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3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222443

RESUMO

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) provides an objective measurement of the severity of ischemia caused by coronary stenoses in downstream myocardial regions. Data from the interventional cardiology realm have suggested benefits of a FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy. Limited evidence is available on the use of FFR to guide coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The most recent data have shown that FFR might simplify CABG procedures and optimize patency of arterial grafts without any clear impact on clinical outcomes. The aim of this review was to summarize the available data on FFR-based CABG and discuss the rationale and potential consequences of a switch toward FFR-based surgical revascularization strategy.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e014941, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122219

RESUMO

Background ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is associated with an intense acute inflammatory response and risk of heart failure. We tested whether interleukin-1 blockade with anakinra significantly reduced the area under the curve for hsCRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) levels during the first 14 days in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (VCUART3 [Virginia Commonwealth University Anakinra Remodeling Trial 3]). Methods and Results We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial in 99 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in which patients were assigned to 2 weeks treatment with anakinra once daily (N=33), anakinra twice daily (N=31), or placebo (N=35). hsCRP area under the curve was significantly lower in patients receiving anakinra versus placebo (median, 67 [interquartile range, 39-120] versus 214 [interquartile range, 131-394] mg·day/L; P<0.001), without significant differences between the anakinra arms. No significant differences were found between anakinra and placebo groups in the interval changes in left ventricular end-systolic volume (median, 1.4 [interquartile range, -9.8 to 9.8] versus -3.9 [interquartile range, -15.4 to 1.4] mL; P=0.21) or left ventricular ejection fraction (median, 3.9% [interquartile range, -1.6% to 10.2%] versus 2.7% [interquartile range, -1.8% to 9.3%]; P=0.61) at 12 months. The incidence of death or new-onset heart failure or of death and hospitalization for heart failure was significantly lower with anakinra versus placebo (9.4% versus 25.7% [P=0.046] and 0% versus 11.4% [P=0.011], respectively), without difference between the anakinra arms. The incidence of serious infection was not different between anakinra and placebo groups (14% versus 14%; P=0.98). Injection site reactions occurred more frequently in patients receiving anakinra (22%) versus placebo (3%; P=0.016). Conclusions In patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, interleukin-1 blockade with anakinra significantly reduces the systemic inflammatory response compared with placebo. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01950299.

5.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to compare the clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation of coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL) and non-CBL. PCI in CBL is common and technically demanding. Whether such patients have adverse outcome during the follow-up after successful PCI is unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies reporting the clinical outcome of patients undergoing PCI in CBL or not. Patients with left main disease constituted a predefined subgroup. Primary study end-point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE). RESULTS: Fifteen publications on 23 891 patients with coronary artery disease treated by DES in CBL or not were identified. Median follow-up length was 24 months (range: 12-60). MACE at the longest available follow-up were significantly higher in CBL as compared with non-CBL (19.0 vs. 12.1%, P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained in the subanalysis restricted to second-generation DES studies. The MACE rate was higher early, then decreased during the follow-up being, however, appreciable at all timings up to 36 months. In the left main (LM) subanalysis (four studies, 3210 patients), patients underwent DES implantation in distal LM, as compared with nondistal LM, had increased the MACE rate during the follow-up (27.4 vs. 17.4%, P < 0.001), which was driven by higher target vessel revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: In the contemporary DES era, CBL represent a subset of lesions associated with increased rate of MACE after PCI. This data prompt for studies aimed at improving the clinical outcomes of patients with CAD.

6.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(8): 1209-1215, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087996

RESUMO

New-generation devices such as Evolut and Portico have provided favorable results in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for aortic stenosis, but their comparative effectiveness remains debated, despite its relevance when envisioning TAVI in low-risk patients. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 leading TAVI devices (Evolut and Portico) used by the same team of experienced TAVI operators, focusing on long-term outcomes, including major adverse events (i.e., the composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, major vascular complication, or major bleeding). Unadjusted and propensity score-adjusted analyses were carried out. A total of 233 patients were included, 119 (51.1%) receiving Evolut and 114 (49%) Portico. Baseline and procedural data showed significant between-device differences, including functional class, surgical risk, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal function, transesophageal guidance, device size, postdilation, and procedural time (all p <0.05). Yet, acute and in-hospital outcomes were not significantly different (all p >0.05). Follow-up status was ascertained in 228 (98%) patients after 15.0 ± 7.6 months. Unadjusted analysis showed similar rates of major adverse events, as well as the individual risk of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, major vascular complication, major bleeding, and pacemaker implantation (all p >0.05). Even at propensity score-adjusted analysis outcomes were not significantly different with Evolut and Portico (all p >0.05). In conclusion, Evolut and Portico devices yield similarly favorable results at long-term follow-up when used by experienced TAVI operators.

7.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(2): 8, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034541

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Modified risk products (MRP) are promoted as a safer alternative to traditional combustion cigarettes (TCC) in chronic smokers. Evidence for their lower hazardous profile is building, despite several controversies. Yet, it is unclear whether individual responses to MRP differ among consumers. We hypothesized that different clusters of subjects exist in terms of acute effects of MRP. RECENT FINDINGS: Pooling data from a total of 60 individuals, cluster analysis identified at least three clusters (labelled 1 to 3) of subjects with different electronic vaping cigarettes (EVC) effects and at least two clusters (labelled 4 to 5) of subjects with different heat-not-burn cigarettes (HNBC) effects. Specifically, oxidative stress, platelet aggregation, and endothelial dysfunction after EVC were significantly different cluster-wise (all p < 0.05), and oxidative stress and platelet aggregation after HNBC were significantly different (all p < 0.05). In particular, subjects belonging to Cluster 1 appeared to have less detrimental responses to EVC usage than subjects in Cluster 2 and 3, as shown by non-significant changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and less marked increase in Nox2-derived peptide (NOX). Conversely, those assigned to Cluster 3 had the worst reaction in terms of changes in FMD, NOX, and P-selectin. Furthermore, individuals belonging to Cluster 4 responded unfavorably to both HNBC and EVC, whereas those in Cluster 5 interestingly showed less adverse results after using HNBC than EVC. Results for main analyses were consistent employing different clusters, tests, and bootstrap. Individual responses to MRP differ and smokers aiming at using EVC or HNBC as a risk reduction strategy should consider trying different MRP aiming at finding the one which is less detrimental, with subjects resembling those in Cluster 1 preferably using EVC and those resembling Cluster 5 preferably using HNBC.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 590-604, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of stent-related major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are believed to occur within the first year. Very-late (>1-year) stent-related MACE have not been well described. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and predictors of very-late stent-related events or MACE by stent type. METHODS: Individual patient data from 19 prospective, randomized metallic stent trials maintained at a leading academic research organization were pooled. Very-late MACE (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI], or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization [ID-TLR]), and target lesion failure (cardiac death, target-vessel MI, or ID-TLR) were assessed within year 1 and between 1 and 5 years after PCI with bare-metal stents (BMS), first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES1) and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES2). A network meta-analysis was performed to evaluate direct and indirect comparisons. RESULTS: Among 25,032 total patients, 3,718, 7,934, and 13,380 were treated with BMS, DES1, and DES2, respectively. MACE rates within 1 year after PCI were progressively lower after treatment with BMS versus DES1 versus DES2 (17.9% vs. 8.2% vs. 5.1%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Between years 1 and 5, very-late MACE occurred in 9.4% of patients (including 2.9% cardiac death, 3.1% MI, and 5.1% ID-TLR). Very-late MACE occurred in 9.7%, 11.0%, and 8.3% of patients treated with BMS, DES1, and DES2, respectively (p < 0.0001), linearly increasing between 1 and 5 years. Similar findings were observed for target lesion failure in 19,578 patients from 12 trials. Findings were confirmed in the network meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale, individual patient data pooled study, very-late stent-related events occurred between 1 and 5 years after PCI at a rate of ∼2%/year with all stent types, with no plateau evident. New approaches are required to improve long-term outcomes after PCI.

9.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 68(1): 47-50, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) supplementation on cardiovascular risk is still in debate, largely due to the heterogeneity of population enrolled and variable dose and composition of the formulations used in the previous studies. Yet, O3FA may favorably impact on cardiovascular risk by reducing major cardiovascular events (including cardiac death and ischemic events). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We aim to perform a comprehensive review of the topic of O3FA for cardiovascular prevention, stemming from a systematic review, to pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis, limiting our inclusion only to randomized clinical trials comparing low dose (LD) (<1 g per day) O3FA and high dose (HD) (>1 g per day) O3FA versus placebo. The efficacy outcomes of interest are total death, cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, unstable angina and major vascular events. Safety outcomes of interest are bleeding, gastrointestinal disturbances and atrial fibrillation events. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: This meta-analysis is expected to include several important studies on cardiovascular primary and secondary prevention and detail on important cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, we intend to highlight safety outcomes related to O3FA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: The present network meta-analysis results will aid physicians in the decision to prescribe O3FA in patients with or at risk of cardiovascular events. In particular, it will be able to solve controversies emerged from previous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses regarding the benefit of different doses of O3FA supplementation in the cardiovascular prevention.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919736

RESUMO

Optimal timepoint for the discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after an acute coronary syndrome is still debated. In fact, despite a shortening of DAPT duration should be advocated, based on the negligible risk of thrombotic complications observed with newer generations of drug-eluting stents (DES), in order to reduce the hemorrhagic risk, a more prolonged anti-ischemic protection would be suitable for certain higher-risk patients, rendering the traditional 12 months strategy outdated. We performed an updated meta-analysis and indirect comparison of randomized trials comparing shorter vs extended DAPT duration in ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions with DES. Literature and main scientific session abstracts were searched for studies comparing 3-6 (short-term) or prolonged (> 12 months) DAPT vs traditional 12 months in ACS patients treated with DES. The primary efficacy endpoint was mortality, primary safety endpoint was the occurrence of major bleedings. Secondary endpoints were myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. We included three randomized clinical trials and six study sub-analysis comparing alternative (short-term or prolonged) DAPT vs 12 months in post-ACS, with a total of 15,738 patients. Mortality occurred in 1.8% of patients, with no difference according to DAPT duration (short-term vs standard DAPT: OR [95% CI] 1.00 [0.72-1.39], p = 0.99; > 12 vs 12 months: OR [95% CI] 0.87 [0.61-1.22], p = 0.41). No difference in the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis was observed between short-term and standard DAPT, while a significant reduction was achieved only when extending the duration beyond 12 months (MI: OR [95% CI] 0.49 [0.36-0.67], p < 0.00001; ST: OR [95% CI] 0.40 [0.23-0.70], p = 0.001). However, prolonged DAPT was associated with a significant increase in major bleedings (OR [95% CI] 1.69 [1.17-2.45], p = 0.006). In fact, indirect comparison confirmed a significant interaction between short-term vs prolonged DAPT and the risk of myocardial infarction (p < 0.001), stent thrombosis (p = 0.0006) and major bleeding complications (p = 0.02). Based on the current meta-analysis, among ACS patients treated with percutaneous coronary interventions with DES, a shorter-term (3 or 6 months) DAPT can be safely considered, offering a non-inferior protection from major cardiovascular ischemic events as compared to the standard 12 months strategy. Extending DAPT therapy beyond 12 months enhances the antithrombotic protection, although paying the fee of increasing major bleeding complications, therefore resulting in a null effect on mortality.

