Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929385

RESUMO

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by benign cutaneous tumors (fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas, and acrochordons), basal lung cysts, pneumothoraces, and a 20% to 30% lifetime risk for renal cancer. There are isolated cases of other cancers in BHDS reported in the literature, including oncocytoma, rhabdomyoma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, meningioma, colon cancer, and breast cancer, but only the increased renal cancer risk has been substantiated. This is the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with a leiomyosarcoma whose tumor genetic analysis showed FLCN c.365_372del, p.Arg122Leufs*8. She was diagnosed with BHDS when the same mutation was confirmed in her germline lymphocytes. This is the second known reported case of leiomyosarcoma in BHDS.

2.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 181(4): 532-547, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736240

RESUMO

The Polycomb repressive complex 2 is an epigenetic writer and recruiter with a role in transcriptional silencing. Constitutional pathogenic variants in its component proteins have been found to cause two established overgrowth syndromes: Weaver syndrome (EZH2-related overgrowth) and Cohen-Gibson syndrome (EED-related overgrowth). Imagawa et al. (2017) initially reported a singleton female with a Weaver-like phenotype with a rare coding SUZ12 variant-the same group subsequently reported two additional affected patients. Here we describe a further 10 patients (from nine families) with rare heterozygous SUZ12 variants who present with a Weaver-like phenotype. We report four frameshift, two missense, one nonsense, and two splice site variants. The affected patients demonstrate variable pre- and postnatal overgrowth, dysmorphic features, musculoskeletal abnormalities and developmental delay/intellectual disability. Some patients have genitourinary and structural brain abnormalities, and there may be an association with respiratory issues. The addition of these 10 patients makes a compelling argument that rare pathogenic SUZ12 variants frequently cause overgrowth, physical abnormalities, and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in the heterozygous state. Pathogenic SUZ12 variants may be de novo or inherited, and are sometimes inherited from a mildly-affected parent. Larger samples sizes will be needed to elucidate whether one or more clinically-recognizable syndromes emerge from different variant subtypes.

3.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 239, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe variations in the healthcare resource utilization (HRU) among individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) over the first 12 years of life. Data for this study were drawn from the AS Natural History study (ASNHS), which is an observational study on the developmental progress, behavior, and medical morbidity of individuals with AS conducted over eight years. Caregiver-reported information on hospitalization, surgery, and medication utilization was used to assess HRU. Repeated measures mixed effect models were used to assess the relationship between age and probability of hospitalization, surgery, and prescription medication utilization. RESULTS: Mean age at study enrollment was 6 years of age and both sexes were equally represented. The mean number of visits per participant was three. Results from this study suggest that individuals with AS have a high HRU burden. Hospitalization and surgery burden were highest in the first year of life. Use of medications for seizures and sleep disturbance increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the significant healthcare burden among individuals with AS. Future studies that estimate cost and caregiver burden associated with AS are needed to assess the lifelong economic impact of AS on families and healthcare system.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 232, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by maternal genetic deficiency of a gene that encodes E6-AP ubiquitin-protein ligase (gene symbol UBE3A) mapping to chromosome 15q11-q13. AS leads to stiff and jerky gait, excess laughter, seizures, and severe intellectual disability. In some parts of the brain, the paternally inherited UBE3A gene is subject to genomic imprinting by the action of the UBE3A-antisense transcript (UBE3A-ATS) on the paternally inherited allele. Consequently, only the maternally inherited UBE3A gene is expressed in mature neurons. AS occurs due to deletions of the maternal 15q11 - 13 region, paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting center defects, mutations in the maternal UBE3A gene, or other unknown genetic malfunctions that result in a silenced maternal UBE3A gene in the specific imprinted regions of the brain. RESULTS: A potential treatment strategy for AS is to increase methylation of UBE3A-ATS to promote expression of the paternal UBE3A gene and thus ameliorate the clinical phenotypes of AS. We treated two sets of male identical twins with class I deletions with a 1 year treatment trial of either betaine and folic acid versus placebo. We found no statistically significant changes in the clinical parameters tested at the end of the 1 year trial, nor did we find any significant adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This study tested the hypothesis that by increasing the methylation of the UBE3A-antisense transcript in Angelman syndrome to promote expression of the silenced paternal UBE3A gene we may ameliorate the clinical phenotypes of AS. We treated two sets of identical twins with placebo versus betaine and folic acid. Although this study represented a novel approach to treating Angelman syndrome, the differences in the developmental testing results was not significant. This paper also discusses the value of monozygotic twin studies in minimizing confounding variables and its utility in conducting small treatment studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00348933 . Registered 6 July 2006.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00734, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and supportive therapy utilization (STU) among individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS), and to compare such usage by molecular etiology. METHODS: Participants were categorized into deletion and non-deletion genotypes. Statistical differences were assessed using an independent samples t test. RESULTS: Data were available on 302 individuals. Mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 92% of whom were less than 13 years, and 71% had the deletion etiology. About 68% of participants had at least one hospitalization since birth to enrollment in the study; the average number of hospitalizations during that time period was 2.3 and average length of stay was 4.5 days. The most common reasons for hospitalization were seizures, lower respiratory infections, and surgery. The most common reasons for surgery were myringotomy, strabismus surgery, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, and gastrostomy tube insertion/fundoplication. Anticonvulsants, gastroesophageal reflux disease, sleep, and behavioral medications were the most commonly prescribed drugs. STU was high among individuals with AS. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that individuals with AS have high HRU/STU, and apart from a few differences, HRU/STU was similar across molecular etiology. These results reflect usage in younger individuals and studies that describe HRU/STU in older individuals are needed.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 983-992, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942555

