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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10358-10370, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428040

RESUMO

The advancement of mass spectrometry provides advantages for transgenic protein characterization in support of safety assessments of genetically modified crops. Here, we describe how matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization in-source decay (ISD) mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with intact mass and bottom-up analyses can be applied to achieve high confidence in the sequences of transgenic proteins expressed in plants and establish the biochemical equivalence of microbially produced protein surrogates. ISD confirmed 40-60 near terminal residues regardless of the protein size, including the improvement of the coverage of cysteine-rich proteins by the reduction/alkylation of disulfide bonds. Negative ISD significantly improved spectral quality and sequence coverage of acidic proteins. Various post-translational modifications, such as terminal truncations and N-terminal methionine excision and acetylation, were identified in plant-produced proteins by top-down MS. Finally, we demonstrated that a combination of top-down and bottom-up analyses provides high confidence in sequence equivalence of plant and microbially produced proteins.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
J Biol Chem ; 292(6): 2542-2555, 2017 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011635

RESUMO

Mutations in hemoglobin can cause a wide range of phenotypic outcomes, including anemia due to protein instability and red cell lysis. Uncovering the biochemical basis for these phenotypes can provide new insights into hemoglobin structure and function as well as identify new therapeutic opportunities. We report here a new hemoglobin α chain variant in a female patient with mild anemia, whose father also carries the trait and is from the Turkish city of Kirklareli. Both the patient and her father had a His-58(E7) → Leu mutation in α1. Surprisingly, the patient's father is not anemic, but he is a smoker with high levels of HbCO (∼16%). To understand these phenotypes, we examined recombinant human Hb (rHb) Kirklareli containing the α H58L replacement. Mutant α subunits containing Leu-58(E7) autoxidize ∼8 times and lose hemin ∼200 times more rapidly than native α subunits, causing the oxygenated form of rHb Kirklareli to denature very rapidly under physiological conditions. The crystal structure of rHb Kirklareli shows that the α H58L replacement creates a completely apolar active site, which prevents electrostatic stabilization of bound O2, promotes autoxidation, and enhances hemin dissociation by inhibiting water coordination to the Fe(III) atom. At the same time, the mutant α subunit has an ∼80,000-fold higher affinity for CO than O2, causing it to rapidly take up and retain carbon monoxide, which prevents denaturation both in vitro and in vivo and explains the phenotypic differences between the father, who is a smoker, and his daughter.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas Anormais/metabolismo , Adulto , Domínio Catalítico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Hemoglobinas Anormais/química , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biochemistry ; 55(29): 4005-17, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355904

RESUMO

Water molecules can enter the heme pockets of unliganded myoglobins and hemoglobins, hydrogen bond with the distal histidine, and introduce steric barriers to ligand binding. The spectrokinetics of photodissociated CO complexes of human hemoglobin and its isolated α and ß chains were analyzed for the effect of heme hydration on ligand rebinding. A strong coupling was observed between heme hydration and quaternary state. This coupling may contribute significantly to the 20-60-fold difference between the R- and T-state bimolecular CO binding rate constants and thus to the modulation of ligand reactivity that is the hallmark of hemoglobin allostery. Heme hydration proceeded over the course of several kinetic phases in the tetramer, including the R to T quaternary transition. An initial 150 ns hydration phase increased the R-state distal pocket water occupancy, nw(R), to a level similar to that of the isolated α (∼60%) and ß (∼10%) chains, resulting in a modest barrier to ligand binding. A subsequent phase, concurrent with the first step of the R → T transition, further increased the level of heme hydration, increasing the barrier. The final phase, concurrent with the final step of the allosteric transition, brought the water occupancy of the T-state tetramer, nw(T), even higher and close to full occupancy in both the α and ß subunits (∼90%). This hydration level could present an even larger barrier to ligand binding and contribute significantly to the lower iron reactivity of the T state toward CO.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/química , Regulação Alostérica , Heme/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fotólise , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Água/química , alfa-Globinas/química , Globinas beta/química
4.
J Bacteriol ; 197(6): 1104-14, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25583977

