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1.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease with a poor cure rate for relapsed/resistant patients. Due to the lack of T-cell restricted targetable antigens, effective immune-therapeutics are not presently available and the treatment of chemo-refractory T-ALL is still an unmet clinical need. To develop novel immune-therapy for T-ALL, we generated an afucosylated monoclonal antibody (mAb) (ahuUMG1) and two different bispecific T-cell engagers (BTCEs) against UMG1, a unique CD43-epitope highly and selectively expressed by T-ALL cells from pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: UMG1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a wide panel of normal tissue microarrays (TMAs), and by flow cytometry on healthy peripheral blood/bone marrow-derived cells, on 10 different T-ALL cell lines, and on 110 T-ALL primary patient-derived cells. CD43-UMG1 binding site was defined through a peptide microarray scanning. ahuUMG1 was generated by Genetic Glyco-Engineering technology from a novel humanized mAb directed against UMG1 (huUMG1). BTCEs were generated as IgG1-(scFv)2 constructs with bivalent (2+2) or monovalent (2+1) CD3ε arms. Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and redirected T-cell cytotoxicity assays were analysed by flow cytometry. In vivo antitumor activity of ahUMG1 and UMG1-BTCEs was investigated in NSG mice against subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of human T-ALL. RESULTS: Among 110 T-ALL patient-derived samples, 53 (48.1%) stained positive (24% of TI/TII, 82% of TIII and 42.8% of TIV). Importantly, no expression of UMG1-epitope was found in normal tissues/cells, excluding cortical thymocytes and a minority (<5%) of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. ahUMG1 induced strong ADCC and ADCP on T-ALL cells in vitro, which translated in antitumor activity in vivo and significantly extended survival of treated mice. Both UMG1-BTCEs demonstrated highly effective killing activity against T-ALL cells in vitro. We demonstrated that this effect was specifically exerted by engaged activated T cells. Moreover, UMG1-BTCEs effectively antagonized tumor growth at concentrations >2 log lower as compared with ahuUMG1, with significant mice survival advantage in different T-ALL models in vivo. CONCLUSION: Altogether our findings, including the safe UMG1-epitope expression profile, provide a framework for the clinical development of these innovative immune-therapeutics for this still orphan disease.

2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 80, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge of patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is an effective interface to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) noninvasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). METHODS: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e., non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients' data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were included; 42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full treatment and 28% of the DNI patients (P < 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg (P < 0.001); respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P < 0.001). C-reactive protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO2/FiO2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04424992.


Assuntos
/complicações , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Hipóxia/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(6): 652-662, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by a high incidence of KMT2A gene rearrangements and poor outcome. We evaluated the value of minimal residual disease (MRD) in infants with KMT2A-rearranged ALL treated within the Interfant-06 protocol, which compared lymphoid-style consolidation (protocol IB) versus myeloid-style consolidation (araC, daunorubicin, etoposide/mitoxantrone, araC, etoposide). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRD was measured in 249 infants by DNA-based polymerase chain reaction of rearranged KMT2A, immunoglobulin, and/or T-cell receptor genes, at the end of induction (EOI) and end of consolidation (EOC). MRD results were classified as negative, intermediate (< 5 × 10-4), and high (≥ 5 × 10-4). RESULTS: EOI MRD levels predicted outcome with 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 60.2% (95% CI, 43.2 to 73.6), 45.0% (95% CI, 28.3 to 53.1), and 33.8% (95% CI, 23.8 to 44.1) for infants with negative, intermediate, and high EOI MRD levels, respectively (P = .0039). EOC MRD levels were also predictive of outcome, with 6-year DFS of 68.2% (95% CI, 55.2 to 78.1), 40.1% (95% CI, 28.1 to 51.9), and 11.9% (95% CI, 2.6 to 29.1) for infants with negative, intermediate, and high EOC MRD levels, respectively (P < .0001). Analysis of EOI MRD according to the type of consolidation treatment showed that infants treated with lymphoid-style consolidation had 6-year DFS of 78.2% (95% CI, 51.4 to 91.3), 47.2% (95% CI, 33.0 to 60.1), and 23.2% (95% CI, 12.1 to 36.4) for negative, intermediate, and high MRD levels, respectively (P < .0001), while for myeloid-style-treated patients the corresponding figures were 45.0% (95% CI, 23.9 to 64.1), 41.3% (95% CI, 23.2 to 58.5), and 45.9% (95% CI, 29.4 to 60.9). CONCLUSION: This study provides support for the idea that induction therapy selects patients for subsequent therapy; infants with high EOI MRD may benefit from AML-like consolidation (DFS 45.9% v 23.2%), whereas patients with low EOI MRD may benefit from ALL-like consolidation (DFS 78.2% v 45.0%). Patients with positive EOC MRD had dismal outcomes. These findings will be used for treatment interventions in the next Interfant protocol.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2185: 77-94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165844

