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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types of SOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00734, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and supportive therapy utilization (STU) among individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS), and to compare such usage by molecular etiology. METHODS: Participants were categorized into deletion and non-deletion genotypes. Statistical differences were assessed using an independent samples t test. RESULTS: Data were available on 302 individuals. Mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 92% of whom were less than 13 years, and 71% had the deletion etiology. About 68% of participants had at least one hospitalization since birth to enrollment in the study; the average number of hospitalizations during that time period was 2.3 and average length of stay was 4.5 days. The most common reasons for hospitalization were seizures, lower respiratory infections, and surgery. The most common reasons for surgery were myringotomy, strabismus surgery, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, and gastrostomy tube insertion/fundoplication. Anticonvulsants, gastroesophageal reflux disease, sleep, and behavioral medications were the most commonly prescribed drugs. STU was high among individuals with AS. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that individuals with AS have high HRU/STU, and apart from a few differences, HRU/STU was similar across molecular etiology. These results reflect usage in younger individuals and studies that describe HRU/STU in older individuals are needed.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 983-992, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942555

RESUMO

Maladaptive behaviors are challenging and a source of stress for caregivers of individuals with Angelman Syndrome (AS). There is limited information on how these maladaptive behaviors vary over time among individuals with AS due to different genetic etiologies. In this study, caregivers of 301 individuals with AS were asked questions about their child's behavior and completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community version (ABC-C). Developmental functioning was evaluated with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Family functioning was assessed using the parent-completed Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and the Family Quality of Life questionnaire (FQoL). Approximately 70% of participants had AS due to a deletion on the maternally-inherited copy of chromosome 15q11q13. Results revealed that at baseline, individuals with AS had low scores in the domains of lethargy (mean: 2.6-4.2 depending on genotype) and stereotypy (mean: 2.3-4.2 depending on genotype). Higher cognitive functioning was associated with increased irritability (r = 0.32, p < .01). Hyperactivity (p < .05) and irritability (p < .05) increased with age across all genotypes and should be ongoing targets for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment. Concerns for short attention span were endorsed by more than 70% of caregivers at baseline. Maladaptive behaviors, particularly hyperactivity, irritability and aggression, adversely affected parental stress, and family quality of life.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(9): 752-759, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by either disruptions of the gene UBE3A or deletion of chromosome 15 at 15q11-q13, which encompasses UBE3A and several other genes, including GABRB3, GABRA5, GABRG3, encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunits (ß3, α5, γ3). Individuals with deletions are generally more impaired than those with other genotypes, but the underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that genes other than UBE3A located on 15q11-q13 cause differences in pathophysiology between AS genotypes. METHODS: We compared spectral power of clinical EEG recordings from children (1-18 years of age) with a deletion genotype (n = 37) or a nondeletion genotype (n = 21) and typically developing children without Angelman syndrome (n = 48). RESULTS: We found elevated theta power (peak frequency: 5.3 Hz) and diminished beta power (peak frequency: 23 Hz) in the deletion genotype compared with the nondeletion genotype as well as excess broadband EEG power (1-32 Hz) peaking in the delta frequency range (peak frequency: 2.8 Hz), shared by both genotypes but stronger for the deletion genotype at younger ages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-UBE3A neuronal pathophysiology in deletion AS and suggest that hemizygosity of the GABRB3-GABRA5-GABRG3 gene cluster causes abnormal theta and beta EEG oscillations that may underlie the more severe clinical phenotype. Our work improves the understanding of AS pathophysiology and has direct implications for the development of AS treatments and biomarkers.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 542-551, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719864

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(1): 60-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617323

RESUMO

Syndromic genetic conditions, in aggregate, affect 8% of the population1. Many syndromes have recognizable facial features2 that are highly informative to clinical geneticists3-5. Recent studies show that facial analysis technologies measured up to the capabilities of expert clinicians in syndrome identification6-9. However, these technologies identified only a few disease phenotypes, limiting their role in clinical settings, where hundreds of diagnoses must be considered. Here we present a facial image analysis framework, DeepGestalt, using computer vision and deep-learning algorithms, that quantifies similarities to hundreds of syndromes. DeepGestalt outperformed clinicians in three initial experiments, two with the goal of distinguishing subjects with a target syndrome from other syndromes, and one of separating different genetic subtypes in Noonan syndrome. On the final experiment reflecting a real clinical setting problem, DeepGestalt achieved 91% top-10 accuracy in identifying the correct syndrome on 502 different images. The model was trained on a dataset of over 17,000 images representing more than 200 syndromes, curated through a community-driven phenotyping platform. DeepGestalt potentially adds considerable value to phenotypic evaluations in clinical genetics, genetic testing, research and precision medicine.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Facies , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fenótipo , Síndrome
10.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation, but almost all NF1-affected adults present with cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas. Exceptions are individuals heterozygous for the NF1 in-frame deletion, c.2970_2972del (p.Met992del), associated with a mild phenotype without any externally visible tumors. METHODS: A total of 135 individuals from 103 unrelated families, all carrying the constitutional NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant and clinically assessed using the same standardized phenotypic checklist form, were included in this study. RESULTS: None of the individuals had externally visible plexiform or histopathologically confirmed cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. We did not identify any complications, such as symptomatic optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) or symptomatic spinal neurofibromas; however, 4.8% of individuals had nonoptic brain tumors, mostly low-grade and asymptomatic, and 38.8% had cognitive impairment/learning disabilities. In an individual with the NF1 constitutional c.2970_2972del and three astrocytomas, we provided proof that all were NF1-associated tumors given loss of heterozygosity at three intragenic NF1 microsatellite markers and c.2970_2972del. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that individuals with the NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant have a mild NF1 phenotype lacking clinically suspected plexiform, cutaneous, or subcutaneous neurofibromas. However, learning difficulties are clearly part of the phenotypic presentation in these individuals and will require specialized care.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246918

