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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On March 9, 2020, the Italian government imposed a national lockdown to tackle the COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, including stay at home recommendations. The precise impact of COVID-19 scare and lockdown on emergency access for acute myocardial infarction (MI) is still subject to debate. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography at 9 hospitals in the greater area of Rome, Italy, between February 19, 2020 and March 29, 2020, 9, 2020, were retrospectively collected. Incidence of ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI), as well as corresponding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), was compared distinguishing two different 20-day time periods (before vs on or after March 10, 2020). RESULTS: During the study period, 1,068 patients underwent coronary angiography, 142 (13%) with STEMI and 169 (16%) with NSTEMI. The average daily number of STEMI decreased from 4.3 before the lockdown to 2.9 after the lockdown (p=0.021). Similarly, the average daily number of NSTEMI changed from 5.0 to 3.5 (p=0.028). The average daily number of primary PCI changed from 4.2 to 2.9 (p=0.030), while the average daily number of PCI for NSTEMI changed from 3.5 to 2.5 (p=0.087). For STEMI patients, the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (onset-to-door time less than three hours) showed a significant increase after the lockdown (p=0.018), whereas door-to-balloon time did not change significantly from before to after the lockdown (p=0.609). CONCLUSIONS: The present study, originally reporting on the trends in STEMI and NSTEMI in the Rome area, highlights that significant decreases in the incidence of both acute coronary syndromes occurred between February 19, 2020 and March 29, 2020, together with increases in time from symptom onset to hospital arrival, luckily without changes in door-to-balloon time.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 104: 106346, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Meropenem is a ß-lactam, carbapenem antibacterial agent with antimicrobial activity against gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic micro-organisms and is important in the empirical treatment of serious infections in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Multi-drug resistant gram-negative organisms, coupled with scarcity of new antibiotic classes, forced healthcare community to optimize the therapeutic potential of available antibiotics. Our aim is to investigate the effect of continuous infusion of meropenem against bolus administration, as indicated by a composite outcome of reducing death and emergence of extensive or pan drug-resistant pathogens in a population of ICU patients. DESIGN: Double blind, double dummy, multicenter randomized controlled trial (1:1 allocation ratio). SETTING: Tertiary and University hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: 600 ICU patients with sepsis or septic shock, needing by clinical judgment antibiotic therapy with meropenem, will be randomized to receive a continuous infusion of meropenem 3 g/24 h or an equal dose divided into three daily boluses (i.e. 1g q8h). MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint will be a composite outcome of reducing death and emergence of extensive or pan drug-resistant pathogens. Secondary endpoints will be death from any cause at day 90, antibiotic-free days at day 28, ICU-free days at day 28, cumulative SOFA-free (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score from randomization to day 28 and the two, separate, components of the primary endpoint. We expect a primary outcome reduction from 52 to 40% in the continuous infusion group. CONCLUSIONS: The trial will provide evidence for choosing intermittent or continuous infusion of meropenem for critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant gram-negative infections.

