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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(25): 2246-2256, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by KMT2A (MLL) gene rearrangements and coexpression of myeloid markers. The Interfant-06 study, comprising 18 national and international study groups, tested whether myeloid-style consolidation chemotherapy is superior to lymphoid style, the role of stem-cell transplantation (SCT), and which factors had independent prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three risk groups were defined: low risk (LR): KMT2A germline; high risk (HR): KMT2A-rearranged and older than 6 months with WBC count 300 × 109/L or more or a poor prednisone response; and medium risk (MR): all other KMT2A-rearranged cases. Patients in the MR and HR groups were randomly assigned to receive the lymphoid course low-dose cytosine arabinoside [araC], 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide (IB) or experimental myeloid courses, namely araC, daunorubicin, etoposide (ADE) and mitoxantrone, araC, etoposide (MAE). RESULTS: A total of 651 infants were included, with 6-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival of 46.1% (SE, 2.1) and 58.2% (SE, 2.0). In West European/North American groups, 6-year EFS and overall survival were 49.4% (SE, 2.5) and 62.1% (SE, 2.4), which were 10% to 12% higher than in other countries. The 6-year probability of disease-free survival was comparable for the randomized arms (ADE+MAE 39.3% [SE 4.0; n = 169] v IB 36.8% [SE, 3.9; n = 161]; log-rank P = .47). The 6-year EFS rate of patients in the HR group was 20.9% (SE, 3.4) with the intention to undergo SCT; only 46% of them received SCT, because many had early events. KMT2A rearrangement was the strongest prognostic factor for EFS, followed by age, WBC count, and prednisone response. CONCLUSION: Early intensification with postinduction myeloid-type chemotherapy courses did not significantly improve outcome for infant ALL compared with the lymphoid-type course IB. Outcome for infant ALL in Interfant-06 did not improve compared with that in Interfant-99.

