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1.
J Infect ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 and national pandemic response on the epidemiology of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing E. coli (ESBL-E.coli) in France. METHODS: Individual microbiology records from clinical laboratories were analyzed between 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020. The ESBL-E.coli rates from clinical samples of patients in primary care and nursing home residents were compared before and after the general lockdown in March 2020, according to demographic and geographical characteristics. Interrupted time series analyses were performed to detect measurable changes in the trend of ESBL-E.coli rates. RESULTS: Records covering 793,954 E. coli isolates from 1022 clinical laboratories were analyzed. In primary care, 3.1% of E. coli isolates from clinical samples were producing ESBL before March 2020 and 2.9% since May 2020 (p < 0.001). The proportion of ESBL-E.coli decreased significantly among urine cultures, females, age categories 5-19, 40-64, > 65 year-old, and in the North, West, East and South-East regions. In nursing home, the ESBL-E.coli rate was 9.3% (monthly rate min-max: 6.5-10.5%) before March 2020 and 8.3% (7.2-9.1%) since May 2020 (p < 0.001). The reduction rate accelerated from -0.04%/month to -0.22%/month from May 2020 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Investigation of factors that led to the decreased proportion of ESBL-E.coli during the COVID-19 pandemic is urgently needed.

3.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05011, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221358

RESUMO

Background: Variation in the approaches taken to contain the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic at country level has been shaped by economic and political considerations, technical capacity, and assumptions about public behaviours. To address the limited application of learning from previous pandemics, this study aimed to analyse perceived facilitators and inhibitors during the pandemic and to inform the development of an assessment tool for pandemic response planning. Methods: A cross-sectional electronic survey of health and non-health care professionals (5 May - 5 June 2020) in six languages, with respondents recruited via email, social media and website posting. Participants were asked to score inhibitors (-10 to 0) or facilitators (0 to +10) impacting country response to COVID-19 from the following domains - Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Ecological, Legislative, and wider Industry (the PESTELI framework). Participants were then asked to explain their responses using free text. Descriptive and thematic analysis was followed by triangulation with the literature and expert validation to develop the assessment tool, which was then compared with four existing pandemic planning frameworks. Results: 928 respondents from 66 countries (57% health care professionals) participated. Political and economic influences were consistently perceived as powerful negative forces and technology as a facilitator across high- and low-income countries. The 103-item tool developed for guiding rapid situational assessment for pandemic planning is comprehensive when compared to existing tools and highlights the interconnectedness of the 7 domains. Conclusions: The tool developed and proposed addresses the problems associated with decision making in disciplinary silos and offers a means to refine future use of epidemic modelling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05012, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221359

RESUMO

Background: Strategic planning is critical for successful pandemic management. This study aimed to identify and review the scope and analytic depth of situation analyses conducted to understand their utility, and capture the documented macro-level factors impacting pandemic management. Methods: To synthesise this disparate body of literature, we adopted a two-step search and review process. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies since 2000, that have 1) employed a situation analysis; and 2) examined contextual factors influencing pandemic management. The included studies are analysed using a seven-domain systems approach from the discipline of strategic management. Results: Nineteen studies were included in the final review ranging from single country (6) to regional, multi-country studies (13). Fourteen studies had a single disease focus, with 5 studies evaluating responses to one or more of COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Influenza A (H1N1), Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease pandemics. Six studies examined a single domain from political, economic, sociological, technological, ecological or wider industry (PESTELI), 5 studies examined two to four domains, and 8 studies examined five or more domains. Methods employed were predominantly literature reviews. The recommendations focus predominantly on addressing inhibitors in the sociological and technological domains with few recommendations articulated in the political domain. Overall, the legislative domain is least represented. Conclusions: Ex-post analysis using the seven-domain strategic management framework provides further opportunities for a planned systematic response to pandemics which remains critical as the current COVID-19 pandemic evolves.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Influenza Humana , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
5.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) prevention remains significant, particularly in the era of antimicrobial resistance. Feedback on practices and outcomes is known to be key to reduce SSI rates and optimize antibiotic usage. However, the optimal method, format and frequency of feedback for surgical teams remains unclear. The objective of the study is to understand how data from surveillance and audit are fed back in routine surgical practice. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted, using well-established implementation science frameworks to code the data. Two electronic health-oriented databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) were searched to September 2019. We included studies that assessed the use of feedback as a strategy either in the prevention and management of SSI and/or in the use of antibiotics perioperatively. RESULTS: We identified 21 studies: 17 focused on SSI rates and outcomes and 10 studies described antimicrobial stewardship for SSI (with some overlap in focus). Several interventions were reported, mostly multimodal with feedback as a component. Feedback was often provided in written format (62%), either individualized (38%) or in group (48%). Only 25% of the studies reported that feedback cascaded down to the frontline perioperative staff. In 65% of the studies, 1 to 5 implementation strategies were used while only 5% of the studies reported to have utilized more than 15 implementation strategies. Among studies reporting antibiotic usage in surgery, most (71%) discussed compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to provide feedback to all levels of perioperative care providers involved in patient care. Future research in this area should report implementation parameters in more detail.