5.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The management of severe aortic stenosis has been revolutionized by the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), especially in patients at intermediate, high, or prohibitive surgical risk. There is uncertainty, however, regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of contemporary TAVI devices. METHODS: We queried detailed data from the ongoing national Italian TAVI registry and compared baseline features, procedural details, and 12-month outcomes of Acurate Neo (Boston Scientific), Evolut Pro/R (Medtronic), Lotus (Boston Scientific), Portico (Abbott Vascular), and Sapien/ Sapien S3 Ultra (Edward Lifesciences) transcatheter aortic valves. Several endpoints were collected and appraised, including the composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), major bleeding, major vascular complication, surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve reimplantation, which were deemed major adverse events (MAEs). RESULTS: A total of 1976 patients were included, with 234 treated with Acurate, 703 with Evolut, 151 with Lotus, 347 with Portico, and 541 with Sapien. Twelve-month events were not significantly different among the 5 devices, including death (P=.29) and MAE (P=.21), with the notable exception of major vascular complications, which were more common with Acurate and Sapien (P<.001) and permanent pacemaker implantation, which was more frequent with Lotus and Evolut (P<.001). Differences in MAE were more pronounced in women and subjects with prior cardiac surgery, with the lowest event rates in the Evolut group. Propensity-score adjusted analysis suggested that Acurate, Evolut, Portico, and Sapien were all associated with similarly favorable results, whereas adverse events were more evident with Lotus (P<.05). CONCLUSION: Leading current-generation TAVI devices offer similarly favorable results at mid-term follow-up.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death worldwide, responsible for an estimated 17.8 million deaths globally in 2017, accounting for 31.8% of all deaths. In this review, we aim to provide an updated overview of CVD burden from an Italian and a global perspective. METHODS: Crude and age-standardized incidence and prevalence, as well as age-standardized mortality rate and morbidity rate (expressed as disability-adjusted life years - DALYs), of different cardiovascular conditions, derived from the Global Burden of Disease Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, were reported and compared between Italy and the world. RESULTS: Crude prevalence of CVD in Italy is nearly twofold higher than global prevalence (12.9% vs. 6.6%), while age-standardized estimates are similar (6.2% vs. 6.3%). Mortality and morbidity from CVD are reduced in Italy, as compared to worldwide estimates (age-standardized mortality rate 113/100'000 vs 233/100'000; age-standardized rate of DALYs lost 1764/100'000 vs 4598/100'000). Of the evaluated cardiovascular conditions, the most important CVD burden is due to ischemic heart disease, which show a crude prevalence of 3.6% in Italy (age-standardized: 1.7%), doubling the corresponding crude global estimate (1.7%; age-standardized: 1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This latest update on the epidemiology of CVD within Italy and the world summarizes the burden of major cardiovascular conditions. CVD, especially ischemic heart disease, is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity. The impact of increasing life-expectancy is a key determinant of CVD epidemiology in Italy, if compared to worldwide data, since older age is one of the major risk factors for CVD.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e019206, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686866

RESUMO

Background Several randomized trials have compared the patency of coronary artery bypass conduits. All of the published studies, however, have performed pairwise comparisons and a comprehensive evaluation of the patency rates of all conduits has yet to be published. We set out to investigate the angiographic patency rates of all conduits used in coronary bypass surgery by performing a network meta-analysis of the current available randomized evidence. Methods and Results A systematic literature search was conducted for randomized controlled trials comparing the angiographic patency rate of the conventionally harvested saphenous vein, the no-touch saphenous vein, the radial artery (RA), the right internal thoracic artery, or the gastroepiploic artery. The primary outcome was graft occlusion. A total of 4160 studies were retrieved of which 14 were included with 3651 grafts analyzed. The weighted mean angiographic follow-up was 5.1 years. Compared with the conventionally harvested saphenous vein, both the RA (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.82) and the no-touch saphenous vein (IRR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.78) were associated with lower graft occlusion. The RA ranked as the best conduit (rank score for RA 0.87 versus 0.85 for no-touch saphenous vein, 0.23 for right internal thoracic artery, 0.29 for gastroepiploic artery, and 0.25 for the conventionally harvested saphenous vein). Conclusions Compared with the conventionally harvested saphenous vein, only the RA and no-touch saphenous vein grafts are associated with significantly lower graft occlusion rates. The RA ranks as the best conduit. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero; Unique identifier: CRD42020164492.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721196

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia after TAVI is common and clinically detrimental. Retrospectively, we observed Portico recipients had a more profound platelet drop than Evolut recipients. We thus investigated periprocedural platelet damage and/orpro-inflammatory state in 64 TAVI recipients at baseline and after implantation. Platelet damage was assessed by annexin V staining and monocyte-phagocytic phenotype was assessed according to CD14/CD36 expression. Serum cytokines were measured in 20 patients. The formaldehyde-based storage solution altered platelets. When, before being loaded onto the delivery system, Portico underwent one additional flushing to those recommended, the receiving patients showed thrombocytopenia, platelet damage, and CD36-monocyte count were mitigated. A general increase in IL-6 was recorded in overall TAVI recipients, but a high serum level of IL-8, a potent thrombocytopenia inducer, was measured in Portico recipients only, including those with extra-rinsed valve. Our study suggests a platelet-injury effect by storage-solution and generates the hypothesis of a role for the biomaterial in stimulating innate-immunity. Larger prospective studies are needed. Graphical Abstract.