4.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to evaluate the gelatinolytic activity in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid from a sample group of subjects with Marfan syndrome. METHODS: Two groups were analyzed in this case-control study. A group of 28 subjects with Marfan syndrome (MG) was recruited from the Centre for Rare Disease, Marfan Clinic of Tor Vergata University Hospital. The second sample, 23 subjects, with the same characteristics and without any syndrome, was the control group (CG). Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and transferred to a sterile test tube and stored frozen at - 20 °C until analysis at the Medical Chemistry Laboratory. Gelatin substrate zymography was used for the evaluation and characterization of saliva and crevicular fluid proteinases. Correlation test and Student's t-test have been used to analyze data. RESULTS: In all samples different gelatin-degrading activities were observed. Two bands, which are related to the molecular weights of pro-MMP-9 and active MMP-9, respectively, were detectable in 100% of Marfan and control samples. MMP-2 activity was higher in Marfan group. Additional bands (55/48 kDa), corresponding to the activated forms of collagenase (MMP-13), were observed in saliva samples of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The association of an enhanced activity by MMP-13 with an increased amount of active MMP-9 might be an important biomarker for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 123-129, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative uses of mobile health (mHealth) technology for real-time measurement and management of epilepsy may improve the care provided to patients. For instance, seizure detection and quantifying related problems will have an impact on quality of life and improve clinical management for people experiencing frequent and uncontrolled seizures. Engaging patients with mHealth technology is essential, but little is known about patient perspectives on their acceptability. The aim of this study was to conduct an in-depth qualitative analysis of what people with uncontrolled epilepsy think could be the potential uses of mHealth technology and to identify early potential barriers and facilitators to engagement in three European countries. METHOD: Twenty people currently experiencing epileptic seizures took part in five focus groups held across the UK, Italy, and Spain. Participants all completed written consent and a demographic questionnaire prior to the focus group commencing, and each group discussion lasted 60-120 min. A coding frame, developed from a systematic review of the previous literature, was used to structure a thematic analysis. We extracted themes and subthemes from the discussions, focusing first on possible uses of mHealth and then the barriers and facilitators to engagement. RESULTS: Participants were interested in mHealth technology as a clinical detection tool, e.g., to aid communication about seizure occurrence with their doctors. Other suggested uses included being able to predict or prevent seizures, and to improve self-management. Key facilitators to engagement were the ability to raise awareness, plan activities better, and improve safety. Key barriers were the potential for increased stigma and anxiety. Using familiar and customizable products could be important moderators of engagement. CONCLUSION: People with uncontrolled epilepsy think that there is a scope for mHealth technology to be useful in healthcare as a detection or prediction tool. The costs will be compared with the benefits when it comes to engagement, and ongoing work with patients and other stakeholders is needed to design practical resources.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 62-67, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess early and late mortality in patients with isolated acute tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (TVIE) using data from a multicenter registry. METHODS: From 1983 to 2018, isolated acute TVIE was surgically treated in 157 (3.8%) patients [mean age 47 ±â€¯16 years (range 15-86 years), 25% females]. Of these, 142 (90%) had native tricuspid regurgitation, 7 (5%) native tricuspid valve (TV) steno-regurgitation, and 8 (5%) prosthetic TVIE. Intravenous drug use (IVDU) was recorded in 38% of patients, infection involved cardiac implantable electronic device leads in 21%, and vascular catheters for dialysis in 1%; in the remaining cases, the cause was unknown. The primary endpoint was in-hospital outcome, long-term freedom from recurrence and overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 77 (49%) patients underwent TV repair, 72 (46%) TV replacement, and 8 (5%) prosthetic TV replacement. Early mortality was 11% (n = 17). Expected early mortality according to EndoSCORE was 12%, with age (odds ratio 1.06) and redo (odds ratio 6.64) as risk factors. Late deaths occurred in 31 patients and TVIE recurrences in 4. Survival rates at 10, 20, and 25 years were 66%, 60%, and 44%, respectively. Risk factors were age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06], mycotic TVIE (HR 4.2), IVDU (HR 4.90), infected prosthesis replacement (HR 4.4), and presence of cardiac implantable electronic device leads (HR 3.0). No significant difference was found in valve repair vs. replacement and in IVDUs vs. non-IVDUs. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with isolated acute TVIE undergoing surgical treatment show acceptable early and late outcomes. TVIE recurrence was low, and repair of the affected valve does not seem to confer any advantage either at early or long term up to 25 years.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 186(3): 420-430, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044436

RESUMO

Eradicating the malignant stem cell is the ultimate challenge in the treatment of leukaemia. Leukaemic stem cells (LSC) hijack the normal haemopoietic niche, where they are mainly protected from cytotoxic drugs. The anti-leukaemic effect of L-asparaginase (ASNase) has been extensively investigated in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, but only partially in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We explored the susceptibility of AML-LSC to ASNase as well as the role of the two major cell types that constitute the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, i.e., mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and monocytes/macrophages. Whilst ASNase was effective on both CD34+ CD38+ and CD34+ CD38- LSC fractions, MSC and monocytes/macrophages partially counteracted the effect of the drug. Indeed, the production of cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease, by BM monocytic cells and by AML cells classified as French-American-British M5 is related to the inactivation of ASNase. Our work demonstrates that, while MSC and monocytes/macrophages may provide a protective niche for AML cells, ASNase has a cytotoxic effect on AML blasts and, importantly, LSC subpopulations. Thus, these features should be considered in the design of future clinical studies aimed at testing ASNase efficacy in AML patients.

8.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(8): 558-561, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948435

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth and mental retardation, facial dysmorphism and upper limb abnormalities. Germline mutations of cohesin complex genes SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21 or their regulators NIPBL and HDAC8 have been identified in CdLS as well as somatic mutations in myeloid disorders. We describe the first case of a paediatric patient with CdLS with B-cell precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). The patient did not show any unusual cytogenetic abnormality, and he was enrolled into the high risk arm of AIEOP-BFM ALL2009 protocol because of slow early response, but 3 years after discontinuation, he experienced an ALL relapse. We identified a heterozygous mutation in exon 46 of NIPBL, causing frameshift and a premature stop codon (RNA-Targeted Next generation Sequencing Analysis). The analysis of the family indicated a de novo origin of this previously not reported deleterious variant. As for somatic cohesin mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia, also this ALL case was not affected by aneuploidy, thus suggesting a major impact of the non-canonical role of NIPBL in gene regulation. A potential biological role of NIPBL in leukaemia has still to be dissected.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Lange/genética , Mutação , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Proteínas/genética , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Recidiva
9.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 29, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832712