6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 61, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The appropriate use of facemasks, recommended or mandated by authorities, is critical to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the community. We aim to evaluate frequency and quality of facemask use in general populations. METHODS: A multi-site observational study was carried out from June to July 2020 in the west of France. An observer was positioned at a predetermined place, facing a landmark, and all individual passing between the observer and the landmark were included. The observer collected information on facemask use (type, quality of positioning), location and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3354 observations were recorded. A facemask was worn by 56.4% (n = 1892) of individuals, including surgical facemasks (56.8%, n = 1075) and cloth masks (43.2%, n = 817). The facemask was correctly positioned in 75.2% (n = 1422) of cases. The factors independently associated with wearing a facemask were being indoors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.28-3.19), being in a mandatory area (aOR, 6.92; 95% CI 5-9.7), female gender (aOR, 1.75; 95% CI 1.54-2.04), age 41-65 years (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI 1.43-2.02) and age > 65 years (aOR, 2.28; 95% CI 1.83-2.85). The factors independently associated with correct mask position were rural location (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI 1.07-1.79), being in an indoor area (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.49-2.3), use of clothmask (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI 1.23-1.91), and age > 40 years (aOR, 1.75 95%CI 1.37-2.23). CONCLUSIONS: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency and quality of facemask wearing remained low in the community setting. Young people in general, and men in particular, represent the priority targets for information campaigns. Simplifying the rules to require universal mandatory facemasking seemed to be the best approach for health authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Máscaras , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2033232, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355679

RESUMO

Importance: Controversy remains regarding the transmission routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective: To review current evidence on air contamination with SARS-CoV-2 in hospital settings and the factors associated with contamination, including viral load and particle size. Evidence Review: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically queried for original English-language articles detailing SARS-CoV-2 air contamination in hospital settings between January 1 and October 27, 2020. This study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. The positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and culture were described and compared according to the setting, clinical context, air ventilation system, and distance from patients. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in copies per meter cubed of air were pooled, and their distribution was described by hospital areas. Particle sizes and SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in copies or median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) per meter cubed were analyzed after categorization as less than 1 µm, from 1 to 4 µm, and greater than 4 µm. Findings: Among 2284 records identified, 24 cross-sectional observational studies were included in the review. Overall, 82 of 471 air samples (17.4%) from close patient environments were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, with a significantly higher positivity rate in intensive care unit settings (intensive care unit, 27 of 107 [25.2%] vs non-intensive care unit, 39 of 364 [10.7%]; P < .001). There was no difference according to the distance from patients (≤1 m, 3 of 118 [2.5%] vs >1-5 m, 13 of 236 [5.5%]; P = .22). The positivity rate was 5 of 21 air samples (23.8%) in toilets, 20 of 242 (8.3%) in clinical areas, 15 of 122 (12.3%) in staff areas, and 14 of 42 (33.3%) in public areas. A total of 81 viral cultures were performed across 5 studies, and 7 (8.6%) from 2 studies were positive, all from close patient environments. The median (interquartile range) SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations varied from 1.0 × 103 copies/m3 (0.4 × 103 to 3.1 × 103 copies/m3) in clinical areas to 9.7 × 103 copies/m3 (5.1 × 103 to 14.3 × 103 copies/m3) in the air of toilets or bathrooms. Protective equipment removal and patient rooms had high concentrations per titer of SARS-CoV-2 (varying from 0.9 × 103 to 40 × 103 copies/m3 and 3.8 × 103 to 7.2 × 103 TCID50/m3), with aerosol size distributions that showed peaks in the region of particle size less than 1 µm; staff offices had peaks in the region of particle size greater than 4 µm. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review, the air close to and distant from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 was frequently contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA; however, few of these samples contained viable viruses. High viral loads found in toilets and bathrooms, staff areas, and public hallways suggest that these areas should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19/transmissão , Hospitais , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
9.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 183, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly highlighted the need for homogenisation of training content and opportunities in infection prevention and control (IPC) across European countries. OBJECTIVES: To map current training opportunities for IPC professionals, define local needs and highlight differences, across 11 European countries (Cyprus, France, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Switzerland). SOURCES: From July 2018 to February 2019, IPC experts directly involved in IPC training and education in their countries and/or internationally were invited to complete a prespecified set of questions in order to provide a detailed description of IPC training opportunities and needs in their country. CONCLUSIONS: IPC training among nurses and doctors varies greatly across countries, with differences in content and type of training (e.g., standardised curriculum, educational programme, clinical experience) duration, as well as in assessment and recognition/accreditation. The observed heterogeneity in IPC training between European countries can be eliminated through establishment of interdisciplinary region-wide training programmes, with common learning objectives, shared know-how and supported by national and international professional bodies.