RESUMO

The expression of mepA, encoding the Staphylococcus aureus MepA multidrug efflux protein, is repressed by the MarR homologue MepR. Repression occurs through binding of two MepR dimers to an operator with two homologous and closely approximated pseudopalindromic binding sites (site 1 [S1] and site 2 [S2]). MepR binding is impeded in the presence of pentamidine, a MepA substrate. The effects of various mepA operator mutations on MepR binding were determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and isothermal titration calorimetry, and an in vivo confirmation of the effects observed was established for a fully palindromic operator mutant. Altering the S1-S2 spacing by 1 to 4 bp severely impaired S2 binding, likely due to a physical collision between adjacent MepR dimers. Extension of the spacing to 9 bp eliminated the S1 binding-mediated DNA allostery required for efficient S2 binding, consistent with positive cooperative binding of MepR dimers. Binding of a single dimer to S1 was maintained when S2 was disrupted, whereas disruption of S1 eliminated any significant binding to S2, also consistent with positive cooperativity. Palindromization of binding sites, especially S2, enhanced MepR affinity for the mepA operator and reduced MepA substrate-mediated MepR induction. As a result, the on-off equilibrium between MepR and its binding sites was shifted toward the on state, resulting in less free MepR being available for interaction with inducing ligand. The selective pressure(s) under which mepA expression is advantageous likely contributed to the accumulation of mutations in the mepA operator, resulting in the current sequence from which MepR is readily induced by MepA substrates.


Assuntos
Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , DNA Bacteriano , DNA Intergênico , Endopeptidases/genética , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(4): 2774-88, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24293644

RESUMO

The multidrug efflux pump MepA is a major contributor to multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. MepR, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family, represses mepA and its own gene. Here, we report the structure of a MepR-mepR operator complex. Structural comparison of DNA-bound MepR with 'induced' apoMepR reveals the large conformational changes needed to allow the DNA-binding winged helix-turn-helix motifs to interact with the consecutive major and minor grooves of the GTTAG signature sequence. Intriguingly, MepR makes no hydrogen bonds to major groove nucleobases. Rather, recognition-helix residues Thr60, Gly61, Pro62 and Thr63 make sequence-specifying van der Waals contacts with the TTAG bases. Removing these contacts dramatically affects MepR-DNA binding activity. The wings insert into the flanking minor grooves, whereby residue Arg87, buttressed by Asp85, interacts with the O2 of T4 and O4' ribosyl oxygens of A23 and T4. Mutating Asp85 and Arg87, both conserved throughout the MarR family, markedly affects MepR repressor activity. The His14':Arg59 and Arg10':His35:Phe108 interaction networks stabilize the DNA-binding conformation of MepR thereby contributing significantly to its high affinity binding. A structure-guided model of the MepR-mepA operator complex suggests that MepR dimers do not interact directly and cooperative binding is likely achieved by DNA-mediated allosteric effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , Regiões Operadoras Genéticas , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
6.
mBio ; 4(5): e00528-13, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23982071