RESUMO

Globalization caused a shift in trial locations towards low-middle income countries, raising ethical concerns. These include the risk that conditions primarily affecting children in these countries will be neglected in favor of those affecting developed countries. We analyzed 253 published and 69 ongoing pharmacological RCTs performed in Latin America between 2000 and 2015 involving exclusively children. While over 50% of the previously highly investigated diseases were no longer priorities, other diseases acquired greater attention in recent years. Brazil and Mexico resulted as the most active countries. A large gap remains between the real needs of children in these countries and scientific research.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Pediatria , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , América Latina , Masculino , Pobreza , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Exp Hematol ; 73: 7-12.e4, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825516

RESUMO

The TEL-AML1 fusion gene, generated by the t(12;21) chromosome translocation, arises in a progenitor/stem cell and could induce clonal expansion of a persistent preleukemic B-cell clone which, on acquisition of secondary alterations, may turn into full-blown leukemia. During infections, deregulated cytokine signaling, including transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), can further accelerate this process by creating a protumoral bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Here, we show that activin A, a member of the TGF-ß family induced under inflammatory conditions, inhibits the proliferation of normal progenitor B cells but not that of preleukemic TEL-AML1-positive clones, thereby providing a selective advantage to the latter. Finally, we find that activin A inhibits BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cell-mediated secretion of CXCL12, a major chemoattractant in the BM compartment, thereby contributing to shape a leukemia-promoting environment. Overall, our findings indicate that activin A, in concert with TGF-ß, could play an important role in the creation of a pro-oncogenic BM microenvironment and provide novel mechanistic insights into TEL-AML1-associated leukemogenesis.

11.
Haematologica ; 104(9): 1812-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705097

RESUMO

Asparagine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum asparaginase activity were monitored in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with pegylated-asparaginase. The drug was given intravenously at a dose of 2,500 IU/m2 on days 12 and 26. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained on days 33 and 45 were analyzed centrally. Since physiological levels of asparagine in the cerebrospinal fluid of children and adolescents are 4-10 µmol/L, in this study asparagine depletion was considered complete when the concentration of asparagine was ≤0.2 µmol/L, i.e. below the lower limit of quantification of the assay used. Over 24 months 736 patients (AIEOP n=245, BFM n=491) and 903 cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=686 on day 33 and n=217 on day 45) were available for analysis. Data were analyzed separately for the AIEOP and BFM cohorts and yielded superimposable results. Independently of serum asparaginase activity levels, cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were significantly reduced during the investigated study phase but only 28% of analyzed samples showed complete asparagine depletion while relevant levels, ≥1 µmol/L, were still detectable in around 23% of them. Complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was found in around 5-6% and 33-37% of samples at serum asparaginase activity levels <100 and ≥ 1,500 IU/L, respectively. In this study cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were reduced during pegylated-asparaginase treatment, but complete depletion was only observed in a minority of patients. No clear threshold of serum pegylated-asparaginase activity level resulting in complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was identified. The consistency of the results found in the two independent data sets strengthen the observations of this study. Details of the treatment are available in the European Clinical Trials Database at https://www.clin-icaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2007-004270-43/IT.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 86-97, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in paediatric oncology led to the increase in long-term survival, revealing the burden of therapy-related long-term side effects. We evaluated overall and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort of Italian childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and adolescent cancer survivors identified through the off-therapy registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCSs alive 5 years after cancer diagnosis occurring between 1960 and 1999 were eligible; the last follow-up was between 2011 and 2014. Outcomes were reported as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs). RESULTS: Among 12,214 CCSs, 1113 (9.1%) deaths occurred. Survival at 35 years since diagnosis was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86-88) and at 45 years was 81% (95% CI: 77-84). CCSs had an 11-fold increased risk of death (SMR 95% CI: 10.7-12), corresponding to an AER of 48 (95% CI: 45-51). Mortality decreased by 60% for survivors treated most recently (1990-1999). The most frequent causes of death were recurrence of the original cancer (56%), a subsequent neoplasm (19%) and cardiovascular diseases (5.8%). Among those who survived at least 15 years after diagnosis, a secondary malignancy was the leading cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the impact of recent advances in anticancer therapy in reducing mortality, mainly attributable to recurrence but also to other causes. However, overall mortality continues to be higher than in the general population. A long-term follow-up is needed to prevent late mortality due to secondary neoplasms and non-neoplastic causes in CCSs.