RESUMO

Although new techniques (i.e., droplet digital-PCR, next-generation sequencing, advanced flow cytometry) are being developed, DNA-based allele-specific real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR is still the gold standard for sensitive and accurate immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (IG/TR)-based minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring, allowing the detection of up to 1 leukemic cell in 100,000 normal lymphoid cells. We herewith describe the standard PCR procedure which has been developed and standardized (with minor modification in single labs) through the last 20 years of activity of the EuroMRD Consortium, a volunteer activity of expert laboratories that is continuously providing education, standardization, quality control rounds, and guidelines for interpretation of RQ-PCR data.

5.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(1): e55-e66, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ABL-class fusion genes other than BCR-ABL1 have been identified in approximately 3% of children with newly diagnosed acute lymphocytic leukaemia, and studies suggest that leukaemic cells carrying ABL-class fusions can be targeted successfully by tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We aimed to establish the baseline characteristics and outcomes of paediatric patients with ABL-class fusion B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia in the pre-tyrosine-kinase inhibitor era. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study included paediatric patients (aged 1-18 years) with newly diagnosed ABL-class fusion (ABL1 fusion-positive, ABL2 fusion-positive, CSF1R fusion-positive, and PDGFRB fusion-positive) B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia enrolled in clinical trials of multidrug chemotherapy done between Oct 3, 2000, and Aug 28, 2018, in which tyrosine-kinase inhibitors had not been given as a first-line treatment. Patients from 14 European, North American, and Asia-Pacific study groups of the Ponte di Legno group were included. No patients were excluded, and patients were followed up by individual study groups. Through the Ponte di Legno group, we collected data on the baseline characteristics of patients, including IKZF1, PAX5, and CDKN2A/B deletion status, and whether haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) had been done, as well as treatment outcomes, including complete remission, no response, relapse, early death, and treatment-related mortality, response to prednisone, and minimal residual disease (MRD) at end of induction therapy. 5-year event-free survival and 5-year overall survival were estimated by use of Kaplan-Meier methods, and the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was calculated by use of a competing risk model. FINDINGS: We identified 122 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed ABL-class fusion B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia (77 from European study groups, 25 from North American study groups, and 20 from Asia-Pacific study groups). 64 (52%) of 122 patients were PDGFRB fusion-positive, 40 (33%) were ABL1 fusion-positive, ten (8%) were CSF1R fusion-positive, and eight (7%) were ABL2 fusion-positive. In all 122 patients, 5-year event-free survival was 59·1% (95% CI 50·5-69·1), 5-year overall survival was 76·1% (68·6-84·5), and the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 31·0% (95% CI 22·4-40·1). MRD at the end of induction therapy was high (≥10-2 cells) in 61 (66%) of 93 patients, and most prevalent in patients with ABL2 fusions (six [86%] of 7 patients) and PDGFRB fusion-positive B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia (43 [88%] of 49 patients). MRD at the end of induction therapy of 10-2 cells or more was predictive of an unfavourable outcome (hazard ratio of event-free survival in patients with a MRD of ≥10-2vs those with a MRD of <10-2 3·33 [95% CI 1·46-7·56], p=0·0039). Of the 36 (30%) of 119 patients who relapsed, 25 (69%) relapsed within 3 years of diagnosis. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse in 41 patients who underwent HSCT (17·8% [95% CI 7·7-31·3]) was lower than in the 43 patients who did not undergo HSCT (45·1% [28·4-60·5], p=0·013), but event-free survival and overall survival did not differ between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: Children with ABL-class fusion B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia have poor outcomes when treated with regimens that do not contain a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, despite the use of high-risk chemotherapy regimens and frequent HSCT upon first remission. Our findings provide a reference for evaluating the potential benefit of first-line tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment in patients with ABL-class fusion B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia. FUNDING: The Oncode Institute, Pediatric Cancer Foundation Rotterdam, Dutch Cancer Society, Kika Foundation, Deutsche Krebshilfe, Blood Cancer UK, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Cancer Australia, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, and St Baldrick's Foundation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 599302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362716

