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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9446, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263207

RESUMO

Operating at high temperatures in the range of thermoelectric coolers is essential for terahertz quantum cascade lasers to real applications. The use of scattering-assisted injection scheme enables an increase in operating temperature. This concept, however, has not been implemented in a short-period structure consisting of two quantum wells. In this work, based on non-equilibrium Green's function calculations, it emphasizes on the current leakage and parasitic absorption via high-energy states as fundamental limitations in this scheme with short-period. A new design concept employing asymmetric wells composition is proposed to suppress these limitations. A peak gain of 40 cm-1 at 230 K is predicted in the GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor material system with an emission frequency of 3.5 THz.

2.
Opt Express ; 23(5): 6587-600, 2015 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836876

RESUMO

We present a novel and very efficient method for calculating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). It follows the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but sidesteps the calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. This method generalizes the phenomenological Büttiker probe model by taking into account individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully self-consistent NEGF calculation for realistic devices. We apply this method to a new THz QCL design which works up to 250 K - according to our calculations.

3.
Nano Lett ; 7(10): 3150-6, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17892317

RESUMO

Modern nanotechnology offers routes to create new artificial materials, widening the functionality of devices in physics, chemistry, and biology. Templated self-organization has been recognized as a possible route to achieve exact positioning of quantum dots to create quantum dot arrays, molecules, and crystals. Here we employ extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL) at a wavelength of lambda = 13.5 nm for fast, large-area exposure of templates with perfect periodicity. Si(001) substrates have been patterned with two-dimensional hole arrays using EUV-IL and reactive ion etching. On these substrates, three-dimensionally ordered SiGe quantum dot crystals with the so far smallest quantum dot sizes and periods both in lateral and vertical directions have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffractometry from a sample volume corresponding to about 3.6 x 10(7) dots and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal an up to now unmatched structural perfection of the quantum dot crystal and a narrow quantum dot size distribution. Intense interband photoluminescence has been observed up to room temperature, indicating a low defect density in the three-dimensional (3D) SiGe quantum dot crystals. Using the Ge concentration and dot shapes determined by X-ray and AFM measurements as input parameters for 3D band structure calculations, an excellent quantitative agreement between measured and calculated PL energies is obtained. The calculations show that the band structure of the 3D ordered quantum dot crystal is significantly modified by the artificial periodicity. A calculation of the variation of the eigenenergies based on the statistical variation in the dot dimensions as determined experimentally (+/-10% in linear dimensions) shows that the calculated electronic coupling between neighboring dots is not destroyed due to the quantum dot size variations. Thus, not only from a structural point of view but also with respect to the band structure, the 3D ordered quantum dots can be regarded as artificial crystal.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Germânio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Pontos Quânticos , Silício/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
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