13.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 120-126, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785015

RESUMO

Although all tumours are rare in childhood, there are some particularly rare paediatric cancers which have not benefited from advances made by the international paediatric oncology network. To establish a shared definition and produce a list of these entities, the European Union Joint Action on Rare Cancers (JARC) promoted a consensus effort. The definition was based on the incidence rates estimated using the information network on rare cancers (RARECAREnet) database, pooling data from 94 population-based cancer registries and 27 countries. The RARECAREnet list of cancers was used to estimate the incidence rates. This list groups cancers by combining the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition, morphology and topography codes. According to the consensus, very rare paediatric cancers were identified as those with an annual incidence <2/1000000 and corresponded to 11% of all cancers in patients aged 0-14 years. Two subgroups were identified: tumour types typical of childhood (i.e. hepatoblastoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, pancreatoblastoma) and those typical of adult age (i.e. carcinomas, melanoma). The threshold of 2/1000000 could also be adopted in populations aged 0-19 years: in this case, three tumour types had an incidence rate which was >2/1000000 (i.e. thyroid and testicular cancers and skin melanoma), but the consensus experts considered them as 'very rare' according to their clinical needs (e.g. shortage of knowledge and clinical expertise as the other rare paediatric cancers). The JARC consensus produced a definition and a list of very rare paediatric cancers which may represent a starting point for prioritising research on these tumours, based on data and patients' clinical needs.

14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(5): e27657, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic multisystem disorder requiring comprehensive care that includes newborn screening (NBS) as the first step of care. Italy still lacks a national SCD NBS program and policy on blood disorders. Pilot single-center screening programs and a regional targeted screening have been implemented so far, but more evidence is needed in order to impact health policies. POPULATION AND METHODS: NBS was offered to parents of newborns in gynecology clinics in Padova and Monza, tertiary care university hospitals in northern Italy. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed as the first test on samples collected on Guthrie cards. Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene was performed on positive samples. RESULTS: A total of 5466 newborns were enrolled; for 5439, informed consents were obtained. A similar family origin was seen in the two centers (65% Italians, 9% mixed couples, 26% immigrants). Compared with SCD NBS programs in the United States and Europe, our results show a similar incidence of SCD patients and carriers. All SCD patients had a Sub-Saharan family background; HbS carriers were 15% Caucasians (Italian, Albanians) and 10% from other areas (North Africa-India-South America); carriers of other hemoglobin variants were mainly (47%) from other areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a multicentric NBS program for SCD, give information on HbS epidemiology in two Northern Italian Areas, and support previous European recommendation for a universal NBS program for SCD in Italy: a high incidence of patients and carriers has been detected, with a high percentage of Caucasian carriers, impossible to identify in a targeted NBS.