RESUMO

Context: dexamethasone has been demonstrated to elicit GH secretion in adults, but few data are available about its effectiveness as a provocative stimulus in the diagnostic work-up of GH deficiency (GHD) in childhood. Objective: to assess the clinical value of dexamethasone stimulation test (DST) as a diagnostic tool for pediatric GHD. Design and setting: retrospective single-center analysis. The study population included 166 patients with a pathological response to arginine stimulation test (AST, first-line test) and subsequently tested with either insulin tolerance test (ITT) or DST as a second-line investigation between 2008 and 2019. Main outcome measures: comparison between GH peaks and secretory curves induced by ITT and DST; degree of agreement between DST and AST versus ITT and AST. Results: the pathological response to AST (GH peak < 8 ng/mL) was confirmed by an ITT in 80.2% (89/111) of patients and by a DST in 76.4% (42/55), with no statistical difference between the two groups (p value 0.69). Mean GH peaks achieved after ITT and DST were entirely comparable (6.59 ± 3.59 versus 6.50 ± 4.09 ng/ml, respectively, p 0.97) and statistically higher than those elicited by arginine (p < 0.01 for both), irrespectively of the average GH peaks recorded for each patient (Bland-Altman method). Dexamethasone elicited a longer lasting and later secretory response than AST and ITT. No side effects were recorded after DST. Conclusions: DST and ITT confirmed GHD in a superimposable percentage of patients with a pathological first-line test. DST and ITT share a similar secretagogue potency, overall greater than AST.

9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107478, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Wearable devices are progressively becoming an available tool for continuous seizure detection. Motivation to use wearables is not only driven by the accuracy and reliability of the performance but also by the form factor, comfort, and stability on the body. We collected direct feedback and device placement-related issues experienced by a cohort of people with epilepsy (PWE) to investigate to what extent available devices are nonintrusive, comfortable, and stable on the body. METHODS: Four models of wearable devices (E4 wrist band, Everion upper arm band, IMEC upper arm band, and Epilog scalp patch electrodes) were worn by PWE who were admitted to two epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) in London and Freiburg. Participants were periodically reviewed, and accidental displacements of the devices were annotated. Participants' experience was assessed using the Technology Acceptance Model Fast Form (TAM-FF) plus two additional questions on comfort. A thematic analysis was also performed on the free text of the questionnaire. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen participants were enrolled. The devices had a good stability on the body including during seizures. Overall, all the devices were considered comfortable to be worn, including during sleep. However, devices containing wires and patches demonstrated a lesser degree of stability on the body and were judged less positively. Participants age was correlated with TAM-FF mean scores, and older participants judged the devices less favorably compared with younger participants. DISCUSSION: Removable but securely fitted, wireless, and comfortable designs were considered more appropriate for a continuous monitoring aimed at seizure detection. Some caution may be required when patch electrodes and electrodes glued to the skin or to the scalp are used, as those evaluated in the present study demonstrated a lower level of acceptability and a lower degree of stability to the body, especially at night. These factors could limit a continuous monitoring decreasing the device performance for nocturnal, unsupervised seizures which are at higher risk of lethality.

10.
JCI Insight ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232303

RESUMO

Immune and inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 contribute to disease severity of COVID-19. However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity, and assessed type-I IFN-, type-II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and non-hematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type-I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, sST2, NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and two additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were significantly associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.

11.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089365

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an essential component of the bone marrow (BM) niche and display disease-specific alterations in several myeloid malignancies. The aim of this work was to study possible MSC abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in relationship to the degree of BM fibrosis. MSCs were isolated from BM of 6 healthy donors (HD) and of 23 MPN patients, classified in 3 groups according to the diagnosis and the grade of BM fibrosis: polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia (PV/ET), low fibrosis myelofibrosis (LF-MF), and high fibrosis MF (HF-MF). MSC cultures were established from 21 of 23 MPN patients. MPN-derived MSCs did not exhibit any functional impairment in their adipogenic/osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation potential and displayed a phenotype similar to HD-derived MSCs but with a decreased expression of CD146. All MPN-MSC lines were negative for the patient-specific hematopoietic clone mutations (JAK2, MPL, CALR). MSCs derived from HF-MF patients displayed a reduced clonogenic potential and a lower growth kinetic compared to MSCs from HD, LF-MF, and PV/ET patients. mRNA levels of hematopoiesis regulatory molecules were unaffected in MSCs from HF-MF compared to HD. Finally, in vitro ActivinA secretion by MSCs was increased in HF-MF compared to LF-MF patients, in association with a lower hemoglobin value. Increased ActivinA immunolabeling on stromal cells and erythroid precursors was also observed in HF-MF BM biopsies. In conclusion, higher grade of BM fibrosis is associated with functional impairment of MSCs and the increased secretion of ActivinA may represent a suitable target for anemia treatment in MF patients.