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a family of heritable disorders of bone fragility. Most individuals with OI have mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen; at least 17 other genes have been associated with OI. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in WNT1 cause severe OI. Heterozygous missense variants in WNT1 are responsible for early-onset osteoporosis with variable bone phenotypes. Herein, we report a third-generation family with four affected individuals, some presenting with multiple low-impact fractures in childhood and others presenting with early-onset osteoporosis without a striking fracture history. A WNT1 variant (c. 1051 > C; p.Trp351Arg) was identified in the proband and segregated with a bone phenotype in three additional family members, consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. In the proband, whole genome sequencing also revealed a de novo duplication (434 kb) of 22q11.2 that involves 25 genes, 4 of which are associated with human disease when haploinsufficient. Though smaller than the typical (1.5 Mb) 22q11.2 duplication, the duplication in the proband may be responsible for additional nonosseous aspects of his phenotype (hypotonia, developmental delay, small genitalia, strabismus, and depression in preadolescence). This case demonstrates the variability of bone phenotype conferred by a WNT1 variant and extends the spectrum of bone phenotypes associated with heterozygous WNT1 mutations.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

13.
Mol Autism ; 9: 32, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719672

RESUMO

Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, speech and motor impairments, epilepsy, abnormal sleep, and phenotypic overlap with autism. Individuals with AS display characteristic EEG patterns including high-amplitude rhythmic delta waves. Here, we sought to quantitatively explore EEG architecture in AS beyond known spectral power phenotypes. We were motivated by studies of functional connectivity and sleep spindles in autism to study these EEG readouts in children with AS. Methods: We analyzed retrospective wake and sleep EEGs from children with AS (age 4-11) and age-matched neurotypical controls. We assessed long-range and short-range functional connectivity by measuring coherence across multiple frequencies during wake and sleep. We quantified sleep spindles using automated and manual approaches. Results: During wakefulness, children with AS showed enhanced long-range EEG coherence across a wide range of frequencies. During sleep, children with AS showed increased long-range EEG coherence specifically in the gamma band. EEGs from children with AS contained fewer sleep spindles, and these spindles were shorter in duration than their neurotypical counterparts. Conclusions: We demonstrate two quantitative readouts of dysregulated sleep composition in children with AS-gamma coherence and spindles-and describe how functional connectivity patterns may be disrupted during wakefulness. Quantitative EEG phenotypes have potential as biomarkers and readouts of target engagement for future clinical trials and provide clues into how neural circuits are dysregulated in children with AS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Gama , Fases do Sono , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ritmo Delta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 21(3): 319-323, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187032

RESUMO

Objective Herein, we report a case of a deceased newborn with prenatally detected hydrocephalus. Postnatal findings included abnormal brain imaging and electroencephalogram, optic nerve abnormalities, and elevated creatine kinase (CK). No underlying genetic etiology had been previously identified for the proband, despite testing with a congenital muscular dystrophy gene panel. Methods Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) was performed on the proband-parents trio, and candidate alterations were confirmed using automated fluorescence dideoxy sequencing. Results Exome sequencing of the proband, mother and father identified a previously unreported apparently de novo heterozygous tubulin, beta-3 ( TUBB3) c.523G>C (p.V175L) alteration in the proband. Conclusion Overall, DES established a likely molecular genetic diagnosis for a postmortem case after traditional testing methods were uninformative. The DES results allowed for reproductive options, such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis and/or prenatal diagnosis, to be available to the parents in future pregnancies.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1099-1107, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944563