15.
Haematologica ; 104(7): 1332-1341, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630974

RESUMO

The nucleophosmin 1 gene (NPM1) is the most frequently mutated gene in acute myeloid leukemia. Notably, NPM1 mutations are always accompanied by additional mutations such as those in cohesin genes RAD21, SMC1A, SMC3, and STAG2 but not in the cohesin regulator, nipped B-like (NIPBL). In this work, we analyzed a cohort of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia and NPM1 mutation and observed a specific reduction in the expression of NIPBL but not in other cohesin genes. In our zebrafish model, overexpression of the mutated form of NPM1 also induced downregulation of nipblb, the zebrafish ortholog of human NIPBL To investigate the hematopoietic phenotype and the interaction between mutated NPM1 and nipblb, we generated a zebrafish model with nipblb downregulation which showed an increased number of myeloid progenitors. This phenotype was due to hyper-activation of the canonical Wnt pathway: myeloid cells blocked in an undifferentiated state could be rescued when the Wnt pathway was inhibited by dkk1b mRNA injection or indomethacin administration. Our results reveal, for the first time, a role for NIPBL during zebrafish hematopoiesis and suggest that an interplay between NIPBL/NPM1 may regulate myeloid differentiation in zebrafish and humans through the canonical Wnt pathway and that dysregulation of these interactions may drive leukemic transformation.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(2)2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650529

RESUMO

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) include a wide range of different disorders with variable degrees of respiratory system involvement. The purpose of this narrative review is to treat the different types of respiratory manifestations in LSD, with particular attention being paid to the main molecular pathways known so far to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. A literature search was conducted using the Medline/PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify studies, from 1968 through to November 2018, that investigated the respiratory manifestations and molecular pathways affected in LSD. Pulmonary involvement includes interstitial lung disease in Gaucher's disease and Niemann-Pick disease, obstructive airway disease in Fabry disease and ventilatory disorders with chronic respiratory failure in Pompe disease due to diaphragmatic and abdominal wall muscle weakness. In mucopolysaccharidosis and mucolipidoses, respiratory symptoms usually manifest early in life and are secondary to anatomical malformations, particularly of the trachea and chest wall, and to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the upper and lower airways, causing, for example, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the molecular pathways involved vary, ranging from lipid to glycogen and glycosaminoglycans accumulation, some clinical manifestations and therapeutic approaches are common among diseases, suggesting that lysosomal storage and subsequent cellular toxicity are the common endpoints.


Assuntos
Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/genética , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(12): e641-e652, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EsPhALL2004 randomised trial showed a 10% advantage in disease-free survival for short, discontinuous use of imatinib after induction compared with no use of imatinib in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia receiving Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster chemotherapy and haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Other contemporary studies showed an advantage from continuous protracted exposure to imatinib, challenging the indications to transplant. The EsPhALL2010 study was designed to assess whether imatinib given from day 15 of induction and continuously throughout chemotherapy led to a different outcome to that obtained in EsPhALL2004, despite decreasing the number of patients having HSCT. METHODS: This prospective, intergroup, open-label, single-arm clinical trial (EsPhALL2010) was done at 11 study groups across Europe, Chile, and Hong Kong. Patients aged 1-17 years with the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) who were recruited into national front-line trials for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were eligible for this trial. Patients with abnormal renal or hepatic function or an active systemic infection were ineligible. Patients received imatinib 300 mg/m2 continuously from day 15 of induction during chemotherapy. Eligibility to HSCT depended on early morphological response and minimal residual disease. Imatinib was recommended throughout the first year after transplant. The co-primary endpoints were event-free survival and overall survival. All analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT 2004-001647-30) and with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00287105) and is completed. FINDINGS: 158 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 155 were enrolled between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2014. 151 (97%) patients achieved first complete remission after induction and four after the consolidation phase, with 102 (66%) patients categorised as good risk and 53 (34%) as poor risk according to EsPhALL risk stratification criteria. 59 (38%) patients had HSCT during their first complete remission. 40 (26%) patients relapsed and 41 (26%) patients died during the study (25 [61%] during complete continuous remission, and 16 [39%] after relapse). The 5-year event-free survival was 57·0% (95% CI 48·5-64·6) and 5-year overall survival was 71·8% (63·5-78·5). 154 serious adverse events were reported in 80 (52%) of 155 patients. The most common toxicity was infection (61 [39%] patients, mostly bacterial); gastrointestinal disorders occurred in ten (6%) patients and osteonecrosis in eight (5%). Serious adverse events occurred mainly during high-risk blocks and delayed intensifications, including 14 fatal events (one in the consolidation phase, six in high-risk blocks, six in first delayed intensification, and one in second delayed intensification). INTERPRETATION: Although HSCT was done in a smaller proportion of patients in EsPhALL2010 than in EsPhALL2004, event-free and overall survival were similar between the two studies. Our data suggest that imatinib given early and continuously with intensive chemotherapy might increase toxicity. FUNDING: Projet Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique-Cancer and Novartis France; Bloodwise and Cancer Research UK; Ministry of Health, Czech Republic.