10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 107, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of extended beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has been constantly increasing over the last few decades. These microorganisms that have acquired broad antibiotic resistance are now common human pathogens. Changes in the gut microbiome, induced by antibiotics or other drugs, enable expansion of these microorganisms, but the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to identify specific bacteria and functional pathways and genes characterizing the gut microbiome of nursing home residents carrying ESBL-E, using metagenomics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 144 residents living in two different nursing homes. All fecal samples were screened for ESBL-E and gut microbiome was characterized using shallow shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Ten nursing home residents were colonized by ESBL-E, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae species, and were compared to non-carriers. We found that ESBL-E carriers had an alteration in within-sample diversity. Using a bootstrap algorithm, we found that the gut microbiome of ESBL-E carriers was depleted in butyrate-producing species, enriched in succinate-producing species and enriched in pathways involved in intracellular pH homeostasis compared to non-carriers individuals. Several energy metabolism pathways were overrepresented in ESBL-E carriers suggesting a greater ability to metabolize multiple microbiota and mucus layer-derived nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome of ESBL-E carriers in nursing homes harbors specific taxonomic and functional characteristics, conferring an environment that enables Enterobacteriaceae expansion. Here we describe new functional features associated with ESBL-E carriage that could help us to elucidate the complex interactions leading to colonization persistence in the human gut microbiota.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e037299, 2020 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some surgical site infections (SSI) could be prevented by following adequate infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Poor compliance with IPC measures often occurs due to knowledge gaps and insufficient education of healthcare professionals. The education and training of SSI preventive measures does not usually take place in the operating room (OR), due to safety, and organisational and logistic issues. The proposed study aims to compare virtual reality (VR) as a tool for medical students to learn the SSI prevention measures and adequate behaviours (eg, limit movements…) in the OR, to conventional teaching. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a randomised controlled multicentre trial comparing an educational intervention based on VR simulation to routine education. This multicentre study will be performed in three universities: Grenoble Alpes University (France), Imperial College London (UK) and University of Heidelberg (Germany). Third-year medical students of each university will be randomised in two groups. The students randomised in the intervention group will follow VR teaching. The students randomised in the control group will follow a conventional education programme. Primary outcome will be the difference between scores obtained at the IPC exam at the end of the year between the two groups. The written exam will be the same in the three countries. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction and students' progression for the VR group. The data will be analysed with intention-to-treat and per protocol. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Medical Education Ethics Committee of the London Imperial College (MEEC1920-172), by the Ethical Committee for the Research of Grenoble Alpes University (CER Grenoble Alpes-Avis-2019-099-24-2) and by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg University (S-765/2019). Results will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals, communicated to participants, general public and all relevant stakeholders.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Salas Cirúrgicas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudantes de Medicina
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 33, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using case-vignettes, we assessed the perception of European infection control (IC) specialists regarding the individual and collective risk associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among inpatients. METHODS: In this study, sixteen case-vignettes were developed to simulate hospitalised patient scenarios in the field of AMR and IC. A total of 245 IC specialists working in different hospitals from 15 European countries were contacted, among which 149 agreed to participate in the study. Using an online database, each participant scored five randomly-assigned case-vignettes, regarding the perceived risk associated with six different multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), varying from 0 (poor) to 1 (perfect), was used to assess the agreement for the risk on a 7-point Likert scale. High risk and low/neutral risk scorers were compared regarding their national, organisational and individual characteristics. RESULTS: Between January and May 2017, 149 participants scored 655 case-vignettes. The perceptions of the individual (clinical outcome) and collective (spread) risks were consistently lower than other MDRO for extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae cases and higher for carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) cases. Regarding CPE cases, answers were influenced more by the resistance pattern (93%) than for other MDRO. The risk associated with vancomycin resistant Enterococci cases was considered higher for the collective impact than for the individual outcome (63% vs 40%). The intra-country agreement regarding the individual risk was globally poor varying from 0.00 (ICC: 0-0.25) to 0.51 (0.18-0.85). The overall agreement across countries was poor at 0.20 (0.07-0.33). IC specialists working in hospitals preserved from MDROs perceived a higher individual (local, p = 0.01; national, p < 0.01) and collective risk (local and national p < 0.01) than those frequently exposed to bacteraemia. Conversely, IC specialists working in hospitals with a high MDRO clinical burden had a decreased risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: The perception of the risk associated with AMR varied greatly across IC specialists and countries, relying on contextual factors including the epidemiology. IC specialists working in high prevalence areas may underestimate both the individual and collective risks, and might further negatively promote the MDRO spread. These finding highlight the need to shape local and national control strategies according to risk perceptions and contextual factors.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pessoal de Saúde , Percepção , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341614