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Overexpression of the Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux pump MepA confers resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. mepA expression is controlled by MarR family member MepR, which represses mepA and autorepresses its own production. Mutations in mepR are a primary cause of mepA overexpression in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant S. aureus. Here, we report crystal structures of three multidrug-resistant MepR variants, which contain the single-amino-acid substitution A103V, F27L, or Q18P, and wild-type MepR in its DNA-bound conformation. Although each mutation impairs MepR function by decreasing its DNA binding affinity, none is located in the DNA binding domain. Rather, all are found in the linker region connecting the dimerization and DNA binding domains. Specifically, the A103V substitution impinges on F27, which resolves potential steric clashes via displacement of the DNA binding winged-helix-turn-helix motifs that lead to a 27-fold reduction in DNA binding affinity. The F27L substitution forces F104 into an alternative rotamer, which kinks helix 5, thereby interfering with the positioning of the DNA binding domains and decreasing mepR operator affinity by 35-fold. The Q18P mutation affects the MepR structure and function most significantly by either creating kinks in the middle of helix 1 or completely unfolding its C terminus. In addition, helix 5 of Q18P is either bent or completely dissected into two smaller helices. Consequently, DNA binding is diminished by 2,000-fold. Our structural studies reveal heretofore-unobserved allosteric mechanisms that affect repressor function of a MarR family member and result in multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is a major health threat to immunocompromised patients. S. aureus multidrug-resistant variants that overexpress the multidrug efflux pump mepA emerge frequently due to point mutations in MarR family member MepR, the mepA transcription repressor. Significantly, the majority of MepR mutations identified in these S. aureus clinical isolates are found not in the DNA binding domain but rather in a linker region, connecting the dimerization and DNA binding domains. The location of these mutants underscores the critical importance of a properly functioning allosteric mechanism that regulates MepR function. Understanding the dysregulation of such allosteric MepR mutants underlies this study. The high-resolution structures of three such allosteric MepR mutants reveal unpredictable conformational consequences, all of which preclude cognate DNA binding, while biochemical studies emphasize their debilitating effects on DNA binding affinity. Hence, mutations in the linker region of MepR and their structural consequences are key generators of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
7.
J Bacteriol ; 195(16): 3651-62, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23749979

RESUMO

The expression of mepA, encoding the Staphylococcus aureus MepA multidrug efflux protein, is repressed by the MarR homologue MepR. MepR dimers bind differently to operators upstream of mepR and mepA, with affinity being greatest at the mepA operator. MepR substitution mutations may result in mepA overexpression, with A103V most common in clinical strains. Evaluation of the functional consequences of this and other MepR substitutions using a lacZ reporter gene assay revealed markedly reduced repressor activity in the presence of Q18P, F27L, G97E, and A103V substitutions. Reporter data were generally supported by susceptibility and efflux assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) confirmed compromised affinities of MepR F27L and A103V for the mepR and mepA operators. One mutant protein contained two substitutions (T94P and T132M); T132M compensated for the functional defect incurred by T94P and also rescued that of A103V but not F27L, establishing it as a limited-range suppressor. The function of another derivative with 10 substitutions was minimally affected, and this may be an extreme example of suppression involving interactions among several residues. Structural correlations for the observed functional effects were ascertained by modeling mutations onto apo-MepR. It is likely that F27L and A103V affect the protein-DNA interaction by repositioning of DNA recognition helices. Negative functional consequences of MepR substitution mutations may result from interference with structural plasticity, alteration of helical arrangements, reduced protein-cognate DNA affinity, or possibly association of MepR protomers. Structural determinations will provide further insight into the consequences of these and other mutations that affect MepR function, especially the T132M suppressor.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genes MDR/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genes MDR/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
8.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 18(17): 2314-28, 2013 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23025383

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The worldwide blood shortage has generated a significant demand for alternatives to whole blood and packed red blood cells for use in transfusion therapy. One such alternative involves the use of acellular recombinant hemoglobin (Hb) as an oxygen carrier. RECENT ADVANCES: Large amounts of recombinant human Hb can be expressed and purified from transgenic Escherichia coli. The physiological suitability of this material can be enhanced using protein-engineering strategies to address specific efficacy and toxicity issues. Mutagenesis of Hb can (i) adjust dioxygen affinity over a 100-fold range, (ii) reduce nitric oxide (NO) scavenging over 30-fold without compromising dioxygen binding, (iii) slow the rate of autooxidation, (iv) slow the rate of hemin loss, (v) impede subunit dissociation, and (vi) diminish irreversible subunit denaturation. Recombinant Hb production is potentially unlimited and readily subjected to current good manufacturing practices, but may be restricted by cost. Acellular Hb-based O(2) carriers have superior shelf-life compared to red blood cells, are universally compatible, and provide an alternative for patients for whom no other alternative blood products are available or acceptable. CRITICAL ISSUES: Remaining objectives include increasing Hb stability, mitigating iron-catalyzed and iron-centered oxidative reactivity, lowering the rate of hemin loss, and lowering the costs of expression and purification. Although many mutations and chemical modifications have been proposed to address these issues, the precise ensemble of mutations has not yet been identified. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Future studies are aimed at selecting various combinations of mutations that can reduce NO scavenging, autooxidation, oxidative degradation, and denaturation without compromising O(2) delivery, and then investigating their suitability and safety in vivo.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos , Hemoglobinas/genética , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Heme/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/química , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica
9.
Biochemistry ; 50(34): 7361-74, 2011 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21793487

