulatory overload (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97; p = 0.005). Patients in the TACO group had a longer length of stay in the intensive care unit compared with the transfusion and circulatory overload controls groups (median, 7.2 vs. 4.3 vs. 4.4 days; p = 0.001 vs. p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TACO is high in a mixed intensive care unit population. The risk factors identified for TACO are cardiac failure, renal failure, and degree of positive fluid balance. A positive fluid balance may be less essential in the onset of TACO than in the onset of circulatory overload in the absence of transfusion.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reação Transfusional/terapia
19.
Crit Care Med ; 46(1): 29-36, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The presence of respiratory viruses and the association with outcomes were assessed in invasively ventilated ICU patients, stratified by admission diagnosis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Five ICUs in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Between September 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, 1,407 acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and tracheobronchial aspirates were collected upon intubation and tested for 14 respiratory viruses. Out of 1,407 patients, 156 were admitted because of a severe acute respiratory infection and 1,251 for other reasons (non-severe acute respiratory infection). Respiratory viruses were detected in 28.8% of severe acute respiratory infection patients and 17.0% in non-severe acute respiratory infection (p < 0.001). In one third, viruses were exclusively detected in tracheobronchial aspirates. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in severe acute respiratory infection patients (9.6% and 2.6% vs 4.5 and 0.2%; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In both groups, there were no associations between the presence of viruses and the number of ICU-free days at day 28, crude mortality, and mortality in multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus are more frequently found in severe acute respiratory infection patients. Detection of respiratory viruses is not associated with worse clinically relevant outcomes in the studied cohort of patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Viroses/mortalidade
20.
Blood Transfus ; 16(3): 227-234, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28488955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disciplines involved in diagnosing transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) report according to a "one-hit" theory. However, studies showed that patients with an underlying condition are at increased risk of the development of TRALI. We investigated whether accumulating evidence on the "two-hit" theory has changed the practice of reporting TRALI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Departments of haematology, haemovigilance, transfusion medicine, intensive care and anaesthesiology from all Dutch hospitals with at least five beds equipped for mechanical ventilation were invited to participate in an online survey. Using clinical vignettes with conjoint analysis we investigated the effect of patients' age, admission diagnosis, type and number of transfusions and presence of risk factors for acute lung injury on TRALI reporting. A positive ß-coefficient indicated a higher likelihood of reporting TRALI. RESULTS: We received 129 questionnaires (response rate 74%). Respondents were more likely to report TRALI in younger patients, if symptoms developed within 2 hours of transfusion and if patients had received multiple transfusions. Sepsis and the presence of a risk factor for acute lung injury reduced the inclination to report. Transfusion medicine physicians and haemovigilance staff no longer took the age of transfusion products into account in their diagnostic considerations on TRALI. DISCUSSION: We conclude that the multidisciplinary team involved in TRALI reporting, still considers TRALI a "one-hit" event, despite accumulating evidence that supports the "two-hit" theory. These results suggest that the patients most at risk of developing TRALI are not reported to the blood bank.


Assuntos
Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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