RESUMO

Background: Despite a large literature on surgical site infection (SSI), the determinants of prevention behaviours in surgery remain poorly studied. Understanding key social and contextual components of surgical staff behaviour may help to design and implement infection control (IC) improvement interventions in surgery. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with surgeons (n = 8), nurses (n = 5) theatre personnel (n = 3), and other healthcare professionals involved in surgery (n = 4) in a 1500-bed acute care London hospital group. Participants were approached through established mailing lists and snowball sampling. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed thematically using a constant comparative approach. Results: IC behaviour of surgical staff was governed by factors at individual, team, and wider hospital level. IC practices were linked to the perceived risk of harm caused by an SSI more than the development of an SSI alone. Many operating room participants saw SSI prevention as a team responsibility. The sense of ownership over SSI occurence was closely tied to how preventable staff perceived infections to be, with differences observed between clean and contaminated surgery. However, senior surgeons claimed personal accountability for rates despite feeling SSIs are often not preventable. Hierarchy impacted on behaviour in different ways depending on whether it was within or between professional categories. One particular knowledge gap highlighted was the lack of awareness regarding criteria for SSI diagnosis. Conclusions: To influence IC behaviours in surgery, interventions need to consider the social team structure and shared ownership of the clinical outcome in order to increase the awareness in specialties where SSIs are not seen as serious complications.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Comportamento , Competência Clínica , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Londres , Salas Cirúrgicas , Propriedade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(10)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108975

RESUMO

Inadequate staff behaviors in an operating room (OR) may lead to environmental contamination and increase the risk of surgical site infection. In order to assess this statement objectively, we have developed an approach to analyze OR staff behaviors using a motion tracking system. The present article introduces a solution for the assessment of individual displacements in the OR by: (1) detecting human presence and quantifying movements using a motion capture (MOCAP) system and (2) observing doors' movements by means of a wireless network of inertial sensors fixed on the doors and synchronized with the MOCAP system. The system was used in eight health care facilities sites during 30 cardiac and orthopedic surgery interventions. A total of 119 h of data were recorded and analyzed. Three hundred thirty four individual displacements were reconstructed. On average, only 10.6% individual positions could not be reconstructed and were considered undetermined, i.e., the presence in the room of the corresponding staff member could not be determined. The article presents the hardware and software developed together with the obtained reconstruction performances.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Corpo Clínico/ética , Movimento/fisiologia , Tecnologia sem Fio , Comportamento/ética , Comportamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas
17.
Trials ; 20(1): 275, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate staff behaviour during surgical procedures may disrupt the surgical performance and compromise patient safety. We developed an innovative monitoring and feedback system combined with an adaptive approach to optimise staff behaviour intraoperatively and prevent post-operative complications (POC) in orthopaedic surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: This protocol describes a parallel-group, cluster randomised, controlled trial with orthopaedic centre as the unit of randomisation. The intervention period will last 6 months and will be based on the monitoring of two surrogates of staff behaviour: the frequency of doors opening and the level of noise. Both will be collected from incision to wound closure, using wireless sensors and sonometers, and recorded and analysed on a dedicated platform (Livepulse®). Staff from centres randomised to the intervention arm will be informed in real time on their own data through an interactive dashboard available in each operating room (OR), and a posteriori for hip and knee replacement POC. Aggregated data from all centres will also be displayed for benchmarking. A lean method will be applied in each centre by a local multidisciplinary team to analyse baseline situations, determine the target condition, analyse the root cause(s), and take countermeasures. The education and awareness of participants on the impact of their behaviour on patient safety will assist the quality improvement process. The control centres will be blinded to monitoring data and quality improvement approaches. The primary outcome will be any POC occurring during the 30 days post operation. We will evaluate this outcome using local and national routinely collected data from hospital discharge and disease databases. Thirty orthopaedic centres will be randomised for a total of 9945 hip and knee replacement surgical procedures. DISCUSSION: The field of human factors and behaviour in the OR seems to offer potential room for improvement. An intervention providing goal-setting, monitoring, feedback and action planning may reduce the traffic flow and interruptions/distractions of the surgical team during procedures, preventing subsequent POCs. The results of this trial will provide important data on the impact of OR staff behaviour on patient safety, and promote best practice during surgical procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03158181 .