RESUMO

The free volume in the active site of human HbA plays a crucial role in governing the bimolecular rates of O(2), CO, and NO binding, the fraction of geminate ligand recombination, and the rate of NO dioxygenation by the oxygenated complex. We have decreased the size of the distal pocket by mutating Leu(B10), Val(E11), and Leu(G8) to Phe and Trp and that of other more internal cavities by filling them with Xe at high gas pressures. Increasing the size of the B10 side chain reduces bimolecular rates of ligand binding nearly 5000-fold and inhibits CO geminate recombination due to both reduction of the capture volume in the distal pocket and direct steric hindrance of Fe-ligand bond formation. Phe and Trp(E11) mutations also cause a decrease in distal pocket volume but, at the same time, increase access to the Fe atom because of the loss of the γ2 CH(3) group of the native Val(E11) side chain. The net result of these E11 substitutions is a dramatic increase in the rate of geminate recombination because dissociated CO is sequestered close to the Fe atom and can rapidly rebind without steric resistance. However, the bimolecular rate constants for binding of ligand to the Phe and Trp(E11) mutants are decreased 5-30-fold, because of a smaller capture volume. Geminate and bimolecular kinetic parameters for Phe and Trp(G8) mutants are similar to those for the native HbA subunits because the aromatic rings at this position cause little change in distal pocket volume and because ligands do not move past this position into the globin interior of wild-type HbA subunits. The latter conclusion is verified by the observation that Xe binding to the α and ß Hb subunits has little effect on either geminate or bimolecular ligand rebinding. All of these experimental results argue strongly against alternative ligand migration pathways that involve movements through the protein interior in HbA. Instead, ligands appear to enter through the His(E7) gate and are captured directly in the distal cavity.


Assuntos
Hemoglobina A/química , Hemoglobina A/metabolismo , Movimento , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A/genética , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Pressão , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Xenônio/metabolismo
10.
J Biol Chem ; 286(12): 10515-29, 2011 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21193395

RESUMO

His(E7) to Trp replacements in HbA lead to markedly biphasic bimolecular CO rebinding after laser photolysis. For isolated mutant subunits, the fraction of fast phase increases with increasing [CO], suggesting a competition between binding to an open conformation with an empty E7 channel and relaxation to blocked or closed, slowly reacting states. The rate of conformational relaxation of the open state is ∼18,000 s(-1) in α subunits and ∼10-fold faster in ß subunits, ∼175,000 s(-1). Crystal structures were determined for tetrameric α(WT)ß(Trp-63) HbCO, α(Trp-58)ß(WT) deoxyHb, and Trp-64 deoxy- and CO-Mb as controls. In Trp-63(E7) ßCO, the indole side chain is located in the solvent interface, blocking entry into the E7 channel. Similar blocked Trp-64(E7) conformations are observed in the mutant Mb crystal structures. In Trp-58(E7) deoxy-α subunits, the indole side chain fills both the channel and the distal pocket, forming a completely closed state. The bimolecular rate constant for CO binding, k'(CO), to the open conformations of both mutant Hb subunits is ∼80-90 µm(-1) s(-1), whereas k'(CO) for the completely closed states is 1000-fold slower, ∼0.08 µm(-1) s(-1). A transient intermediate with k'(CO) ≈ 0.7 µm(-1) s(-1) is observed after photolysis of Trp-63(E7) ßCO subunits and indicates that the indole ring blocks the entrance to the E7 channel, as observed in the crystal structures of Trp(E7) deoxyMb and ßCO subunits. Thus, either blocking or completely filling the E7 channel dramatically slows bimolecular binding, providing strong evidence that the E7 channel is the major pathway (≥90%) for ligand entry in human hemoglobin.