RESUMO

Maladaptive behaviors are challenging and a source of stress for caregivers of individuals with Angelman Syndrome (AS). There is limited information on how these maladaptive behaviors vary over time among individuals with AS due to different genetic etiologies. In this study, caregivers of 301 individuals with AS were asked questions about their child's behavior and completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community version (ABC-C). Developmental functioning was evaluated with either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Family functioning was assessed using the parent-completed Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and the Family Quality of Life questionnaire (FQoL). Approximately 70% of participants had AS due to a deletion on the maternally-inherited copy of chromosome 15q11q13. Results revealed that at baseline, individuals with AS had low scores in the domains of lethargy (mean: 2.6-4.2 depending on genotype) and stereotypy (mean: 2.3-4.2 depending on genotype). Higher cognitive functioning was associated with increased irritability (r = 0.32, p < .01). Hyperactivity (p < .05) and irritability (p < .05) increased with age across all genotypes and should be ongoing targets for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment. Concerns for short attention span were endorsed by more than 70% of caregivers at baseline. Maladaptive behaviors, particularly hyperactivity, irritability and aggression, adversely affected parental stress, and family quality of life.

10.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(9): 752-759, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by either disruptions of the gene UBE3A or deletion of chromosome 15 at 15q11-q13, which encompasses UBE3A and several other genes, including GABRB3, GABRA5, GABRG3, encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunits (ß3, α5, γ3). Individuals with deletions are generally more impaired than those with other genotypes, but the underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that genes other than UBE3A located on 15q11-q13 cause differences in pathophysiology between AS genotypes. METHODS: We compared spectral power of clinical EEG recordings from children (1-18 years of age) with a deletion genotype (n = 37) or a nondeletion genotype (n = 21) and typically developing children without Angelman syndrome (n = 48). RESULTS: We found elevated theta power (peak frequency: 5.3 Hz) and diminished beta power (peak frequency: 23 Hz) in the deletion genotype compared with the nondeletion genotype as well as excess broadband EEG power (1-32 Hz) peaking in the delta frequency range (peak frequency: 2.8 Hz), shared by both genotypes but stronger for the deletion genotype at younger ages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-UBE3A neuronal pathophysiology in deletion AS and suggest that hemizygosity of the GABRB3-GABRA5-GABRG3 gene cluster causes abnormal theta and beta EEG oscillations that may underlie the more severe clinical phenotype. Our work improves the understanding of AS pathophysiology and has direct implications for the development of AS treatments and biomarkers.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 542-551, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719864

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.

12.
Nat Med ; 25(1): 60-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617323

RESUMO

Syndromic genetic conditions, in aggregate, affect 8% of the population1. Many syndromes have recognizable facial features2 that are highly informative to clinical geneticists3-5. Recent studies show that facial analysis technologies measured up to the capabilities of expert clinicians in syndrome identification6-9. However, these technologies identified only a few disease phenotypes, limiting their role in clinical settings, where hundreds of diagnoses must be considered. Here we present a facial image analysis framework, DeepGestalt, using computer vision and deep-learning algorithms, that quantifies similarities to hundreds of syndromes. DeepGestalt outperformed clinicians in three initial experiments, two with the goal of distinguishing subjects with a target syndrome from other syndromes, and one of separating different genetic subtypes in Noonan syndrome. On the final experiment reflecting a real clinical setting problem, DeepGestalt achieved 91% top-10 accuracy in identifying the correct syndrome on 502 different images. The model was trained on a dataset of over 17,000 images representing more than 200 syndromes, curated through a community-driven phenotyping platform. DeepGestalt potentially adds considerable value to phenotypic evaluations in clinical genetics, genetic testing, research and precision medicine.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Facies , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fenótipo , Síndrome
14.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 867-876, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation, but almost all NF1-affected adults present with cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas. Exceptions are individuals heterozygous for the NF1 in-frame deletion, c.2970_2972del (p.Met992del), associated with a mild phenotype without any externally visible tumors. METHODS: A total of 135 individuals from 103 unrelated families, all carrying the constitutional NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant and clinically assessed using the same standardized phenotypic checklist form, were included in this study. RESULTS: None of the individuals had externally visible plexiform or histopathologically confirmed cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. We did not identify any complications, such as symptomatic optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) or symptomatic spinal neurofibromas; however, 4.8% of individuals had nonoptic brain tumors, mostly low-grade and asymptomatic, and 38.8% had cognitive impairment/learning disabilities. In an individual with the NF1 constitutional c.2970_2972del and three astrocytomas, we provided proof that all were NF1-associated tumors given loss of heterozygosity at three intragenic NF1 microsatellite markers and c.2970_2972del. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that individuals with the NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant have a mild NF1 phenotype lacking clinically suspected plexiform, cutaneous, or subcutaneous neurofibromas. However, learning difficulties are clearly part of the phenotypic presentation in these individuals and will require specialized care.


