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1.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775869

RESUMO

The presumed global consensus on achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) masks crucial issues regarding the principles and politics of what constitutes "universality" and what matters, past and present, in the struggle for health (care) justice. This article focuses on three dimensions of the problematic: 1) we unpack the rhetoric of UHC in terms of each of its three components: universal, health, and coverage; 2) paying special attention to Latin America, we revisit the neoliberal coup d'état against past and contemporary struggles for health justice, and we consider how the current neoliberal phase of capitalism has sought to arrest these struggles, co-opt their language, and narrow their vision; and 3) we re-imagine the contemporary challenges/dilemmas concerning health justice, transcending the false technocratic consensus around UHC and re-infusing the profoundly political nature of this struggle. In sum, as with the universe writ large, a range of matters matter: socio-political contexts at national and international levels, agenda-setting power, the battle over language, real policy effects, conceptual narratives, and people's struggles for justice.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Justiça Social , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , América Latina , Política
2.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1621007, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315521

RESUMO

Background: In recent decades, global health scholars and policymakers have highlighted the burgeoning role of South-South cooperation (SSC) in health, claiming it constitutes a more just and even-handed approach to health cooperation. But the assertion that SSC inherently challenges power asymmetries and pursues egalitarian agendas and forms of interaction merits interrogation. Here we explore a transformative, counter-hegemonic, solidarity-oriented form of SSC - social justice-oriented South-South cooperation (SJSSC) - as differentiated from other types of health aid. Objective: The objectives of this scoping review are: 1) to determine what is known and discussed through peer-reviewed and grey literature about SJSSC in health; and 2) to identify the different features and principles of SJSSC. This review seeks to inform research agendas and identify implications for policy and practice around SJSSC. Methods: We conducted a search for relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature in eight languages and screened abstracts that met inclusion criteria. We carried out a full-text review and data extraction on included pieces and conducted a thematic analysis identifying a set of repeated themes related to the features and principles of SJSSC. Results: We identified 188 publications meeting our criteria. Through an iterative process, we developed two overarching categories: values and strategies. Each comprises four themes that allowed us to map the ideas and practices of SJSSC depicted in the literature. The values mapped are: an anti-hegemonic world view; equity-oriented and redistributive political values; egalitarian terms of cooperation; and reciprocity. The strategies encompass: solidarity-building; health justice approaches; mutual exchange and collective justice; and challenging interests of dominant classes in the health arena. Conclusion: This review rectifies ungrounded claims about SSC by identifying and mapping the research literature on SJSSC and has relevance for the conceptualization, policy development, and practice of equitable health cooperation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Justiça Social , Comportamento Cooperativo , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa/organização & administração
3.
Am J Public Health ; 109(6): 867-869, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998404
5.
Glob Public Health ; 14(6-7): 817-834, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468938

RESUMO

Latin American social medicine efforts are typically understood as national endeavours, involving health workers, policymakers, academics, social movements, unions, and left-wing political parties, among other domestic actors. But Latin America's social medicine trajectory has also encompassed considerable between-country solidarity, building on early twentieth century interchanges among a range of players who shared approaches for improving living and working conditions and instituting protective social policies. Since the 1960s, Cuba's country-to-country solidarity has stood out, comprising medic exchanges, training, and other forms of support for the health and social struggles of oppressed peoples throughout Latin America and around the world, recently via Misión Barrio Adentro in Venezuela. These efforts strive for social justice-oriented health cooperation based on horizontal power relations, shared political values, a commitment to social and economic redistribution, bona fide equity, and an understanding of the societal determination of health that includes, but goes well beyond, public health and medical care. With Latin America's left-wing surge now receding, this article traces the provenance, dynamics, impact, challenges, and legacy of health solidarity across Latin American borders and its prospects for continuity.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Cooperação Internacional , Medicina Social , Cuba , Humanos , América Latina , Política , Saúde Pública , Justiça Social , Venezuela
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(Suppl 3): e000992, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498594