12.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025591

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the cumulative prevalence of coeliac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hyperthyroidism and primary immunodeficiencies in children with either newly diagnosed/persistent or chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). METHODS: Monocentric retrospective analysis of the clinical and biochemical features of 330 consecutive patients with ITP referred to our Pediatric Hematology Unit between January 2009 and December 2018. RESULTS: The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (0.3%), coeliac disease (0.3%) and autoimmune hyperthyroidism (0.6%) was not increased compared to general paediatric population. Of note, the prevalence of underlying primary immunodeficiencies was 2.4%, remarkably higher than the general paediatric population (P = .005). All the patients diagnosed with immunodeficiency developed either bi-/trilinear cytopenia or splenomegaly. CONCLUSION: Whilst autoimmune and immunological screening is already recommended at the onset of immune thrombocytopenia, we recommend that primary immunodeficiencies be regularly screened during follow-up, especially in case of additional cytopenia or lymphoproliferation.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013822

RESUMO

Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) is a rapidly evolving therapeutic approach designed to harness T cell specificity and function to fight diseases. Based on the evidence that T lymphocytes can mediate a potent anti-tumor response, initially ACT solely relied on the isolation, in vitro expansion, and infusion of tumor-infiltrating or circulating tumor-specific T cells. Although effective in a subset of cases, in the first ACT clinical trials several patients experienced disease progression, in some cases after temporary disease control. This evidence prompted researchers to improve ACT products by taking advantage of the continuously evolving gene engineering field and by improving manufacturing protocols, to enable the generation of effective and long-term persisting tumor-specific T cell products. Despite recent advances, several challenges, including prioritization of antigen targets, identification, and optimization of tumor-specific T cell receptors, in the development of tools enabling T cells to counteract the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, still need to be faced. This review aims at summarizing the major achievements, hurdles and possible solutions designed to improve the ACT efficacy and safety profile in the context of liquid and solid tumors.

14.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905580

RESUMO

Agammaglobulinemia is the most profound primary antibody deficiency that can occur due to an early termination of B-cell development. We here investigated three novel patients, including the first known adult, from unrelated families with agammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Two of them also presented with intermittent or severe chronic neutropenia. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in the gene for Folliculin interacting protein 1 (FNIP1), leading to loss of the FNIP1 protein. B-cell metabolism, including mitochondrial numbers and activity and PI3K/AKT pathway, was impaired. These defects recapitulated the Fnip1-/- animal model. Moreover, we identified either uniparental disomy or copy number variants [CNV] in two patients, expanding the variant spectrum of this novel inborn error of immunity. The results indicate that FNIP1 deficiency can be caused by complex genetic mechanisms and support the clinical utility of exome sequencing and CNV analysis in patients with broad phenotypes, including agammaglobulinemia and HCM. FNIP1 deficiency is a novel inborn error of immunity characterized by early and severe B-cell development defect, agammaglobulinemia, variable neutropenia, and HCM. Our findings elucidate a functional and relevant role of FNIP1 in B-cell development and metabolism and potentially neutrophil activity.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(7): 1026-1037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803625

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are heterogeneous disorders, characterized by variable clinical and immunological features. National PID registries offer useful insights on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and natural history of these disorders. In 1999, the Italian network for primary immunodeficiencies (IPINet) was established. We report on data collected from the IPINet registry after 20 years of activity. A total of 3352 pediatric and adult patients affected with PIDs are registered in the database. In Italy, a regional distribution trend of PID diagnosis was observed. Based on the updated IUIS classification of 2019, PID distribution in Italy showed that predominantly antibody deficiencies account for the majority of cases (63%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (22.5%). The overall age at diagnosis was younger for male patients. The minimal prevalence of PIDs in Italy resulted in 5.1 per 100.000 habitants. Mortality was similar to other European registries (4.2%). Immunoglobulin replacement treatment was prescribed to less than one third of the patient cohort. Collectively, this is the first comprehensive description of the PID epidemiology in Italy.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 137: 224-234, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a rare disease in children. The frequency and outcome of children evolving to accelerated phase (AP) or blastic phase (BP) under treatment with imatinib is unknown. The aim of the current study is to assess the incidence of progression from CML in chronic phase with imatinib frontline in a paediatric setting and describe the management and outcome of these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the I-CML-Ped Study database (www.clinicaltrials.gov, #NCT01281735), 19 of 339 paediatric patients in chronic phase treated with imatinib in the frontline evolved to CML-AP or CML-BP. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 38 months (range: 2-190 months), the cumulative incidence of progression at 1 and 3 years was 3% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 1-5%) and 7% (CI 95%: 4-11%), respectively. We observed a large predominance of lymphoid-BP (70%) over myeloid-BP (30%) with imatinib in frontline therapy. Sixteen patients underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and eight were treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor after transplant. Only the transplanted patients are alive. The 5-year overall survival rate of children with CML-AP/BP is 44%, with no statistical difference between the lymphoid-BP and myeloid-BP outcome. CONCLUSION: Children evolving to AP or BP under treatment with imatinib have a very poor prognosis with an overall survival under 50%, much worse than children with advanced phase at diagnosis.