18.
Blood ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459160

RESUMO

Leukemia in infants is rare but generates tremendous interest due to its aggressive clinical presentation in a uniquely vulnerable host, its poor response to current therapies, and its fascinating biology. Increasingly, these biological insights are pointing the way towards novel therapeutic approaches. Using representative clinical case presentations, we review the key clinical, pathologic and epidemiologic features of infant leukemia, including the high frequency of KMT2A gene rearrangements. We describe the current approach to risk stratified treatment of infant leukemia in the major international cooperative groups. We highlight recent discoveries that elucidate the molecular biology of infant leukemia and suggest novel targeted therapeutic strategies, including modulation of aberrant epigenetic programs, inhibition of signaling pathways, and immunotherapeutics. Finally, we underscore the need for increased global collaboration to translate these discoveries into improved outcomes.

19.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 2(1): e000334, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397670

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in a cohort of asthmatic children before and after starting drug therapy. Methods: Data were retrieved from administrative databases of the Lombardy Region. The study population was composed of 78 184 children born in the Lombardy Region in 2002 and followed until their 10th birthday.Children with at least one antiasthmatic drug prescription per year (with the exclusion of nebulised suspension/solution formulations) in 2 consecutive years and at least one antiasthmatic drug prescription after the fifth birthday were identified as potential asthmatics (PA).Each PA was monitored for a period starting from 12 months before and ending 24 months after the first prescription (index prescription, IP). During the monitoring period antiasthmatic drug prescriptions were analysed, as well as spirometry and/or specialist visits. Results: A total of 59 975 children (76.7%) received ≥1 prescription of antiasthmatic drugs in their first 10 years of life, and 4475 (5.7%) were identified as PAs. In all, 24% of PAs started with short-acting ß2-agonists (SABA), 23% with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and 20% with SABA+ICS.A total of 33% of PAs had at least one prescription for specialist visit/spirometry: 11% before and 28% after the IP. The factors associated with a greater likelihood of receiving visit/spirometry prescriptions were local health unit of residence, age and high use of asthma drugs. Conclusions: Despite international guideline recommendations, spirometry monitoring is still underused in asthmatic children, even in subjects who initiated pharmacological treatment and therefore need an airway function evaluation. Moreover, the choice of drug therapy appears not always rational, since one out of four children were commenced on ICS as monotherapy.

20.
Seizure ; 63: 7-13, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of ictal hypoxemia (IH) and to identify clinical and study-related factors modulating the estimate. METHODS: We searched articles recording concurrent peri-ictal and ictal EEG and Sp02 in adults and children with epilepsy. Studies reporting the total number of seizures recorded and the number of seizures with IH were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A random-effects meta-regression was used to identify variables affecting study heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies, including 917 participants and 1840 with SpO2 data available were included. The meta-analysis showed a pooled incidence of IH of 35/100 seizures (95% CI 27-44). Sp02 desaturation threshold was associated with the incidence of IH, with less severe desaturations resulting in higher IH frequencies. The incidence of IH was 41/100 seizures (95% CI 29-54) for adults and 47/100 seizures (95% CI 15-78) for tonic-clonic seizures. The meta-regression showed that SpO2 desaturation severity was the sole variable significantly correlated with the incidence of ictal hypoxemia (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: In a population with refractory epilepsy IH is a frequent phenomenon, especially in adults and in patients presenting with tonic-clonic seizures. The severity of IH appeared independent from the age group and from seizure type and is probably the major clinical concern for its correlation with potentially life-threatening cardiorespiratory alterations and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

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