RESUMO

In September 1978, the WHO convened a momentous International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma-Ata, capital of the Soviet republic of Kazakhstan. This unprecedented gathering signalled a break with WHO's long-standing technically oriented disease eradication campaigns. Instead, Alma-Ata emphasised a community-based, social justice-oriented approach to health. Existing historical accounts of the conference, largely based on WHO sources, have characterised it as a Soviet triumph. Such reasoning, embedded in Cold War logic, contradicts both the decision-making processes in Geneva and Moscow that led the conference to be held in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the reality that the highest Soviet authorities did not consider it a significant ideological or political opportunity. To redress the omissions and assumptions of prior accounts, this article examines the Alma-Ata conference in the context of Soviet political and health developments, drawing from Soviet archival and published sources as well as WHO materials and interviews with several key Soviet protagonists. We begin by outlining the USSR's complicated relationship to WHO and the international health sphere. Next, we trace the genesis of the proposal for-and realisation and repercussions of-the primary healthcare (PHC) meeting, framed by Soviet, Kazakh, WHO and Cold War politics. Finally, we explore misjudgements and competing meanings of PHC from both Soviet and WHO perspectives, in particular focusing on the role of physicians, community participation and socialist approaches to PHC.

8.
Can J Public Health ; 109(5-6): 786-790, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191461

RESUMO

This commentary argues that Canada's public and global health communities have a special ethical and political responsibility to act to reverse the harms associated with Canadian mining activities in Latin America and beyond through advocacy, research, and using their public voice. We begin with an overview of the direct and indirect health effects of mining, drawing especially on Latin America where 50-70% of mining activity involves Canadian companies. Then we examine the judicial, legislative, financial, and diplomatic contexts that make Canada such a welcome host and champion of the mining sector. Finally, we turn to the responsibility of the public and global health communities, offering concrete recommendations for using research, practical expertise public health solidarity networks, and political clout to speak out and advocate for policies that redress the harms caused by mining.


Assuntos
Mineração , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia
10.
Health Place ; 52: 135-147, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886130

RESUMO

A systematic and theoretically informed analysis of how extractive industries affect health outcomes and health inequities is overdue. Informed by the work of Saskia Sassen on "logics of extraction," we adopt an expansive definition of extractive industries to include (for example) large-scale foreign acquisitions of agricultural land for export production. To ground our analysis in concrete place-based evidence, we begin with a brief review of four case examples of major extractive activities. We then analyze the political economy of extractivism, focusing on the societal structures, processes, and relationships of power that drive and enable extraction. Next, we examine how this global order shapes and interacts with politics, institutions, and policies at the state/national level contextualizing extractive activity. Having provided necessary context, we posit a set of pathways that link the global political economy and national politics and institutional practices surrounding extraction to health outcomes and their distribution. These pathways involve both direct health effects, such as toxic work and environmental exposures and assassination of activists, and indirect effects, including sustained impoverishment, water insecurity, and stress-related ailments. We conclude with some reflections on the need for future research on the health and health equity implications of the global extractive order.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Mineração , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Política , África , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Mineração/economia , Doenças Profissionais , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/economia , Pobreza
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e00194616, 2017 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977125

RESUMO

Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Justiça Social
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(supl.2): e00194616, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDS | ID: biblio-889796

RESUMO

Abstract: Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.


Resumo: Desde meados da primeira década do século XXI, a cooperação Sul-Sul em saúde (CSS) vem atraindo cada vez mais atenção entre gestores, ministérios da saúde e das relações exteriores, agências de saúde global, e pesquisadores de diversas disciplinas. Não obstante, o uso do termo "Sul-Sul" para caracterizar essa prática explica pouco sobre o conteúdo da cooperação, além de misturar o "onde?" com o "quem, quê, como e por quê?". Já houve algumas tentativas de teorizar a diplomacia da saúde global e a cooperação Sul-Sul geralmente, mas esses esforços têm sido insuficientes no sentido de distinguir as diversas práticas e valores políticos sob a rubrica Sul- Sul, desde os intereses econômicos e geopolíticos até a solidariedade e a justiça social. No espírito de aprofundar as análises políticas, teóricas, históricas, e de justiça social nas discussões sobre a CSS, o artigo: (1) revisita criticamente as teorias de relações internacionais que podem explicar a CSS, explorando teorias en la tradição Marxista e heterodoxas ignoradas na literatura convencional; (2) identifica as origens históricas das diferentes formas dessa cooperação; e (3) introduz o conceito da cooperação Sul-Sul orientada a la justiça social.