Assuntos
/genética , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/fisiopatologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(11): 2419-2424, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246918

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a family of heritable disorders of bone fragility. Most individuals with OI have mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen; at least 17 other genes have been associated with OI. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in WNT1 cause severe OI. Heterozygous missense variants in WNT1 are responsible for early-onset osteoporosis with variable bone phenotypes. Herein, we report a third-generation family with four affected individuals, some presenting with multiple low-impact fractures in childhood and others presenting with early-onset osteoporosis without a striking fracture history. A WNT1 variant (c. 1051 > C; p.Trp351Arg) was identified in the proband and segregated with a bone phenotype in three additional family members, consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. In the proband, whole genome sequencing also revealed a de novo duplication (434 kb) of 22q11.2 that involves 25 genes, 4 of which are associated with human disease when haploinsufficient. Though smaller than the typical (1.5 Mb) 22q11.2 duplication, the duplication in the proband may be responsible for additional nonosseous aspects of his phenotype (hypotonia, developmental delay, small genitalia, strabismus, and depression in preadolescence). This case demonstrates the variability of bone phenotype conferred by a WNT1 variant and extends the spectrum of bone phenotypes associated with heterozygous WNT1 mutations.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Variação Genética , Proteína Wnt1/genética , Adolescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Translocação Genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mol Autism ; 9: 32, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719672

RESUMO

Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, speech and motor impairments, epilepsy, abnormal sleep, and phenotypic overlap with autism. Individuals with AS display characteristic EEG patterns including high-amplitude rhythmic delta waves. Here, we sought to quantitatively explore EEG architecture in AS beyond known spectral power phenotypes. We were motivated by studies of functional connectivity and sleep spindles in autism to study these EEG readouts in children with AS. Methods: We analyzed retrospective wake and sleep EEGs from children with AS (age 4-11) and age-matched neurotypical controls. We assessed long-range and short-range functional connectivity by measuring coherence across multiple frequencies during wake and sleep. We quantified sleep spindles using automated and manual approaches. Results: During wakefulness, children with AS showed enhanced long-range EEG coherence across a wide range of frequencies. During sleep, children with AS showed increased long-range EEG coherence specifically in the gamma band. EEGs from children with AS contained fewer sleep spindles, and these spindles were shorter in duration than their neurotypical counterparts. Conclusions: We demonstrate two quantitative readouts of dysregulated sleep composition in children with AS-gamma coherence and spindles-and describe how functional connectivity patterns may be disrupted during wakefulness. Quantitative EEG phenotypes have potential as biomarkers and readouts of target engagement for future clinical trials and provide clues into how neural circuits are dysregulated in children with AS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Gama , Fases do Sono , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ritmo Delta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 21(3): 319-323, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187032

RESUMO

Objective Herein, we report a case of a deceased newborn with prenatally detected hydrocephalus. Postnatal findings included abnormal brain imaging and electroencephalogram, optic nerve abnormalities, and elevated creatine kinase (CK). No underlying genetic etiology had been previously identified for the proband, despite testing with a congenital muscular dystrophy gene panel. Methods Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) was performed on the proband-parents trio, and candidate alterations were confirmed using automated fluorescence dideoxy sequencing. Results Exome sequencing of the proband, mother and father identified a previously unreported apparently de novo heterozygous tubulin, beta-3 ( TUBB3) c.523G>C (p.V175L) alteration in the proband. Conclusion Overall, DES established a likely molecular genetic diagnosis for a postmortem case after traditional testing methods were uninformative. The DES results allowed for reproductive options, such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis and/or prenatal diagnosis, to be available to the parents in future pregnancies.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/complicações , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/genética
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 415-420, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266745

RESUMO

Germline gain-of-function variants in SAMD9 have been associated with a high risk of mortality and a newly recognized constellation of symptoms described by the acronym MIRAGE: Myelodysplasia, Infection, Restriction of growth, Adrenal insufficiency, Genital phenotypes, and Enteropathy. Here, we describe two additional patients currently living with the syndrome, including one patient with a novel de novo variant for which we provide functional data supporting its pathogenicity. We discuss features of dysmorphology, contrasting with previously described patients as well as drawing attention to additional clinical features, dysautonomia and hearing loss that have not previously been reported. We detail both patients' courses following diagnosis, with attention to treatment plans and recommended specialist care. Our patients are the oldest known with arginine-substituting amino acid variants, and we conclude that early diagnosis and multidisciplinary management may positively impact outcomes for this vulnerable group of patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Lactente , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA