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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 292, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) End TB strategy aims to reduce mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) to less than 5% by 2035. However, mortality due to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains particularly high. Globally, almost 20% of patients started on MDR-TB treatment die during the course of treatment every year. We set out to examine the risk factors for mortality among a cohort of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the national MDR-TB cohort. We defined cases as patients who died from any cause during the course of MDR-TB treatment. We selected two controls for each case from patients alive and on MDR-TB treatment at the time that the death occurred (incidence-density sampling). We matched the cases and controls on health facility at which they were receiving care. We performed conditional logistic regression to identify the risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Data from 198 patients (66 cases and 132 controls) started on MDR-TB treatment from January 1 to December 31, 2016, was analyzed for this study. Cases were similar to controls in age/sex distribution, occupation and history of TB treatment. However, cases were more likely to be HIV infected while controls were more likely to have attained secondary level education. On multivariate regression analysis, co-infection with HIV (aOR 1.9, 95% CI [1.1-4.92] p = 0.05); non-adherence to MDR-TB treatment (aOR 1.92, 95% CI [1.02-4.83] p = 0.04); age over 50 years (aOR 3.04, 95% CI [1.13-8.20] p = 0.03); and having no education (aOR 3.61, 95% CI [1.1-10.4] p = 0.03) were associated with MDR-TB mortality. CONCLUSION: To mitigate MDR-TB mortality, attention must be paid to provision of social support particularly for older persons on MDR-TB treatment. In addition, interventions that support treatment adherence and promote early detection and management of TB among HIV infected persons should also be emphasized.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 954, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to identify and treat undiagnosed prevalent cases that have not sought diagnostic services on their own, are necessary to treat TB in patients earlier and interrupt transmission. Late presentation for medical services of symptomatic patients require special efforts to detect early and notify TB in high risk populations. An intervention that combined quality improvement with facility-led active case finding (QI-ACF) was implemented in 10 districts of Northern Uganda with the highest TB burden to improve case notification among populations at highest risk of TB. METHODS: Using QI-ACF intervention approach in 48 facilities, we; 1) targeted key vulnerable populations, 2) engaged district and facility teams in TB systems strengthening, 3) conducted systematic screening and diagnosis in vulnerable groups (people living with HIV, fishing communities, and prisoners), and 4) trained health workers on national x-ray diagnosis guidelines for smear-negative patients. Facility-led QI-ACF meant that health care providers identified the target population, mobilized and massively screened suspects, and addressed gaps in documentation. Chest X-ray diagnosis was promoted for smear-negative TB among those suspects whose sputum examination was negative. The effect of the intervention on case notification was then assessed separately over the post intervention period. RESULTS: Over all TB case notification in the intervention districts increased from 171 to 223 per 100,000 population between the baseline months of October-December 2016 and end line month of April-June 2017. TB patient contacts had the majority of TB positive cases identified during active case finding (40, 6.1%). Fishing communities had the highest TB positivity rate at 6.8%. Prisoners accounted for the lowest number of TB positive cases at 34 (2.3%). CONCLUSION: Targeting should be applied at all levels of TB intervention to improve yield: targeting districts and facilities with the lowest rates of case notification and targeting index patient contacts, HIV clients, and fishing communities. Screening tools are useful to guide health workers to identify presumptive cases. Efforts to improve availability of x-ray for TB diagnosis contributed to almost half of the new cases identified. Having all HIV patients who were eligible for viral load provide sputum for TB screening proved easy to implement.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Notificação de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento , Radiografia Torácica , Escarro/virologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
4.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208390, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566486

RESUMO

While old age is a known risk factor for developing active tuberculosis (TB), studies on TB in the population aged 60 years and older (considered elderly in this study) are few, especially in the developing world. Results of the TB prevalence survey in Uganda found high TB prevalence (570/100,000) in people over 65. We focused on treatment outcomes in the elderly to understand this epidemic better. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from TB facility registers in Kampala City for the period 2014-2015. We analyzed the 2014-15 cohort with respect to age, sex, disease class, patients' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and directly observed therapy (DOT) status, type of facility, and treatment outcomes and compared findings in the elderly (≥60) and younger (<60) age groups. Of 15,429 records, 3.3% (514/15,429) were for elderly patients. The treatment success rate (TSR) among elderly TB patients (68.3%) was lower than that of the non-elderly (80.9%) and the overall TSR 80.5%, (12,417/15,429) in Kampala. Although the elderly were less likely to test positive for HIV than the young (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.33-0.48, p<0.001), they had a two-fold higher risk of unfavorable treatment outcomes (AOR 2.14; CI 1.84-2.72, p<0.001) and were more likely to die while on treatment (AOR 1.86; CI 1.27-2.73; p = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significantly difference between treatment outcomes among HIV-positive and HIV-negative elderly TB patients. Compared to the younger TB patients, elderly TB patients have markedly poorer treatment outcomes, although TB/HIV co-infection rates in this age group are lower.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Uganda
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(12): 339-342, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358797

RESUMO

In 2012, Uganda introduced the use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA), a sensitive, automated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based platform for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, for programmatic use among children, adults with presumptive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated TB, and symptomatic persons at risk for rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB. The effect of using the platform's Xpert MTB/RIF assay on TB care and control was assessed using routinely collected programmatic data; in addition, a retrospective review of district quarterly summaries using abstracted TB register data from purposively selected facilities in the capital city of Kampala was conducted. Case notification rates were calculated and nonparametric statistical methods were used for analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in case notification rates before and after the Xpert MTB/RIF assay became available, although four of 10 districts demonstrated a statistically significant difference in bacteriologically confirmed TB. Once the GeneXpert MTB/RIF platform is established and refined, a more comprehensive evaluation should be conducted.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Criança , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
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