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Segurança do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(5): 566-573, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We longitudinally observed and assessed the impact of the operating room (OR) staff movements and door openings on surrogates of the exogenous infectious risk using a new technology system. DESIGN AND SETTING: This multicenter observational study included 13 ORs from 10 hospitals, performing planned cardiac and orthopedic surgery (total hip or knee replacement). Door openings during the surgical procedure were obtained from data collected by inertial sensors fixed on the doors. Intraoperative staff movements were captured by a network of 8 infrared cameras. For each surgical procedure, 3 microbiological air counts, longitudinal particles counts, and 1 bacteriological sample of the wound before skin closure were performed. Statistics were performed using a linear mixed model for longitudinal data. RESULTS: We included 34 orthopedic and 25 cardiac procedures. The median frequency of door openings from incision to closure was independently associated with an increased log10 0.3 µm particle (ß, 0.03; standard deviation [SD], 0.01; P = .01) and air microbial count (ß, 0.07; SD, 0.03; P = .03) but was not significantly correlated with the wound contamination before closure (r = 0.13; P = .32). The number of persons (ß, -0.08; SD, 0.03; P < .01), and the cumulated movements by the surgical team (ß, 0.0004; SD, 0.0005; P < .01) were associated with log10 0.3 µm particle counts. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated a previously missing association between intraoperative staff movements and surrogates of the exogenous risk of surgical site infection. Restriction of staff movements and door openings should be considered for the control of the intraoperative exogenous infectious risk.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Salas Cirúrgicas , França/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/transmissão
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the evidence on antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASP) to help sustain the effectiveness of antimicrobials is generated in high income countries. We report a study investigating implementation of ASP in secondary care across low-, middle- and high-income countries. The objective of this study was to map the key contextual, including cultural, drivers of the development and implementation of ASP across different resource settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthcare professionals responsible for implementing ASP in hospitals in England, France, Norway, India, and Burkina Faso were invited to participate in face-to face interviews. Field notes from observations, documentary evidence, and interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory approach. The key emerging categories were analysed iteratively using constant comparison, initial coding, going back the field for further data collection, and focused coding. Theoretical sampling was applied until the categories were saturated. Cross-validation and triangulation of the findings were achieved through the multiple data sources. RESULTS: 54 participants from 24 hospitals (England 9 participants/4 hospitals; Norway 13 participants/4 hospitals; France 9 participants/7 hospitals; India 13 participants/ 7 hospitals; Burkina Faso 8 participants/2 hospitals) were interviewed. Across Norway, France and England there was consistency in ASP structures. In India and Burkina Faso there were country level heterogeneity in ASP. State support for ASP was perceived as essential in countries where it is lacking (India, Burkina Faso), and where it was present, it was perceived as a barrier (England, France). Professional boundaries are one of the key cultural determinants dictating involvement in initiatives with doctors recognised as leaders in ASP. Nurse and pharmacist involvement was limited to England. The surgical specialty was identified as most difficult to engage with in each country. Despite challenges, one hospital in India provided the best example of interdisciplinary ASP, championed through organisational leadership. CONCLUSIONS: ASP initiatives in this study were restricted by professional boundaries and hierarchies, with lack of engagement with the wider healthcare workforce. There needs to be promotion of interdisciplinary team work including pharmacists and nurses, depending on the available healthcare workforce in different countries, in ASP. The surgical pathway remains a hard to reach, but critical target for ASP globally. There is a need to develop contextually driven ASP targeting the surgical pathway in different resource settings.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/economia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Inglaterra , Feminino , França , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Renda , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468055

RESUMO

Policy makers and governments are calling for coordination to address the crisis emerging from the ineffectiveness of current antibiotics and stagnated pipe-line of new ones - antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Wider contextual drivers and mechanisms are contributing to shifts in governance strategies in health care, but are national health system approaches aligned with strategies required to tackle antimicrobial resistance? This article provides an analysis of governance approaches within healthcare systems including: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability for AMR prevention in three European countries: England, France and Germany. Advantages and unresolved issues from these different experiences are reported, concluding that mechanisms are needed to support partnerships between healthcare professionals and patients with democratized decision-making and accountability via collaboration. But along with this multi-stakeholder approach to governance, a balance between regulation and persuasion is needed.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Governo , Política de Saúde , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Inglaterra , Europa (Continente) , França , Alemanha , Regulamentação Governamental , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração
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