Assuntos
Carboxihemoglobina/química , Hemoglobina A/química , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Carboxihemoglobina/genética , Carboxihemoglobina/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A/genética , Hemoglobina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Ligantes , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(35): 10270-8, 2010 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20668762

RESUMO

The entry of a water molecule into the distal heme pocket of pentacoordinate heme proteins such as myoglobin and the alpha,beta chains of hemoglobin can be detected by time-resolved spectroscopy in the heme visible bands after photolysis of the CO complex. Reviewing the evidence from spectrokinetic studies of Mb variants, we find that this optical method measures the occupancy of non(heme)coordinated water in the distal pocket, n(w), with high fidelity. This evidence further suggests that perturbation of the kinetic barrier presented by distal pocket water is often the dominant mechanism by which active site mutations affect the bimolecular rate constant for CO binding. Water entry into the heme pockets of isolated hemoglobin subunits was detected by optical methods. Internal hydration is higher in the native alpha chains than in the beta chains, in agreement with previous crystallographic results for the subunits within Hb tetramers. The kinetic parameters obtained from modeling of the water entry and ligand rebinding in Mb mutants and native Hb chains are consistent with an inverse dependence of the bimolecular association rate constant on the water occupancy factor. This correlation suggests that water and ligand mutually exclude one another from the distal pockets of both types of hemoglobin chains and myoglobin.


Assuntos
Heme/metabolismo , Mioglobina/química , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Ópticos , Análise Espectral , Água/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ligação Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Água/química
12.
J Biol Chem ; 285(12): 8840-54, 2010 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20080971

RESUMO

The role of the distal histidine in regulating ligand binding to adult human hemoglobin (HbA) was re-examined systematically by preparing His(E7) to Gly, Ala, Leu, Gln, Phe, and Trp mutants of both Hb subunits. Rate constants for O(2), CO, and NO binding were measured using rapid mixing and laser photolysis experiments designed to minimize autoxidation of the unstable apolar E7 mutants. Replacing His(E7) with Gly, Ala, Leu, or Phe causes 20-500-fold increases in the rates of O(2) dissociation from either Hb subunit, demonstrating unambiguously that the native His(E7) imidazole side chain forms a strong hydrogen bond with bound O(2) in both the alpha and beta chains (DeltaG(His(E7)H-bond) approximately -8 kJ/mol). As the size of the E7 amino acid is increased from Gly to Phe, decreases in k(O2)', k(NO)', and calculated bimolecular rates of CO entry (k(entry)') are observed. Replacing His(E7) with Trp causes further decreases in k(O2)', k(NO)', and k(entry)' to 1-2 microM(-1) s(-1) in beta subunits, whereas ligand rebinding to alphaTrp(E7) subunits after photolysis is markedly biphasic, with fast k(O2)', k(CO)', and k(NO)' values approximately 150 microM(-1) s(-1) and slow rate constants approximately 0.1 to 1 microM(-1) s(-1). Rapid bimolecular rebinding to an open alpha subunit conformation occurs immediately after photolysis of the alphaTrp(E7) mutant at high ligand concentrations. However, at equilibrium the closed alphaTrp(E7) side chain inhibits the rate of ligand binding >200-fold. These data suggest strongly that the E7 side chain functions as a gate for ligand entry in both HbA subunits.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/química , Histidina/química , Oxigênio/química , Monóxido de Carbono/química , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Imidazóis/química , Cinética , Ligantes , Mutação , Óxido Nítrico/química , Fenilalanina/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Termodinâmica
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