10.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic with the stay-at-home orders and lockdown has dramatically forced athletes to stop team training and competitions, causing deep changes in habits and lifestyle. Aim of this study was to evaluate in a retrospective single center study the cardiovascular (CV) health and fitness of elite football player after COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and to compare such findings with the 2019 off-season period, in order to identify potential differences in the CV features and outcomes. METHODS: All 29 professional Football players of the first male team were enrolled before resuming training and competition after COVID-19 lockdown and underwent several exams including physical examination, resting and stress electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, spirometry and blood tests. RESULTS: Median age was 27 years (23; 31), with no athlete being COVID-19 positive at the time of the evaluation. In comparison with the usual off-season 2-month detraining, significant differences were found for left ventricular (LV) mass (189g [172; 212] vs. 181g [167; 206], p=0.024) and LV mass index for body surface area (94g/m2 [85; 104] vs 88g/m2 [79.5; 101.5], p=0.017), while LV mass/fat free mass remained unchanged (2.8 g/Kg [2.6; 2.9] vs 2.9 g/Kg [2.6; 3.2], p=0.222). Respiratory function and metabolic profile were improved, while no significant changes were found in ECG findings, at rest and during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged abstinence from training and competitions induced by lockdown elicited significant changes in comparison with off-season in parameters ascribable to detraining, as the changes in LV mass, in respiratory function and in metabolic profile.

11.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become first-line treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis in patients with moderate, high or prohibitive surgical risk.. However, access site complications may occur more frequently in such extreme body mass index (BMI) categories,. We aimed at describing features and outcomes of patients undergoing TAVI in a comprehensive Italian prospective clinical registry. METHODS: A national prospective database was queried for baseline, procedural, and outcome details of patients undergoing TAVI according to established BMI classes: underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Short- and long-term outcomes, including major adverse events (MAE), i.e. the composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, major vascular complication, major bleeding, or renal failure, were appraised with bivariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3075 subjects were included, 64 (2.1%) were underweight, 1319 (42.9%) were normal weight, 1152 (37.4%) were overweight, and 540 (17.6%) were obese. Several baseline differences were evident, including gender, diabetes mellitus, renal function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, surgical scores, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (all p<0.05). Several procedural differences were also evident, including percutaneous approach, predilation, prosthesis type and size (all p<0.05), with postprocedura aortic regurgitation >2+ significantly more common in underweight patients (p<0.05). Nonetheless, unadjusted analysis for one-month outcomes showed similar rates for fatal and non-fatal outcomes, including MAE (all p>0.05), with the notable exception of permanent pacemaker implantation, which was more common in higher BMI classes (p=0.010) Unadjusted analysis for long-term events showed an increased rate of death in underweight patients (p=0.024). Multivariable adjusted analysis confirmed the increased risk of permanent pacemaker implantation in obese patients (p=0.015 when comparing obese vs normal weight subjects), but disproved differences in mortality (p>0.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of BMI class, TAVI is associated with favorable outcomes in surgical high-risk risk patients, with the notable exclusion of permanent pacemaker implantation, which is significantly more common in obese subjects.

12.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555436

RESUMO

There is limited information on the presenting characteristics, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches of young patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to investigate the baseline characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes of a wide cohort < 65 years admitted for COVID-19. Using the international multicenter HOPE-COVID-19 registry, we evaluated the baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, therapeutic approach, and prognosis of patients < 65 years discharged (deceased or alive) after hospital admission for COVID-19, also compared with the elderly counterpart. Of the included 5746 patients, 2676 were < 65 and 3070 ≥ 65 years. All risk factors and several parameters suggestive of worse clinical presentation augmented through increasing age classes. In-hospital mortality rates were 6.8% and 32.1% in the younger and older cohort, respectively (p < 0.001). Among young patients, mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMVwere positively correlated with age. Contrariwise, over 65 years of age this trend was broken so that only the association between age and mortality was persistent, while the rates of access to ICU and IMV started to decline. Younger patients also recognized specific predictors of case fatality, such as obesity and gender. Age negatively impacts on mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMV in patients < 65 years. In elderly patients only case fatality rate keeps augmenting in a stepwise manner through increasing age categories, while therapeutic approaches become more conservative. Besides age, obesity, gender, history of cancer, and severe dyspnea, tachypnea, chest X-ray bilateral abnormalities, abnormal level of creatinine and leucocyte among admission parameters seem to play a central role in the outcome of patients younger than 65 years.

14.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(3): E182-E190, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the best stent design for high bleeding risk (HBR) patients. BACKGROUND: Polymer-free (PF) drug eluting stent (DES) devices have a proven benefit over bare-metal stent (BMS) devices in previous trials. It is unknown, however, whether polymer-based (PB)-DES devices are as safe as PF-DES devices. METHODS: A network meta-analysis including all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different stent technology in HBR patients with a 1-month course of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was performed. The main efficacy outcome was major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate, defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and target-lesion revascularization (TLR). Secondary efficacy events included all-cause and cardiac mortality, MI, stroke, TLR, and target-vessel revascularization (TVR). Safety outcomes included all bleeding, major bleeding, and stent thrombosis (ST). RESULTS: A total of 4 RCTs with 6456 patients were included. PF-DES and PB-DES yielded a reduced rate of MACE, MI, TLR, and TVR events compared with BMS (all P<.05). ST events were reduced in PB-DES compared with BMS (P=.01). No differences were found in all-cause death, cardiac death, or stroke events in PF-DES and PB-DES compared with BMS. Furthermore, no differences were found between PF-DES and PB-DES regarding any of the outcomes. CONCLUSION: DES devices were associated with lower MACE and TVR rates compared with BMS, whereas there were no statistical differences in other efficacy endpoints. Also, PB-DES were associated with fewer ST events compared with BMS. There were no statistical differences between PB-DES and PF-DES with regard to any of the endpoints.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507260

RESUMO

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of medical conditions but to date only one official position paper related to left circulation thromboembolism has been published. This interdisciplinary paper, prepared with the involvement of eight European scientific societies, reviews the available evidence and proposes a rationale for decision making for other PFO-related clinical conditions. In order to guarantee a strict evidence-based process, we used a modified grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) methodology. A critical qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was performed, including assessment of the risk/benefit ratio. The level of evidence and the strength of the position statements were weighed and graded according to predefined scales. Despite being based on limited and observational or low-certainty randomised data, a number of position statements were made to frame PFO management in different clinical settings, along with suggestions for new research avenues. This interdisciplinary position paper, recognising the low or very low certainty of existing evidence, provides the first approach to several PFO-related clinical scenarios beyond left circulation thromboembolism and strongly stresses the need for fresh high-quality evidence on these topics.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387210

RESUMO

Patients with Coronavirus-associated disease-2019 (COVID-19) display alterations of the hemostatic system and the presence of a prothrombotic status frequently leading to vascular complications. However, the impact of COVID-19 on platelet activity, aggregation and agglutination still needs to be clarified. We measured total levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF binding to the platelet glycoprotein (Gp) complex (GPIb-IX-V), in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our Institution. Moreover, we evaluated platelet aggregation in response to agonists (ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid) and platelet agglutination in response to ristocetin. We found that levels of vWF antigen and the active form of vWF binding to platelets (vWF:RCo), were markedly increased in these patients. These results were associated with higher agglutination rates induced by ristocetin, thereby indirectly indicating an increased capability of vWF to bind to platelets. Conversely, we found that platelet aggregation in response to both ADP and collagen was lower in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers. This study shows that COVID-19 is associated with increased vWF-induced platelet agglutination but reduced platelet responsivity to aggregation stimuli. Our findings have translational relevance since platelet adhesion to vWF may represent a marker to predict possible complications and better delineate therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 patients.