Resumen: Desde mediados de los años 2000, la práctica de la cooperación Sur-Sur en salud (CSS) ha recibido una creciente atención entre formuladores de políticas, ministerios de salud y de asuntos exteriores, organismos internacionales de salud y académicos provenientes de un gran abanico de campos científicos. Sin embargo, la denominación cooperación Sur-Sur poco dilucida acerca del contenido real de la cooperación y mezcla el "dónde" con el "quién, qué, cómo, y el por qué". A pesar de que han habido algunos intentos de teorizar sobre la diplomacia en la salud global y la cooperación Sur-Sur en general, estos esfuerzos no han identificado de manera suficiente los distintos tipos de prácticas y los diferentes valores políticos que caen en la rúbrica de CSS, y que incluyen desde los intereses económicos y geopolíticos hasta las formas de solidaridad fieles a la justicia social. Con el ánimo de ahondar en los análisis políticos, teóricos, históricos y de justicia social de la CSS, este artículo: (1) vuelve a examinar críticamente las teorías sobre las relaciones internacionales que intentan explicar la CSS, explorando teorías en la tradición Marxista y otras teorías heterodoxas, que han sido ignoradas en la literatura convencional; (2) rastrea los orígenes históricos de distintas formas de CSS; y (3) presenta el concepto de cooperación Sur-Sur orientada por la justicia social.


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Cooperação Sul-Sul , Saúde Pública , Diplomacia em Saúde , Cooperação Internacional/história
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(supl.2): e00194616, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889785

RESUMO

Abstract: Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.


Resumo: Desde meados da primeira década do século XXI, a cooperação Sul-Sul em saúde (CSS) vem atraindo cada vez mais atenção entre gestores, ministérios da saúde e das relações exteriores, agências de saúde global, e pesquisadores de diversas disciplinas. Não obstante, o uso do termo "Sul-Sul" para caracterizar essa prática explica pouco sobre o conteúdo da cooperação, além de misturar o "onde?" com o "quem, quê, como e por quê?". Já houve algumas tentativas de teorizar a diplomacia da saúde global e a cooperação Sul-Sul geralmente, mas esses esforços têm sido insuficientes no sentido de distinguir as diversas práticas e valores políticos sob a rubrica Sul- Sul, desde os intereses econômicos e geopolíticos até a solidariedade e a justiça social. No espírito de aprofundar as análises políticas, teóricas, históricas, e de justiça social nas discussões sobre a CSS, o artigo: (1) revisita criticamente as teorias de relações internacionais que podem explicar a CSS, explorando teorias en la tradição Marxista e heterodoxas ignoradas na literatura convencional; (2) identifica as origens históricas das diferentes formas dessa cooperação; e (3) introduz o conceito da cooperação Sul-Sul orientada a la justiça social.


Resumen: Desde mediados de los años 2000, la práctica de la cooperación Sur-Sur en salud (CSS) ha recibido una creciente atención entre formuladores de políticas, ministerios de salud y de asuntos exteriores, organismos internacionales de salud y académicos provenientes de un gran abanico de campos científicos. Sin embargo, la denominación cooperación Sur-Sur poco dilucida acerca del contenido real de la cooperación y mezcla el "dónde" con el "quién, qué, cómo, y el por qué". A pesar de que han habido algunos intentos de teorizar sobre la diplomacia en la salud global y la cooperación Sur-Sur en general, estos esfuerzos no han identificado de manera suficiente los distintos tipos de prácticas y los diferentes valores políticos que caen en la rúbrica de CSS, y que incluyen desde los intereses económicos y geopolíticos hasta las formas de solidaridad fieles a la justicia social. Con el ánimo de ahondar en los análisis políticos, teóricos, históricos y de justicia social de la CSS, este artículo: (1) vuelve a examinar críticamente las teorías sobre las relaciones internacionales que intentan explicar la CSS, explorando teorías en la tradición Marxista y otras teorías heterodoxas, que han sido ignoradas en la literatura convencional; (2) rastrea los orígenes históricos de distintas formas de CSS; y (3) presenta el concepto de cooperación Sur-Sur orientada por la justicia social.

19.
Lancet ; 384(9950): 1262, 2014 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25283568
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