18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793919

RESUMO

T cells are involved in the early identification and clearance of viral infections and also support the development of antibodies by B cells. This central role for T cells makes them a desirable target for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we combined two high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2. First, at the individual level, we deeply characterized 3 acutely infected and 58 recovered COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping their CD8 T-cell response through antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I presented viral peptides (class II data in a forthcoming study). Then, at the population level, we performed T-cell repertoire sequencing on 1,015 samples (from 827 COVID-19 subjects) as well as 3,500 controls to identify shared "public" T-cell receptors (TCRs) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from both CD8 and CD4 T cells. Collectively, our data reveal that CD8 T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peaks about one to two weeks after infection and is detectable for several months after recovery. As an application of these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples, and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high early sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3-7 = 83.8% [95% CI = 77.6-89.4]; Day 8-14 = 92.4% [87.6-96.6]) as well as lasting sensitivity after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 96.7% [93.0-99.2]). These results demonstrate an approach to reliably assess the adaptive immune response both soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points. This blood-based molecular approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in vaccine development as well as clinical diagnostics and monitoring.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 6021-6033, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780725

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy has resulted in complete remission (CR) and durable response in highly refractory patients. However, logistical complexity and high costs of manufacturing autologous viral products limit CAR T cell availability.METHODSWe report the early results of a phase I/II trial in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells generated with the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon and differentiated into cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells.RESULTSThe cellular product was produced successfully for all patients from the donor peripheral blood (PB) and consisted mostly of CD3+ lymphocytes with 43% CAR expression. Four pediatric and 9 adult patients were infused with a single dose of CAR T cells. Toxicities reported were 2 grade I and 1 grade II cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) cases at the highest dose in the absence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), neurotoxicity, or dose-limiting toxicities. Six out of 7 patients receiving the highest doses achieved CR and CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) at day 28. Five out of 6 patients in CR were also minimal residual disease negative (MRD-). Robust expansion was achieved in the majority of the patients. CAR T cells were measurable by transgene copy PCR up to 10 months. Integration site analysis showed a positive safety profile and highly polyclonal repertoire in vitro and at early time points after infusion.CONCLUSIONSB-engineered CAR T cells expand and persist in pediatric and adult B-ALL patients relapsed after HSCT. Antileukemic activity was achieved without severe toxicities.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT03389035.FUNDINGThis study was supported by grants from the Fondazione AIRC per la Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC); Cancer Research UK (CRUK); the Fundación Científica de la Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer (FC AECC); Ministero Della Salute; Fondazione Regionale per la Ricerca Biomedica (FRRB).

20.
Epilepsia ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497269

RESUMO

Noninvasive wearable devices have great potential to aid the management of epilepsy, but these devices must have robust signal quality, and patients must be willing to wear them for long periods of time. Automated machine learning classification of wearable biosensor signals requires quantitative measures of signal quality to automatically reject poor-quality or corrupt data segments. In this study, commercially available wearable sensors were placed on patients with epilepsy undergoing in-hospital or in-home electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, and healthy volunteers. Empatica E4 and Biovotion Everion were used to record accelerometry (ACC), photoplethysmography (PPG), and electrodermal activity (EDA). Byteflies Sensor Dots were used to record ACC and PPG, the Activinsights GENEActiv watch to record ACC, and Epitel Epilog to record EEG data. PPG and EDA signals were recorded for multiple days, then epochs of high-quality, marginal-quality, or poor-quality data were visually identified by reviewers, and reviewer annotations were compared to automated signal quality measures. For ACC, the ratio of spectral power from 0.8 to 5 Hz to broadband power was used to separate good-quality signals from noise. For EDA, the rate of amplitude change and prevalence of sharp peaks significantly differentiated between good-quality data and noise. Spectral entropy was used to assess PPG and showed significant differences between good-, marginal-, and poor-quality signals. EEG data were evaluated using methods to identify a spectral noise cutoff frequency. Patients were asked to rate the usability and comfort of each device in several categories. Patients showed a significant preference for the wrist-worn devices, and the Empatica E4 device was preferred most often. Current wearable devices can provide high-quality data and are acceptable for routine use, but continued development is needed to improve data quality, consistency, and management, as well as acceptability to patients.

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