12.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(1): 4, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932973

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite major advances in terms of prevention, diagnosis, risk-stratification, management and rehabilitation, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis continue to have major morbidity and mortality implications worldwide. Since the unraveling of the pivotal role of inflammation in atherothrombosis pathophysiology, several focused treatments have been proposed with the ultimate goal of preventing or treating myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. In particular, given the centrality of interleukin-1 (IL-1), targeted anti-IL-1 agents have attracted substantial attention and efforts. Yet, uncertainty persists on the real risk-benefit and cost-benefit balance of anti-IL-1 agents in patients with or at risk of atherothrombosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Several trials have been recently completed on atherothrombosis prevention and treatment with anti-IL-1 agents, ranging, for instance, from the large Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) trial to the series of translational studies conducted within the Virginia Commonwealth University-Anakinra Remodeling Trial (VCU-ART) platform. In light of the present scoping umbrella review, it appears evident that anti-IL-1 agents can reduce systemic inflammation and improve surrogate markers of cardiac and vascular function, with potential benefits on the risk of new/worsening heart failure. One trial suggested an increased risk of major adverse events with anti-interleukin-1 agents, possibly due to a rebound phenomenon, but this was based on a post-hoc analysis of a small number of events, and it was not supported by all other pertinent trials. The CANTOS study showed a potential hazard due to an increased risk of fatal infections, but the effect size was rather small. In addition, cost issues limit the foreseeable scope of these treatment strategies in unselected patients, calling instead for more refined prescribing. The evidence base on the risk-benefit and cost-benefit profile of anti-IL-1 agents for atherothrombosis prevention and treatment has expanded substantially in the last decade. While largely dominated by the landmark CANTOS trial, effect estimates also including the VCU-ART trials suggest complex short- and long-term effects which may prove favorable in carefully selected patients with acute or chronically sustained inflammation. Conversely, more liberal use appears less promising, and further studies with currently available agents or novel ones are eagerly needed to better define their role in the era of precision molecular medicine.

13.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(2): 2, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912380

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the pathophysiology of calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) and surveys relevant clinical data and basic research that explain how CAVS arises. RECENT FINDINGS: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), autotaxin, and genetic driving forces such as mutations in LPA gene and NOTCH gene seem to play a major role in the development of CAVS. These factors might well become targets of medical therapy in the coming years. CVAS seems to be a multifactorial disease that has much in common with coronary artery disease, mainly regarding lipidic accumulation and calcium deposition. No clinical trials conducted to date have managed to answer the key question of whether Lp(a) lowering and anti-calcific therapies confer a benefit in terms of reducing incidence or progression of CAVS, although additional outcome trials are ongoing.

14.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(1): 6, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997023

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained typo in the 2nd author's family name. Instead of "Garmenda", it should be "Garmendia". The original version has been corrected.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 41(3): 383-391, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504405

RESUMO

AIMS: The CLIMA study, on the relationship between coronary plaque morphology of the left anterior descending artery and twelve months clinical outcome, was designed to explore the predictive value of multiple high-risk plaque features in the same coronary lesion [minimum lumen area (MLA), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), lipid arc circumferential extension, and presence of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined macrophages] as detected by OCT. Composite of cardiac death and target segment myocardial infarction was the primary clinical endpoint. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 2013 to December 2016, 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation of the untreated proximal left anterior descending coronary artery in the context of clinically indicated coronary angiogram were prospectively enrolled at 11 independent centres (clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT02883088). At 1-year, the primary clinical endpoint was observed in 37 patients (3.7%). In a total of 1776 lipid plaques, presence of MLA <3.5 mm2 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.0], FCT <75 µm (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.4-9.0), lipid arc circumferential extension >180° (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8), and OCT-defined macrophages (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1) were all associated with increased risk of the primary endpoint. The pre-specified combination of plaque features (simultaneous presence of the four OCT criteria in the same plaque) was observed in 18.9% of patients experiencing the primary endpoint and was an independent predictor of events (HR 7.54, 95% CI 3.1-18.6). CONCLUSION: The simultaneous presence of four high-risk OCT plaque features was found to be associated with a higher risk of major coronary events.

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