RESUMO

Treatment for Angelman syndrome (AS) is currently limited to symptomatic interventions. A mouse model of AS has reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity due to excessive phosphorylation of specific threonine residues, leading to diminished long-term potentiation. In a rat model of Parkinson disease, levodopa reduced phosphorylation of various proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Further studies demonstrated that AS mice treated with levodopa performed better on rotarod testing than untreated AS mice. We conducted a multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year trial of levodopa / carbidopa with either 10 or 15 mg/kg/day of levodopa in children with AS. The outcome of this intervention was assessed using either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Of the 78 participants enrolled, 67 participants received study medication (33 on levodopa, 34 on placebo), and 55 participants (29 on levodopa, 26 on placebo) completed the 1-year study. There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the outcome measures over a 1-year period comparing the levodopa and placebo groups. The number of adverse events reported, including the more serious adverse events, was similar in both groups, but none were related to treatment with levodopa. Our data demonstrate that levodopa is well-tolerated by children with AS. However, in the doses used in this study, it failed to improve their neurodevelopment or behavioral outcome.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 415-420, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266745

RESUMO

Germline gain-of-function variants in SAMD9 have been associated with a high risk of mortality and a newly recognized constellation of symptoms described by the acronym MIRAGE: Myelodysplasia, Infection, Restriction of growth, Adrenal insufficiency, Genital phenotypes, and Enteropathy. Here, we describe two additional patients currently living with the syndrome, including one patient with a novel de novo variant for which we provide functional data supporting its pathogenicity. We discuss features of dysmorphology, contrasting with previously described patients as well as drawing attention to additional clinical features, dysautonomia and hearing loss that have not previously been reported. We detail both patients' courses following diagnosis, with attention to treatment plans and recommended specialist care. Our patients are the oldest known with arginine-substituting amino acid variants, and we conclude that early diagnosis and multidisciplinary management may positively impact outcomes for this vulnerable group of patients.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 516-524, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942967

RESUMO

Exome sequencing has readily enabled the discovery of the genetic mutations responsible for a wide range of diseases. This success has been particularly remarkable in the severe epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental diseases for which rare, often de novo, mutations play a significant role in disease risk. Despite significant progress, the high genetic heterogeneity of these disorders often requires large sample sizes to identify a critical mass of individuals with disease-causing mutations in a single gene. By pooling genetic findings across multiple studies, we have identified six individuals with severe developmental delay (6/6), refractory seizures (5/6), and similar dysmorphic features (3/6), each harboring a de novo mutation in PPP3CA. PPP3CA encodes the alpha isoform of a subunit of calcineurin. Calcineurin encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a role in a wide range of biological processes, including being a key regulator of synaptic vesicle recycling at nerve terminals. Five individuals with de novo PPP3CA mutations were identified among 4,760 trio probands with neurodevelopmental diseases; this is highly unlikely to occur by chance (p = 1.2 × 10-8) given the size and mutability of the gene. Additionally, a sixth individual with a de novo mutation in PPP3CA was connected to this study through GeneMatcher. Based on these findings, we securely implicate PPP3CA in early-onset refractory epilepsy and further support the emerging role for synaptic dysregulation in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 139-148, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686853

RESUMO

We report 15 individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in WDR26. Eleven of the individuals carry loss-of-function mutations, and four harbor missense substitutions. These 15 individuals comprise ten females and five males, and all have intellectual disability with delayed speech, a history of febrile and/or non-febrile seizures, and a wide-based, spastic, and/or stiff-legged gait. These subjects share a set of common facial features that include a prominent maxilla and upper lip that readily reveal the upper gingiva, widely spaced teeth, and a broad nasal tip. Together, these features comprise a recognizable facial phenotype. We compared these features with those of chromosome 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome, which typically contains WDR26, and noted that clinical features are consistent between the two subsets, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of WDR26 contributes to the pathology of 1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome. Consistent with this, WDR26 loss-of-function single-nucleotide mutations identified in these subjects lead to nonsense-mediated decay with subsequent reduction of RNA expression and protein levels. We derived a structural model of WDR26 and note that missense variants identified in these individuals localize to highly conserved residues of this WD-40-repeat-containing protein. Given that WDR26 mutations have been identified in ∼1 in 2,000 of subjects in our clinical cohorts and that WDR26 might be poorly annotated in exome variant-interpretation pipelines, we would anticipate that this disorder could be more common than currently appreciated.


Assuntos
Facies , Marcha/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas/genética , Convulsões/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteínas/química , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Convulsões/complicações , Síndrome
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 206-217, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735859

RESUMO

Interpretation of variants of uncertain significance, especially chromosomal rearrangements in non-coding regions of the human genome, remains one of the biggest challenges in modern molecular diagnosis. To improve our understanding and interpretation of such variants, we used high-resolution three-dimensional chromosomal structural data and transcriptional regulatory information to predict position effects and their association with pathogenic phenotypes in 17 subjects with apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities. We found that the rearrangements predict disruption of long-range chromatin interactions between several enhancers and genes whose annotated clinical features are strongly associated with the subjects' phenotypes. We confirm gene-expression changes for a couple of candidate genes to exemplify the utility of our analysis of position effect. These results highlight the important interplay between chromosomal structure and disease and demonstrate the need to utilize chromatin conformational data for the prediction of position effects in the clinical interpretation of non-coding chromosomal rearrangements.


Assuntos
Efeitos da Posição Cromossômica/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Fenótipo , Translocação Genética/genética
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