18.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxidative stress and insufficient autophagy activity are associated with inflammatory processes and are common features of many cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We investigated if a combination of natural activators of autophagy is able to modulate oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and endothelial cell survival and function in response to stress. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Ex vivo platelet aggregation and activation, H2 O2 production and autophagy were measured in platelets of subjects at high cardiovascular risk, including smokers, patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In vitro, the effects of a mixture of natural pro-autophagy molecules and antioxidants on platelets and HUVECs were evaluated. KEY RESULT: Autophagy appeared to be inhibited, whereas aggregation was increased in platelets from AF and MS patients and in smokers, as compared to healthy subjects. Treatment of platelets isolated from these patients with 2 different mixtures of catechin, epicatechin, trehalose and spermidine significantly reduced platelet activation and oxidative stress, whereas they increased autophagy in a synergistic manner with respect to the effect of each single molecule alone. Similarly, treatment of HUVECs with a combination of these natural compounds exerted synergic beneficial effects and increased endothelial cell survival, NO bioavailability and angiogenesis in response to stress in a potentiated manner. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: A combination of natural activators of autophagy could synergistically inhibit platelet activity and oxidative stress and improve endothelial cell survival and function in a potentiated manner representing a useful strategy to reduce the impact of risk factors on CVD occurrence.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 251-259, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented change in the apparent epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the interplay between this disease, changes in pollution, climate, and aversion to activation of emergency medical services represents a challenging conundrum. We aimed at appraising the impact of COVID-19, weather, and environment features on the occurrence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in a large Italian region and metropolitan area. METHODS AND RESULTS: Italy was hit early on by COVID-19, such that state of emergency was declared on January 31, 2020, and national lockdown implemented on March 9, 2020, mainly because the accrual of cases in Northern Italy. In order to appraise the independent contribution on changes in STEMI and NSTEMI daily rates of COVID-19, climate and pollution, we collected data on these clinical events from tertiary care cardiovascular centers in the Lazio region and Rome metropolitan area. Multilevel Poisson modeling was used to appraise unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates for the daily incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI cases. The sample included 1448 STEMI and 2040 NSTEMI, with a total of 2882 PCI spanning 6 months. Significant reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI were evident already in early February 2020 (all p<0.05), concomitantly with COVID-19 spread and institution of national countermeasures. Changes in STEMI and NSTEMI were inversely associated with daily COVID-19 tests, cases, and/or death (p<0.05). In addition, STEMI and NSTEMI incidences were associated with daily NO2, PM10, and O3 concentrations, as well as temperature (p<0.05). Multi-stage and multiply adjusted models highlighted that reductions in STEMI were significantly associated with COVID-19 data (p<0.001), whereas changes in NSTEMI were significantly associated with both NO2 and COVID-19 data (both p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI in the COVID-19 pandemic may depend on different concomitant epidemiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms. In particular, recent changes in STEMI may depend on COVID-19 scare, leading to excess all-cause mortality, or effective reduced incidence, whereas reductions in NSTEMI may also be due to beneficial reductions in NO2 emissions in the lockdown phase.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes and multivessel coronary artery disease is challenging. There is a growing body of evidence supporting invasive functional evaluation of multivessel disease with FFR or iFR has been added to the literature. In this regard, the WAVE study recently demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy of iFR functional assessment of non-culprit lesions in multivessel patients with STEMI. However, no studies have still verified the long-term clinical impact of an iFR-guided revascularization in this setting of patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI and presenting multivessel disease will be enrolled. After the treatment of the culprit lesion, an iFR-guided functional assessment of non-culprit lesions will be done: if iFR ≤ 0.89 PCI will be performed during the index procedure or staged. Conversely, iFR> 0.89 will be direct the patient towards a conservative approach. RESULTS: The study start date was May 1, 2018. The enrollement phase was completed on March 30, 2020. The primary endpoint is the occurrence of Target Lesion Failure (TLF), a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization of the vessel previously assessed with iFR. Secondary end points include MACE (Cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, any revascularization). CONCLUSIONS: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the long-term clinical impact of an iFR-guided revascularization of the non-culprit lesions in STEMI patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.

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